1. Independence in Latin America Social Studies for 9th E.G.B.Teacher: Mauricio Torres
2. Background Liberal ideas were spreading to Latin America (LA)with explosive results.From Mexico to the tip of South America, revolutionary movements arose tooverthrow the reigning European powers. By 1825, most of LA was freed from colonial rule.
3. Napoleon Invades SpainThe spark that finally ignited widespreadrebellion in LA was Napoleons invasion ofSpain in 1808.LA leaders saw Spains weakness as anopportunity to reject foreign dominationand demand independence from colonialrule.
4. Slaves win freedom in Haiti Before Spanish colonists cried for freedom, revolution had erupted in Hispaniola (today called: Haiti). Slaves rose up in rebellion, forming an army. They were over- worked and under-fed. Their leader was Toussaint LOuverture. He was a self-educated former slave, who was a brilliant general. Their army fought against the Spanish, French and British! By 1798, they controlled most of the island and by 1804, theyWe are fighting so that liberty were independent. But it wasnt until 1820 that they became athe most precious of all earthly republic.possessions may not perish.
5. Mexico Creoles in Spanish America did not like the example setby the Haitians. They wanted power for themselves, notchange. Father Hidalgo, presided over a poor parish calledDolores. During mass, he asked his listeners: My children, willyou be free?. This was called the Cry of Dolores. This called Mexicans to independence.
6. Mexico The rebels marched to the outskirts ofA conservative called, Agustn deMexico City. The creoles changed theirsupport because Father Hidalgo wanted toIturbide reached out to Mexicanend slavery and improve the conditionsrevolutionaries, whom he hadfor natives. This was not accepted by fought for years.creoles.Backed by creoles, mestizos and The rebels faced opposition and a yearnatives he overthrew the Spanishlater, Hidalgo was captured and executed. Viceroy.His successor, Jos Morelos was alsoMxico was now independent, andcaptured and shot.Iturbide declared himself Emperor. Spanish forces, backed by conservativeHe was quickly overthrown.creoles hunted the surviving guerrillas.
7. South America In South America, Native Americans hadrebelled against Spanish rule as early as the1700s., though with limited results. It was not until the 1800s that discontentamong the creoles sparked a widespreaddrive for independence.
8. Bolivar Educated creoles like Simon Bolivar admired the Frenchand American Revolutions; fueling their own dreams ofindependence. Bolivar made a first attempt in 1810 and he was defeated.He had to exile himself in Haiti. He returned and launched a daring attack on Bogot, animportant city in the Andes, catching the Spanish bysurprise. By 1824, he had liberated the territories we now know asEcuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Per.
9. San Martn Born in Argentina, like Bolivar he was a creole andwas educated in Europe. In 1816 he helped the Argentinian people win theirfreedom. His army crossed the Andes into Chile and thenmoving north to Peru. San Martn then handed command over to Bolivar.
10. Gran Colombia Bolivar worked tirelessly to unite thelands he had liberated into a singlenation, the Gran Colombia. Rivalries between generals and leadersmade that dream impossible. It finally split intoEcuador, Colombia, Panama andVenezuela. Civil wars burst in the newly freedlands.
11. Brazil When Napoleons armies conquered Portugal, the royal family fled to Brazil. In 1822, Dom Pedro the Portuguese Prince, proclaimed independence and became Brazils emperor. He accepted a constitution that provided freedom of the press, freedom of religion and an elected congress. Brazil remained a monarchy until 1889, after which, it became a republic.
12. Outcome For the next hundred years or so, most of the Latin American countriesstayed practically the same: Dependent on Europeans for commerce. Only the aristocracy enjoyed real privileges. Peasants were still oppressed. Latin Americas people had simply changed one set of masters for another.
13. Ask Yourself Analyze: Why do you think France, Spain and Britain sent armies to fight the revolt in Haiti? What were Iturbides motives for rebellion? Understand: Bolivar and San Martin: why was their education so important as an inspiration forrebellion? Recall: For what reason was the Gran Colombia short lived?
15. Bibliography Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2009). World History. (P. Hall, Ed.) Upper SaddleRiver, New Jersey, US: Pearson Education INC. Images taken from www.google.com and Wes, K. P. (n.d.). Retrieved June5, 2012, from Kyliepwess Blog: http://kyliepwes.edublogs.org/