Taj Mahal - Architecture

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A tear on the face of Eternity ~ Ravindranath TagoreT A J M A H A L

I n t r o d u c t i o nThe Taj Mahal located at the west side of the Yamuna river , TAJ GANJI,Agra, Uttar Pradesh,IndiaThe Taj Mahal represents the finest and most sophisticated example of Mughal architecture. It consists of five major constituents, namely Darwaza (main gateway), Bageecha (gardens), Masjid (mosque),Naqqar Khana (rest house) and Rauza (main mausoleum).The architects Ustad Ahmad Lahauri and Mir Abd-ul Karim .

H i s t o r y

The construction of Taj Mahal started in the year 1631 was finally completed in the year 1653.It was soon after the completion of Taj Mahal that Shah Jahan was deposed by his own son Aurangzeb and was put under house arrest at nearby Agra Fort. Shah Jahan, himself also, lies entombed in this mausoleum along with his wife.

About Islamic ArchitectureConcept of SpaceSacred vs. ProfanePermanent vs. Temporal

Concept of Man on EarthLife Cycle of a Grave

Geometric DriversPatterns in NatureSufi Elements on Design

Environmental ConstraintsForm addresses climateForms follow Function or visa versa?

PRINCIPLESCourtyardGardenWater,Char Bagh

TechnologyDome ,ArchBara DariAwanMashabiaChadarChina Kari

ELEMENTS

P L A N O F T A J M A H A L

TombOrnamental PoolMosqueGuest HouseMain GatewayForecourtServant QuatersRoyal TombsTaj Ganj

Yamuna

Char Bagh

TombMosqueGuest HouseMain GatewayServant QuatersRoyal TombsChar BaghOrnamental PoolForecourt

Concepts, Symbolism and Interpretation

This theme, common in most Mughal funerary architecture, permeates the entire complex and informs the detailed design of all the elements. A number of secondary principles also inform the design, of which hierarchy is the most dominant. A deliberate interplay is established between the building's elements, its surface decoration, materials, geometric planning and its acoustics.In Dimensional organisation- The Taj complex is ordered by grids Symmetry and geometric planning played an important role in ordering the complex.In the Taj Mahal, the hierarchical use of red sandstone and white marble contributes manifold symbolic significance

GRID AND GOLDEN SECTION IN TAJ MAHAL

The Taj Mahal is situated on a raised platform which is over 6 meters high. The actual Tomb of Shah Jahan is in the basement below the platform.Surmounted by a curving dome which is over 60m long on each side.Height is over 60m at its pinnacle.Platform covers 94 sq m area.

The dome

60 mThe DomeThe most remarkable part of the Taj Mahal.Enormous white onion shaped dome crowning the tomb. Located at the exact centre of the structure, the main dome is flanked by four smaller ones on it four corners

The onion shaped dome of the Taj Mahal sits on a massive drum that adds support to the circular top. The drum is also intricately designed with superb inlay work.

Taj Mahal - Islamic inscription on the gold gilded Finial

Yamuna RiverWell FoundationFoundation of Taj Mahal

Flooring Pattern

Calligraphy

Storm water management

WATER SYSTEM

References:

~ IRJABS (Study on the Architecture of Taj Mahal)~ Ar. NAVIN PIPLANI TEDx~ History Channel~ Google (images)~ www.archnet.org~ www.issuu.com/taj-mahal_9282012.html

Submitted to :Ar. Ketki MoholkarSubmitted by :Ankit Sinha, Kritika Verma and Aditi Borkar