Toward EU Immigration Macari Elena
What is Immigration?Immigration is the arrival of new individuals into a habitat or population. It is a biological concept (is important in population ecology), differentiated from emigration and migration.The term "immigration" is usually used to mean international immigration. International migration has been split into two types by most governments, based on the UN: long (a person who moves to a country other than that of his or her usual residence for a period of at least a year -12 months, so that the country of destination effectively becomes his or her new country of usual residence) and short term (a person who moves to a country other than that of his or her usual residence for a period of at least 3 months).One theory of immigration distinguishes between push factors and pull factors. Push factors refer primarily to the motive for emigration from the country of origin. For some migrants, education is the primary pull factor (although most international students are not classified as immigrants). Retirement migration from rich countries to lower-cost countries with better climate, is a new type of international migration
BackgroundAfter World War II, countries such as France, Belgium, and Germany started to allow and even entice foreign workers to come. The economic boom in those countries attracted immigrants, first from poor southern European countries such as Italy and Spain, and then from the far shores of the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East. The United Kingdom attracted immigrants from throughout the British empire: Indians and Pakistanis came to Britain from the 1950s on, Bangladeshis from the 1970s. France, Germany, and the Netherlands also attracted immigrants from their former colonies. The host European governments understood these migrants to be temporary guest workers as did many of the migrants themselves.The economic downturn in the early 1970s led European policymakers to realize that immigration was not always a positive phenomenon. Many immigrants were suddenly unemployed, but they did not go back to their home countries. As fears grew that foreign workers sought permanent residence, between 1973 and 1975, Western European governments instituted an "immigration stop," introducing restrictive measures to deter immigration and to put a stop to recruiting foreign labor.This immigration stop had unforeseen consequences. Migration of foreign workers dwindled, but the migration dynamic nevertheless continued. Migrants residing in Europe could continue to sponsor their extended family's immigration and, indeed, relaxation of restrictions on family reunification encouraged further immigration. The time between the first proposals for a halt and their implementation exacerbated the problem as immigrants hurried to bring over their families, fearful that the doors to Europe would soon close forever.
Migration within Europe
As a result of the Schengen Agreement, there is free travel within Europe. Citizens of European Union member states and their families have the right to live and work anywhere within the EU because of EU citizenship, but citizens of non-EU states do not have those rights unless they possess the EU Long Term Residence Permit or are family members of EU citizens. Nevertheless, all holders of valid residence permits as a Schengen State have the unrestricted right to travel within the Schengen area for tourist purposes only, and for up to three months. This is seen by many experts as an encouragement to work illegaly within the Schengen zone.The European Union (EU) entitles all citizens to live, travel and work in the country of their choice. Citizens can freely travel, work, retire, or just vacate without any problems in any EU country. The European Union provides individuals and families with choices that other individual countries around the world cannot offer. The "Single Market" that was created in 1993 states that people, money, services, and good can move freely within the European Union. Currently over 450 million EU citizens are provided with these options. British emigration towards Southern Europe is of special relevance. Citizens from the European Union make up a growing proportion of immigrants in Spain. They mainly come from countries like the UK and Germany, but the British case is of special interest due to its magnitude. The British authorities estimate that the British population in Spain at 700,000, while 380,000 people emigrated from the UK for a year or more, with Australia, and France most popular destinations. Because of Poland's entry into the EU in May 2004, 375,000 Poles have registered to work in the UK, although the total Polish population in the UK is believed to be 500,000. Many Poles work in seasonal occupations and a large number are likely to move back and forth over time.
Immigration to EU
The European countries with the highest proportion of non-native residents are small nations or microstates. In Andorra, immigrants comprise 77% of the country's 82,000 people; in Monaco, they make up 70% of the total population of 32,000; in Luxembourg, immigrants are 37% of the total of 480,000; in Liechtenstein they are 35% of the 34,000 people; and in San Marino they comprise 32% of the country's population of 29,000.Until the 1970s, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain were primarily sources of emigration, sending large numbers of emigrants to the America, Australia and even European countries (France, Switzerland, Germany and Belgium). As living standards in these countries have risen, the trend has reversed and they are now a magnet for immigration (most notably from Albania, Morocco, Somalia, Egypt and Ukraine to Italy and Greece, and from Morocco, Ukraine, Russia and Latin America to Spain and Portugal).The EU countries have different immigration programs in terms of foreign work programs, ways to obtain citizenship, unemployment rates, inheritance of citizenship, and other official immigration programs which allows individuals to live in one or several EU countries. Some immigration programs can end with a citizenship while other programs are time limited and related to work or tourism. The advantage of citizenship in an EU country is that the laws and regulations of the EU is applicable to any country that one decide to live and work in.
There is a fundamental difference between becoming a citizen and a resident of any EU country. Citizenship is normally obtained through birth, marriage, long-term residency and family relations. Only citizens can obtain a passport. A resident with the legal right to live and work in an EU country holds a foreign citizenship and passport. However, different countries have different rules and regulations for how long an individual can be a resident before it is possible to apply for citizenship. A resident that gets married to a citizen can apply for citizenship. Dealing with foreign governments in a different language is not always easy, which is why "EU Immigration Guide" provides with simple and plain information in English.According to Eurostat, Some EU member states are currently receiving large-scale immigration: for instance Spain, where the economy has created more than half of all the new jobs in the EU over the past five years.The EU, in 2005, had an overall net gain from international migration of +1.8 million people. This accounts for almost 85% of Europe's total population growth in 2005. In 2004, total 140,033 people immigrated to France. Of them, 90,250 were from Africa. In 2005, immigration fell slightly to 135,890. Since 2000, Spain has absorbed more than three million immigrants, growing its population by almost 10%. Immigrant population now tops over 4.5 million. According to residence permit data for 2005, about 500,000 were Moroccan, another 500,000 were Ecuadorian,, and 260,000 were Colombian. In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people.
Italy: Italy now has an estimated 4 million to 5 million immigrants about 7 percent of the population. Since the expansion of the European Union, the most recent wave of migration has been from surrounding European nations, particularly Eastern Europe, and increasingly Asia, replacing North Africa as the major immigration area. Immigrants from Eastern Europe are ukrainians ( 200 000 ), moldovans ( 90 000 ) macedonians ( 81 000 ), serbs ( 75 000 ), bosnians ( 40 000 ), russians ( 39 600 ), croatians ( 25 000 ). As of 2009, the foreign born population origin of Italy was subdivided as follows: Europe (53.5%), Africa (22.3%), Asia (15.8%), the Americas (8.1%) and Oceania (0.06%). The disribution of foreign born population is largely uneven in Italy: 87.3% of immigrants live in the northern and central parts of the country (the most economically developed areas), while only 12.8% live in the southern half of the peninsula.United Kingdom: In 2007, net immigration to the UK was 237,000, a rise of 46,000 on 2006. In 2004 the number of people who became British citizens rose to a record 140,795a rise of 12% on the previous year. This number had risen dramatically since 2000. The overwhelming majority of new citizens come from Asia (40%) and Africa (32%), the largest three groups being people from Pakistan, India and Somalia. In 2005, an estimated 565,000 migrants arrived to live in the UK for at least a year, most of the migrants were people from Asia (particularly the Indian subcontinent) and Africa. Portugal, long a country of emigration, has now become a country of net immigration, from both its former colonies and other sources. By the end of 2003, legal immigrants represented about 4% of the population, and the largest communities were from Cape Verde, Brazil, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, and Ukraine.
An Immigration Dynamic