Mining methods

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Text of Mining methods

  • Mining methods for s teeply dipping and massive deposits
  • Mining methods for s teeply dipping and massive deposits Self supported methods Sublevel caving Block caving Induced Block Caving Sublevel stoping Undercut and fill stoping Square-set stoping Cut-and-fill stoping Shrinkage stoping With caving of overburden Without caving of overburden Supported methods Large open stope mining Top slicing Continues bench backfilling stoping
  • CAVING METHODES
  • Sublevel caving
  • Sublevel caving
  • Sublevel caving
  • Induced block caving
  • Induced block caving with blasting on the broken rock 1 - drilling drifts ; 2 - level drift ; 3 - haulage drift ; 4 - draw points ; 5 - control crosscut.
  • Blocs foudroys avec tir avec chambres de dgagement 1 - galeries de foration ; 2 - points de soutirage; 3 -galerie de transport 2 1 3 Volume relatif des chambres de dgagement - 30%
  • Bloc caving - non mechanized mining
  • Bloc caving - mechanized mining
  • Characteristics of caving methods Application : massive steeply dipping deposits low ore value Advantages : high stope output and personnel productivity low costs good security conditions Disadvantages : method is not selective high dilution and losses method is inflexible caving of surface
  • Top slicing Application : steeply dipping deposits ore width > to 3-4 m weak ore and walls high ore value Advantage : low loss and dilution Disadvantages : stope production and personnel productivity are low costs are high
  • SELF SUPPORTED METHODS
  • Sublevel stoping
  • Sublevel stoping
  • Sublevel stoping
  • Sublevel stoping in thick orebody A-a B-b C-c A A C C B B
  • Large open stope mining
  • Large open stope mining
  • Large open stope mining
  • Large open stope mining with primary and secondary stopes
  • Large open stope mining with caving of pillars
  • Large open stope mining with lost pillars
  • Characteristics of self supported methods Application : massive steeply dipping deposits competent ore and host rocks low ore value with lost pillars high ore value with cemented fill Advantages : high stope output and personnel productivity low dilution low costs good security conditions Disadvantages : method is not selective high losses in pillars or higher costs for backfilling method is inflexible
  • SUPPORTED METHODS
  • Continuous bench backfilling stoping
  • Cut-and-fill stoping 1 - haulage drift ; 2 - transport drift ; 3 - rise for fill and ventilation ; 4 - ore passe ; 5 - manway rise ; 6 - crosscut ; 7, 8 - pillars ; 9 - ore ; 10 - broken ore ; 11 - backfill .
  • Cut-and-fill stoping
  • Cut-and-fill stoping
  • Cut-and-fill stoping
  • drilling loading filling competent rock weak rock medium rock Cut-and-fill stoping
  • ore LHD jumbo backfill Cut-and-fill stoping
  • Cut-and-fill stoping Drilled stope face LHD in the stope
  • Cut-and-fill stoping
  • Cut-and-fill stoping
  • Dilution calculation W deposit a a W opening a 2 cos h sin L W opening a cos h sin L W opening For > 15 - 20 : For < 15 - 20 : h L
  • Characteristics of cut-and-fill stoping Application : competent ore weak host rocks high ore value deposit can be irregular Advantages : method is selective low dilution and losses flexibility Disadvantages : low stope output and personnel productivity high costs
  • Undercut-and-fill stoping 1 - rise for fill ; 2 - orepasse ; 3 - crosscut ; 4 - ventilation opening ; 5 - limit of mining ; 6 - stop limit haulage drift ; 2 - transport drift ; 3 - rise for fill and ventilation ; 4 - ore passe ; 5 - manway rise ; 6 - crosscut ; I - blasting ; II - loading ; III - backfilling.
  • Undercut-and-fill stoping 1 - top level ; 2 - haulage level ; 3 - ramp ; 4 - stop access ; 5 - ore and fill pass ; 6 - limit of mining.
  • Undercut-and-fill stoping 1 - ore mat ; 2 - reinforcement wire mesh ; 3 - anchoring ; 4 - cable ; 5 - polystyrene sheathing ; 6 - ore ; 7 - walls ; 8 - backfill of the previous cut.
  • Undercut-and-fill stoping ramp, 20% access to the cut, 20% R - fill pass ; J - ore pass. crosscut for backfilling
  • Undercut-and-fill stoping
  • Undercut-and-fill stoping
  • Undercut-and-fill stoping
  • Undercut-and-fill stoping
  • Undercut-and-fill stoping
  • Characteristics of cut-and-fill stoping Application : weak ore and host rocks very high ore value Advantages : method is selective low dilution and losses flexibility Disadvantages : low stope output and personnel productivity very high costs
  • Shrinkage stoping 1 - haulage drift ; 2 - transport drift ; 3 - manway and ventilation rise ; 4 - doghole ; 5 - pillar ; 6 - crosscut ; 7 - ore ; 8 - drillholes ; 9 - brocken ore .
  • Shrinkage stoping
  • Shrinkage stoping 1 - haulage drift ; 2 - transport and ventilation drift ; 3 - doghole ; 4 - stop sill. broken ore A-A B-B A A B B
  • Shrinkage stoping stop in operation pillars tubing for ventilation prepared stop stop at the end of mining thin pillar cap pillar of 5 m openings fan haulage level 200 fan mined out stop level 144 Alimac rise
  • Shrinkage stoping mined out stop thin pillar level 130 prepared stop ore width haulage level 200 stop in operation pillars 2.5 x 2 m cap pillar height
  • Characteristics of shrinkage stoping Application : stable ore and host rocks steeply dipping deposit regular boundaries of ore body ore thickness up to 5 m broken ore must not re-cement with time Advantages : selective blasting low costs Disadvantages : mucking is not selective low stope output low personnel productivity loss in pillars difficulty in mechanization
  • Square-set stoping Application : deposit of 30 to 60 dip and of 1 to 3 m thickness weak ore and walls high value of ore Advantages : selectivity low loss and dilution Disadvantages : stope production and personnel productivity are low because of important wood consumption costs are high
  • Application of different mining methods in steeply dipping narrow vein deposits Walls Stability Instable Stable Ore stability Instables Stables Undercut-and-full filling Cut-and-fill Continuous bench backfilling Sublevel stoping Shrinkage Undercut-and-partiaml filling
  • Application of different mining methods in massive vein deposits Ore stability Low ore stability High ore stability Ore value Low ore value High ore value Block caving Cut-and-fill Sublevel caving Large open s