Motivating EmployeesAbdullah shahzad
Motivating EmployeesTopicsMotivationEarly Theories of MotivationContemporary Theories of MotivationCurrent Issues in Motivation
Definition:The processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward achieving a goalIntensity = how hard an employee triesDirection = should benefit the organization (i.e. quality of effort counts!)Persistence = how long can an employee maintain his/her effort?Note: the goal is an organizational goal
There are many ways to motivate employees. Managers who want to encourage productivity should work to ensure that employees: Feel that the work they do has meaning or importance Believe that good work is rewarded Believe that they are treated fairly
How to Motivate Employees
Motivation theorywhich suggests five interdependent levels of basic humanneeds(motivators) that must be satisfied in a strict sequence starting with the lowest level.The theory ofMaslow's hierarchy of needsbasically talks about how all humans have different levels of needs for survival and we work to make money to fulfil those needs.
Theories Maslows Hierarchy of needs theory
1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.
2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.
3. Love and belongingness needs - friendship, intimacy, affection and love, - from work group, family, friends, romantic relationships.
4. Esteem needs - achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, self-respect, respect from others.
5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment , seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
five interdependent levels of basic humanneeds
Dislike working.Avoid responsibility and need to be directed.Have to be controlled, forced, and threatened to deliver what's needed.Need to be supervised at every step, with controls put in place.Need to be enticed to produce results; otherwise they have no ambition or incentive to work.X-Type organizations tend to be top heavy, with managers and supervisors required at every step to control workers. There is little delegation of authority and control remains firmly centralized.
McGregor Theory of X & YTheory X
Hate working.Dislike responsibility.No ideas.Only work for money.
Take responsibility and are motivated to fulfil the goals they are given.Seek and accept responsibility and do not need much direction.Consider work as a natural part of life and solve work problems imaginatively.Enjoy their work.Able to solve problem.Want to make a contribution.Accept responsibility.
Management Style and ControlIn a Theory X organization, management is authoritarian, and centralized control is retained, whilst in Theory Y, the management style is participative: Management involves employees in decision making, but retains power to implement decisions.Work OrganizationTheory X employees tend to have specialized and often repetitive work. In Theory Y, the work tends to be organized around wider areas of skill or knowledge; Employees are also encouraged to develop expertise and make suggestions and improvements.Rewards and AppraisalsTheory X organizations work on a carrot and stick basis, and performance appraisal is part of the overall mechanisms of control and remuneration. In Theory Y organizations, appraisal is also regular and important, but is usually a separate mechanism from organizational controls. Theory Y organizations also give employees frequent opportunities for promotion.
How to Deal with x & y
According to the Two Factor Theory of Herzberg people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth was a factor of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. Hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not need to higher level of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction.Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory
Working conditionsQuality of supervisionSalaryStatusSecurityCompanyJobInterpersonal relationsCompany policies and administrationTypical Hygiene factors
AchievementRecognition for achievementResponsibility for taskInterest in the jobAdvancement to higher level tasksGrowth
Typical Motivation Factors
David McClelland describes three central motivational paradigms: achievement, affiliation and power.AchievementPeople who are strongly achievement-motivated are driven by the desire for mastery. They prefer working on tasks of moderate difficulty in which outcomes are the result of their effort rather than of luck. Theyvaluereceivingfeedbackon their work.
McClelland's Theory of Needs
Affiliation People who are strongly affiliation-motivated are driven by the desire to create and maintain social relationships. They enjoy belonging to a group and want to feel loved and accepted. They may not makeeffectivemanagers because they may worry too much about how others will feel about them.Power People who are strongly power-motivated are driven by the desire to influence, teach, or encourage others. They enjoy work and place a high value on discipline. However, they may take azero-sumapproach to group workfor one person to win, or succeed, another must lose, or fail. If channelled appropriately, though, this can positively support groupgoalsand help others in the group feel competent about their work.
Leadershipconceptthat thesubordinatesaccept aleader'sbehaviouronly so far as they view it as resulting in immediate or futurebenefit. Thus, a leader's mainfunctionis to 'clear apath' to therealizationof the subordinates'goals; he or she must choose the behaviourpatternsthat are most applicable in helping the subordinates get what theywant.
The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance.Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended.Specific goals increase performance; that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals; and that feedback leads to higher performance thandoesnon-feedback.Contemporary Theories Goal -Setting Theory
Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of "do your best."The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus. Be sure to note the importance of goal commitment, self-efficacy, task characteristics, and national culture on goal-setting theory.
Job design is the systematic and purposeful allocation of tasks to individuals and groups within an organization.Job Design
A counterpoint to the goal-setting theory.In reinforcement theory, abehaviouristicapproach, which argues that reinforcement conditions behaviour.Reinforcement theorists see behaviour as being behaviourally caused.Reinforcement theoryignoresthe inner state of the individual and concentrates solely on what happens to a person when he or she takes some action.Because it does not concern itself with what initiates behaviour, it is not, strictly speaking, a theory of motivation.It does however provide a powerful means of analysis of what controls behaviour.
Adams' Equity Theory calls for a fair balance to be struck between an employee's inputs (hard work, skill level, acceptance, enthusiasm, and so on) and an employee's outputs (salary, benefits, intangibles such as recognition, and so on).
To do this, consider the balance or imbalance that currently exists between your employee's inputs and outputs, as follows:Inputs typically include:Effort.Loyalty.Hard work.Commitment.Skill.Ability.
How to Apply the Adams' Equity Theory
Financial rewards (such as salary, benefits, perks).Intangibles that typically include:Recognition.Reputation.Responsibility. The theory argues that managers should seek to find a fair balance between the inputs that an employee gives, and the outputs received.And according to the theory, employees should be content where they perceive these to be in balance.
Outputs typically include:
Expectancyis the belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance i.e. if I work harder then this will be better. This is affected by such things as:Having the right resources available (e.g. raw materials, time)Having the right skills to do the jobHaving the necessary support to get the job done (e.g. supervisor support, or correct information on the job)
Instrumentalityis the belief that if you perform well that a valued outcome will be received. The degree to which a first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome. i.e. if I do a good job, there is something in it for me. This is affected by such things as:Clear understanding of the relationship between performance and outcomes e.g. the rules of the reward 'game'Trust in the people who will take the decisions on who gets what outcomeTransparency of the process that decides who gets what outcome
Cross-cultural challengesAlthough most current motivation theories were developed in U.S. and validated with American workers, the wayshow to motivate employees are different in many countries and depends on their cultural characteristics. Managers should understand deeplyculturalcharacteristics beforethey design andlaunch any motivational program. Despite these cross-cultural differences in motivation, there are some cross-