Automotive paints and coatings

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  • Automotive Paints and CoatingsEdited byHans-Joachim Streitbergerand Karl-Friedrich D ssel o
  • Further ReadingH. Lipowsky, E. ArpaciCopper in the Automotive Industry2007ISBN: 978-3-527-31769-1G. Pfaff (Ed.)Encyclopedia of Applied Color2009ISBN: 978-3-527-31551-2G. Buxbaum, G. Pfaff (Eds.)Industrial Inorganic PigmentsThird, Completely Revised and Extended Edition2005ISBN: 978-3-527-30363-2E. B. Faulkner, R. J. Schwartz (Eds.)High Performance PigmentsSecond, Completely Revised and Extended Edition2008ISBN: 978-3-527-31405-8S. K. Ghosh (Ed.)Functional Coatingsby Polymer Microencapsulation2006ISBN: 978-3-527-31296-2
  • Automotive Paints and CoatingsEdited byHans-Joachim Streitbergerand Karl-Friedrich D ssel oSecond, Completely Revised and Extended Edition
  • The Editors All books published by Wiley-VCH are care- fully produced. Nevertheless, authors, editors,Dr. Hans-Joachim Streitberger and publisher do not warrant the informa-Market & Management tion contained in these books, including thisSustainability in Business book, to be free of errors. Readers are ad-Patronatsstr. 13 vised to keep in mind that statements, data,48165 M nster u illustrations, procedural details or other itemsGermany may inadvertently be inaccurate. Library of Congress Card No.:Dr. Karl-Friedrich Dssel o applied forDupont Performance CoatingsChristbusch 2542285 Wuppertal British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataGermany A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.1. Edition 19952. Completely Revised and Extended Edition Bibliographic information published by the2008 Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibli- ograe; detailed bibliographic data are avail- able in the Internet at . 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim All rights reserved (including those of trans- lation into other languages). No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by photoprinting, microlm, or any other means nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permis- sion from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not specically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law. Typesetting Laserwords Private Limited, Chennai, India Printing Strauss GmbH, M rlenbach o Binding Litges & Dopf GmbH, Heppenheim Cover Design Grak-Design Schulz, Fug nheim o Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany Printed on acid-free paper ISBN: 978-3-527-30971-9
  • V Contents Preface XVII Abbreviations XIX List of Contributors XXIII1 Introduction 1 Hans-Joachim Streitberger1.1 Historic Development 11.2 Legislation 71.3 Automotive and Automotive Paint Market 92 Materials and Concepts in Body Construction 13 Klaus Werner Thomer2.1 Introduction 132.2 Methods of Body Construction 152.2.1 Monocoque Design 152.2.2 Space Frame 182.2.3 Hybrid Type of Construction 192.2.4 Modular Way of Construction 192.3 Principles of Design 202.3.1 Conventional Design 202.3.2 Design Under Consideration of Light-Weight Construction 222.3.3 Bionics 232.4 Materials 262.4.1 Steel 262.4.1.1 General Remarks 262.4.1.2 Low-Carbon Deep Drawing Steels 292.4.1.3 Higher-Strength Steels 292.4.1.4 High-Strength Steels 312.4.1.5 High-Grade (Stainless) Steels 322.4.1.6 ManganeseBoron Steels 322.4.1.7 Light-Construction Steel with Induced Plasticity (TWIP Steel) 332.4.2 Aluminum 34Automotive Paints and Coatings. Edited by H.-J. Streitberger and K.-F. D ssel oCopyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimISBN: 978-3-527-30971-9
