Sara Cruz Sierra 2B
*Summary of his life.*Early life.*Political activity.*Presidency
of South Africa.*Marriage and family.*Tributes to Nelson
Nelson Mandela was born 18 july of 1918 in Mvezo,South
Africa.Served As Present of South Africa from 1994 to 1999 and was
the first South African president to be elected in a fully
representative democratic election.Mandela served 27 years in
prison, spending many of these years on Robben Island. Following
his release from prison on 11 February 1990, Mandela led his party
in the negotiations that led to multi-racial democracy in 1994. As
president, he frequently gave priority to reconciliation, while
introducing policies aimed at combating poverty and inequality in
In South Africa, Mandela is often known as Madiba, his father
clan name. Mandela has received more than 250 awards over four
decades, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize.
*Summary of his life
Nelson Mandela belongs to acadet branch of theThembudynasty,
whichreigns in theTranskei Region of South Africa'sEastern Cape
Province.He was born in Mvezo, a small village located in the
district ofUmtata.Mandela's father,Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, served
aschief of the town of Mvezo.He moved his family toQunu . Mandela's
father had four wives, with whom he fathered thirteen children
(four boys and nine girls).Mandela was born to his third wife,
Nosekeni Fanny.Mandela spent much of his childhood.
Rolihlahla Mandela became the first member of his family to
attend a school, where his teacher Miss Mdingane gave him the
English name "Nelson".
When Mandela was nine, his father died of tuberculosis, and
theregent , Jongintaba, became hisguardian.Mandela attended
aWesleyan mission school located next to the palace of the regent.
Following Thembu custom, he was initiated at age sixteen, and
attended Clarkebury Boarding Institute.Mandela completed his Junior
Certificatein two years, instead of the usual three.Designated to
inherit his father's position as a privy councillor, in 1937
Mandela moved toHealdtown,the Wesleyan college inFort Beaufort
which most Themburoyaltyattended.At nineteen, he took an interest
in boxing and running at the school.Afterenrolling, Mandela began
to study for a Bachelor of Arts at theFort Hare University, where
he metOliver Tambo.Tambo and Mandela became lifelong friends and
After the 1948 election victory of the Afrikaner-dominated
National Party, which supported the apartheid policy of racial
segregation,Mandela began actively participating in politics.During
this time, Mandela and fellow lawyer Oliver Tambo operated the law
firm of Mandela and Tambo.Mahatma Gandhi influenced Mandela's
approach, and subsequently the methods of succeeding generations of
South African anti-apartheid activists.Mandela later took part in
the 2930 January 2007 conference in New Delhi marking the 100th
anniversary of Gandhi's introduction of satyagraha in South
Africa.Initially committed to nonviolent resistance, Mandela and
150 others were arrested on 5 December 1956 and charged with
treason. From 19521959, a new class of black activists known as the
Africanists disrupted ANC activities in the townships.
The Africanists ridiculed the 1955 Freedom Charter Kliptown
Conference for the concession of the 100,000-strong ANC to just a
single vote in a Congressional alliance. In 1959, the ANC lost its
most militant support when most of the Africanists, with financial
support from Ghana and significant political support from the
Transvaal-based Basotho, broke away to form the Pan
Africanist Congress (PAC) under the direction of Robert Sobukwe
and Potlako Leballo.
*Presidency of South Africa.
South Africa's first multi-racial elections in which full
enfranchisement was granted were held on 27 April 1994. The ANC won
62% of the votes in the election.During the course of his
presidency, a wide range of progressive social reforms were enacted
by Mandela's government, aimed at reducing long entrenched social
and economic inequalities in South Africa. Amongst the measures
carried out by Mandela and this are some ministers included:*The
introduction of free health care.*The launching of the
Reconstruction and Development Programme.
*The introduction of parity in grants.*An expansion of
reproductive health services.*The introduction of child support
grants (1998) to alleviate child poverty.*The connection of 3
million people to telephone lines.*The bringing of 1.5 million
children into the education system.*The upgrading or construction
of 500 clinics.
*The connection of 2 million people to the electricity grid.*The
construction of 750,000 houses, housing nearly 3 million people in
the process.*The extension of water access to 3 million people.*The
introduction of compulsory schooling for African children between
six and fourteen years.*The provision of free meals for between 3.5
to 5 million school children.
*The provision of free meals for between 3.5 to 5 million school
children.*The launching of the National Drug Policy in 1996 to
improve access to essential medicines.
*Marriage and family.
Mandela has been married three times, has fathered six children,
has twenty grandchildren, and a growing number of
great-grandchildren. He is grandfather to Chief Mandla
Mandela.Mandela's first marriage was to Evelyn Ntoko Mase.Mandela's
second wife, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela.
Mandela was remarried, on his 80th birthday in 1998, to Graa
*Tributes to Nelson Mandela.
The statue of Mandela in Parliament Square, London.
Nelson Mandela Square, Sandton,Johannesburg.
Nelson Mandela Gardens in Leeds.
Nelson Mandela Bridge in Johannesburg.