What is?Autonomous:Having the freedom to Govern itself or control its own affairs.
Autonomous Car / Self Driving Car:A vehicle Capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input.
Why Autonomous Vehicle ?Imagine if everyone could get around easily and safely, regardless of their ability to drive.
Main Focus of Autonomous Vehicle is to reduce number of Car Accident caused due to Human Errors.
As Estimated around 3,287 Death Due to Car accident Per Day
How it all got Started2005, DARPA(Defence Advanced research Project Agency) Grand Car Challenge.
A team from Stanford University Completed the challenge Using Autonomous car named Stanley.
Leaded by Sebastian Thrun.
Technology That Drive The MachineDedicated hardware and software.
Hardware (The Visible parts): Sensors , Computers , Processors , The Car Itself.
Software (The Magic Inside): Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence , Machine Learning, Cloud , Big data.
Lets Talk About Sensors
1. GPS (Global positioning System)
The On-board GPS sensor Provide the car with Real time information about the Surrounding .
The Source and destination is marked on the Map and the Car uses GPS to navigate itself without human interruption.
2.LIDAR (Laser Illuminating Detection And Ranging)Also Known as Heart of Autonomous car.
A LIDAR Rotate 360 Degree at a high speed , Projecting Laser Beam And Collecting the Echo From various object Around it.
The Data From LIDAR is Used to Build A virtual 3D Map which The Computer uses to interact with the Environment.
This Is How The Car Sees The World Through Its LIDAR Sensor
RADAR (Radio Detection and ranging)RADAR uses radio waves to communicate with other object.
These are used to calculate the Distance , Speed , angle of Surrounding Object from the Car.
Situated at front and rear of the car And mainly used for Adaptive Cruise control.
High Powered Camera (Eyes to Car)High Definition Camera are used Located in front windscreen of the car.
The Camera Are Used For Image Processing
These are used to differentiate object on the road such as Traffic signal, Type of vehicle, Pedestrians , cyclist , Animals .
Other Sensors used:SONARAccelerometerOdometerABS (Anti lock Braking System)
The Hardware (Laser, Radar ,LIDAR , GPS , Camera ) all are almost same in all the variant of driverless / Autonomous cars, The Software that make a huge difference amongst them.
How The manufacturer uses the information from the sensors, And applies it on the Car using different technology like Artificial Intelligence , machine Learning , Big Data , Algorithms, Thats What matters.
The ComputerThe brain of the car.
The computer uses 7 17 number of processors clocked at 3GHZs each and this is used to process the data received from all the sensors.
2 - 4 GB of RAM for each processor.
How The Car WorksAll The Sensors on the Car works simultaneously and continuously in Coordination with each other.
A large amount of data is feed to the computer and the computer has to chose the most important and useful info. Here the Big Data technology comes in Play.
Using Various Complex algorithms, Artificial Intelligence , Machine Learning Technology The car is capable to Autonomously Drive itself.
AdvantagesThe lack of human error whilst driving, will result in a much safer journeyDue to the sensors on the Autonomous car, they will be able to pack closertogether, allowing more cars on the road and therefore shorting traffic times Disabilities would no longer be a factor in driving, meaning anyone could driveYou would need less space for parking as well as the carwould beable to drop you off and then find a parking space further away.The average worker spend 200 hours a year commuting , an autonomous car would allow workers to spend the time on other things.There would be no need to pass a driving test or gain a driving license as everyone would be able to drive.
DisadvantagesThere will always be the worry of the computer crashing or malfunctioning, resulting in a major collision.
The lack of need for drivers would be catastrophic for the economy; in 2011 there were 73,000 taxi drivers in England ,who would all become unemployed. This would be common for all driving professions, including lorry drivers, bus drivers etc.
When they are first released, they are likely to be extremely expensive, andthereforemost people wont be able to afford them.
Driving enthusiasts may not find the concept of self-driving car appealing,and therefore will most likely want to keep normal cars.
So, will you Drive This Car !