  • VI Contents 2.4.2.1 General Remark 34 2.4.2.2 Further Treatment 35 2.4.2.3 Aluminum Alloys 38 2.4.2.4 Aluminum as Light-Weight Construction Material 39 2.4.3 Magnesium 40 2.4.4 Titanium 42 2.4.5 Nonmetallic Parts Fiber Composites 43 2.5 Manufacturing Methods 47 2.5.1 Tailored Products 47 2.5.1.1 General Remarks 47 2.5.1.2 Tailored Blanks 47 2.5.1.3 Tailored Tubes 48 2.5.1.4 Tailored Strips 48 2.5.1.5 Patchwork Blanks 48 2.5.1.6 Future 49 2.5.2 Hydroforming 49 2.5.3 Press Hardening 50 2.5.4 Metal Foam 50 2.5.5 Sandwich Structures 51 2.5.6 Roll Forming to Shape 52 2.6 Joining Methods 52 2.6.1 Bonding 53 2.6.2 Laser Welding 54 2.6.3 Others 55 2.6.3.1 Clinching 55 2.6.3.2 Riveting 56 2.6.3.3 Roller Hemming 56 2.7 Outlook 57 2.8 Surface Protection 59 2.8.1 Precoating of Sheets 59 2.8.2 Corrosion Prevention in the Design Phase 59 3 Pretreatment of Multimetal Car Bodies 61 Horst Gehmecker 3.1 Introduction 61 3.2 Car Body Construction Materials 61 3.2.1 Sheet Materials 61 3.2.2 Surface Conditions/Contaminations 63 3.3 Pretreatment Process 65 3.3.1 Sequence of Treatment 65 3.3.2 Degreasing 65 3.3.3 Activation 69 3.3.4 Zinc Phosphating 70 3.3.5 Passivation 75 3.3.6 Pretreatment of Aluminum Steel Structures 75
  • Contents VII3.3.7 Pretreatment of Magnesium 763.3.8 Pretreatment of Plastic Parts 773.4 Car Body Pretreatment Lines 773.4.1 Spray Lines 803.4.2 Continuous Horizontal Spray/Dip Line 803.4.3 RoDip3 Line 803.4.4 Vario Shuttle Line 813.4.5 Other Types of Lines 823.4.6 Construction Materials 823.4.7 Details on Process Stages 823.4.7.1 Precleaning Stage 823.4.7.2 Spray degrease 833.4.7.3 Dip Degrease 833.4.7.4 Rinsing 843.4.7.5 Activation 843.4.7.6 Phosphating 843.4.7.7 Rinsing 853.4.7.8 Passivation 853.4.7.9 Deionized water rinsing 853.4.7.10 Entering the Electrocoat Line 853.5 Properties and Specications of Zinc Phosphate Conversion Layers 853.6 Environmental Legislations 863.7 Outlook 864 Electrodeposition Coatings 89 Hans-Joachim Streitberger4.1 History and Introduction 894.2 Physico-chemical Basics of the Deposition Process 904.3 Data for Quality Control 954.3.1 Voltage, Current Density, Bath Temperature, and Bath Conductivity 964.3.2 Wet Film Conductivity 964.3.3 Solid Content, Solvent Content, and pH 974.4 Resins and Formulation Principles 984.4.1 General Remarks 984.4.2 Anodic Electrodeposition Paints 994.4.3 Cathodic Electrodeposition Paints 994.5 Film Performance of Cathodic Electrocoatings 1014.5.1 Physical Film Data 1014.5.2 Corrosion Protection 1024.5.3 Chip Resistance 1044.5.4 Surface Smoothness and Appearance 1054.6 Design of Cathodic Electrocoating Lines 1064.6.1 Integration into the Coating Process of Cars and Trucks 1064.6.2 Pretreatment 107
  • VIII Contents 4.6.3 General Functions and Equipment of an Electrocoat Line 107 4.6.4 Tanks, Filters, Heat Exchanger, and Power Supply 108 4.6.5 Replenishment and Anode Cells 111 4.6.6 Ultraltration and Rinsing Zones 114 4.6.7 Baking Oven 118 4.7 Defects During Application and their Prevention 119 4.7.1 Dirt 119 4.7.2 Craters 120 4.7.3 Surface Roughness 121 4.7.4 Film Thickness/Throwing Power 122 4.7.5 Other Defects 123 4.8 Electrocoating and Similar Processes Used in Automotive Supply Industry 124 4.9 Outlook 125 5 Primer Surfacer 129 Heinrich Wonnemann 5.1 Introduction 129 5.2 Requirement Prole 132 5.2.1 Legislative Requirement 132 5.2.2 Technological R