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Text of Presentperfectrules
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ( P.P.T.)
Present Perfectparticiple Tense FORM: have / has + past Affirmative: I have seen the film before. She has seen the film before. Interrogative: Have you seen the film before? Has she seen the film before? Negative: They havent seen the film before. He hasnt seen the film before.
The formula of P.P.T. is this : Have ______________ + Has Past participle They have been to N.Y. She has eaten frogs leg. You havent studied a lot.
past participle see saw seen buy bought bought go went gone eat come swim ate came swam eaten come swum
Contracted forms Ive Youve Hes Shes its Weve Theyve seen a ghost
Interrogative form You have traveled to Japan twice. (aff) Have you traveled to Japan twice? (interrogative)
Have you traveled to Japan twice? Yes, I have. No, I havent.
Negative form I have visited the Taj Mahal. I have .... visited the Taj Mahal. I have NOT visited the Taj Mahal. I havent seen you for weeks ! He hasnt arrived home.
Uses of the present perfect 1- Recent events: It is used to describe recent events without a definite time. The idea of time or place in the speakers mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasize recentness: just, recently, lately Why are they so happy? They have just won a prize so they are really pleased
JUST I have just finished my exercise. He has just had lunch.
2- Personal experiences: It is used to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning I have never been to Japan. Have you ever been there?
3- It is used to express actions that started in the past and continue to the present, the time period is not finished. We use for and since with this meaning. We use for with periods of time and since with points of time. I havent eaten since yesterday morning. I am really hungry I havent drunk anything for two days. I am terribly thirsty
Indefinite time We use PPT to indicate an action that happened in the past but we dont know exactly when. ( indefinitive time ). The verb in Portuguese is in the past . Eg.: He has bought a car. ( When ? ) They have been to Europe. ( When ? )
Indefinite Time I have been to New York. ( When ?? ) She has eaten frogs leg. ( When ?? )
An action started in the past We use PPT to indicate an action that began in the past and continues up to the present. (the verb in Portuguese is in the present). Eg.: Ive lived in Limeira for three years. She has studied English since January.
I have worked here since last year. ( How long? ) She has played tennis for 10 years. ( How long? )
SINCE FOR I have studied here since 1.999. I have studied here for 5 years.
PRESENT PERFECT + for, since Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its starting point, with since + a point in time. Since + a point in time: since this morning, since last week, since yesterday,since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o'clock.
SINCE Ive ridden a bike since I was a child. Ive ridden a bike since I was 12.
She has lived here since 1980. We have taught at this school since 1965. Alice has been married since March 2nd. They have been at the hotel since last week.
Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its duration, with for + a period of time. For + a period of time: for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours.
FOR Theyve been married for 1 year. Theyve dated for 3 years.
She has lived here for twenty years. We have taught at this school for a long time. Alice has been married for three months. They have been at the hotel for a week.
Note: For and since can both be used with the past perfect. Since can only be used with perfect tenses, for can also be used with the simple past
IVE STUDIED ENGLISH SINCE... FOR....
Which one is correct? I went to school this morning. I have gone to school this morning. ?
BOTH are correct !! I went to school this morning. ( now is more than midday, the morning has already finished !!) I have gone to school this morning. ( now is still morning, it hasnt finished yet !!)
Pay attention to these words : J ust E ver A lready N ever S ince F or Y et
YET Have you taken a shower yet ? No, I havent taken it yet. INTERROGATIVE YET NEGATIVE
YET We use yet to show that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences. Has it stopped raining yet ? Have you finished the homework yet ? Ive written the letter but I havent posted it yet.
ALREADY I have already taken a shower. AFFIRMATIVE ALREADY INTERROGATIVE
ALREADY We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected. Dont forget to post the letter ! Ive already posted it. What time is Mark leaving ? Hes already gone.
Already refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition. I've already drunk three coffees this morning.(and you're offering me another one!) Don't write to John, I've already done it.
It is also used in questions: Have you already written to John? Has she finished her homework already? already Position: already can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence: I have already been to Tokyo. I have been to Tokyo already. already
Yet is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period of time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present. Have you met Judy yet? yet I haven't visited the Tate Gallery yet. Has he arrived yet? yet They haven't eaten yet. Position: Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence.
Have you already eaten lobster? No, I havent eaten it yet. yet Have you eaten shrimp yet? yet Yes, I have already eaten it. MD
EVER NEVER Have you ever ridden a horse? I have never ridden a horse.
EVER AND NEVER Have you ever studied German? No, Ive never studied German. Has she ever been to the USA ? No, she has never been to the USA
Have you ever seen a witch? No, I havent. Ive never seen a witch.
Have you ever sung in a choir? Yes, I have.
The adverbs ever and never express the idea of an unidentified time before now Have you ever visited Berlin? 'Ever' is used a. in questions. Have you ever been to England? Has she ever met the Prime Minister?
b. in negative questions Haven't they ever been to Europe? Haven't you ever eaten Chinese food? c. and in negative statements using the pattern nothing.......ever, nobody.......ever Nobody has ever said that to me before. Nothing like this has ever happened to us. d. 'Ever' is also used with 'The first time.... It's the first time (that) I've ever eaten snails. This is the first time I've ever been to England.
'Never' means at no time before now, and is the same as not ..... ever: I have never visited Berlin BE CAREFUL! You must not use never and not together: I haven't never been to Italy. I have never been to Italy. Ever and Never are always placed before the main verb ( past participle )
And there are more words... Lately / Recently / for a while I havent seen him lately. She has practiced tennis recently. You havent tried it for a while.
... and more , Once / twice / 3 times / 4 times / etc. We have fought once. He has traveled to Chicago twice. I have had a cold 3 times this year.
Have you ever eaten PRETZELS ? No. Ive never eaten pretzels. Yes, I have already eaten pretzels. No, I havent eaten pretzels. yet. Yes, I have just eaten pretzels.
To fail - failed - failed
To dance - danced - danced ballet
To drive - drove - driven
To have - had - had
To fly - flew - flown
To receive - d - d
Chess set To have - had - had
To find - found - found wallet
To lose - lost - lost Something valuable
Lets practice I have ________ some muffins. (eaten/ate)
They have ________ a nice cocktail. (drunk/drank)
Mr Jones has ______ nice book. (read/readen)
Weve _________ to the circus. (gone/went)
Hes _________ under the tree. (slept/sleeps)
Have you ______ seen a mummy? (ever/yet) Ive ______ eaten snails. (never/ever) Doug has _______ had his breakfast. (already/yet)
Have you finished your work ______? (already/yet) Have you _______ called Susan? (already/yet) Jack has ______ gone to work. (just/yet)
Make up sentences... NEVER
Simple Past or Present Perfect
Simple Past Completed events at a definite time in the past: Yesterday Last Saturday Last night Last weekend/week Last month Last semester Last year Present Perfect Events with a time period up to the present: This weekend/week This month This year Recently Lately Today Once/twice/three times
Compare these sentences
Have you ever had a picnic with friends ? Did you have a picnic last weekend ?
Have you ever eaten snails ? Did you eat snails last night ?
Have you ever tried seafood ? Did you eat seafood yesterday ?
Have you ever eaten frogs leg ? Did you eat frogs leg last week ?
Have you ever had dinner at the restaurant with a friend ? Did you have dinner at the restaurant last night ?