Setting Goals

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

These are the slides for the next series of lectures.

Text of Setting Goals

  • 1. Setting Personal andProfessional GoalsFOR INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS

2. Goal Setting TheoryA group goal is an outcome desired bymembers of the group as a unit (Mesch et al. 1994: 312). 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved.2 Berger/Brownell 3. Goal Setting Theory Achievement goal directs a group toward a major outcome or goal Maintenance goal maintains or strengthens the group itself 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved.3 Berger/Brownell 4. Specific Goals Specific, difficult goals generate betterperformance than do your best goals or no goals at all A specific goal directs a groupsattention towards planning development that, in turn, creates a motivational effect to follow through with the plan 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved.4 Berger/Brownell 5. Difficult Goals Difficult goals create an anticipation ofsatisfaction that motivates extra intensity and duration on task performance Difficult goals prompt more spontaneous planning, larger amounts of planning, and higher quality planning than easy goals 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved.5 Berger/Brownell 6. 3 Levels of TaskPerformance Simply carryingDetermining how toGroups must choose out a task - a approach the task - between manygoal setting helps group goal leads toavailable strategies -limit the strategyAt this level, where improveddomain to beperformance depends performancesearchedon strategy rather than through an increasetask effort, groups can in effort, diligence,use strategydevelopment to and energy.overcome the negativeeffect of aspecific, difficult goal(Earley et al. 1989:25). 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 6 Berger/Brownell 7. Warning: Specific andDirect Goals can beDebilitating 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved.7 Berger/Brownell 8. Formal Goal Setting Methods SMART (Specific, Measurable, Acceptable, Realistic, Ti mely) Management by objectives (MBO) like goal setting theory emphasizesspecific goals and feedback unlike goal setting theory stresses theneed for participation in goal setting 360-degree - helps to explicitly state goals in terms of the customers words and language 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved.8 Berger/Brownell 9. Goal CommitmentExternal Influences -- Legitimate Authority and Peer GroupInteractive Factors -- Participation and CompetitionInternal Factors -- Personal Goal, Self Efficacy and InternalRewards 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved.9 Berger/Brownell 10. External Influences Peer beneficial or detrimental Supervisor determine goal commitment through legitimate authority Assigned goals lead to: Commitment A sense of purpose, direction, and clarity Improved employee beliefs of what they can and should doThe development of high quality plans 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.10 Berger/Brownell 11. Interactive Factors(Participatory Goal Setting) May have as great an influence asassigned goals Increased effectiveness attributed to motivation, cognition and increased self-efficacy Competition can enhance performance 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.11 Berger/Brownell 12. Internal Factors Self-set goals reflect personal or groupexpectations for task performance Self-set goals tend to be higher thanassigned goals Self-efficacy is more fundamental thanrewards Self-administered rewards are alsoessential to goal commitment 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.12 Berger/Brownell 13. Commitment to DifficultGoalsGroups are more likely to accept easygoals that lead to low performance thanvery hard goals which lead to highperformanceDifficult goals require high commitment Low goals may be restricted by highcommitment, they will not be raisedCulture may also play a role in thisdynamic of goal commitment 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.13 Berger/Brownell 14. Increasing Goal Commitment Persuade groups that goals are both attainable and important Make goals publicrather than private Offer appropriate external rewards for difficult goals 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved.14 Berger/Brownell 15. Feedback and Goals 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.15 Berger/Brownell 16. Negative Feedback Groups respond tonegative feedback bysetting higher goals thangroups that receivepositive feedback. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.16 Berger/Brownell 17. Goal Selection Groups pursuing multiple goals willdevote more time and effort to one goal than another, often trading off between quantity and quality goals Groups should focus on a small number of goals, no more than 8, and these goals should be prioritized by urgency and significance 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.17 Berger/Brownell 18. How to Achieve a Goal 1. Use Visualization 2. Set Objectives 3. Record Progress 4. Make a Gantt Chart 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.18 Berger/Brownell 19. How to Achieve a Goal4. Create Goal Aids5. Reevaluate Goals 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.19 Berger/Brownell 20. When to Implement GoalsManagers should give careful attention to when organizational goals arepresented to employees, in order toestablish focus on achievement at theappropriate time. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.20 Berger/Brownell 21. Goal Conflict Sometimes conflict arises between individual and group goals.VS. To avoid goal conflict, managers should set the individual goal so that its attainment facilitates the attainment of the group goal. + += 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.21 Berger/Brownell 22. Creativity and Goal SettingAdding a dimension of creativity, in which individuals realize their capabilities to make a unique contribution to collective goals, helps to unleash that energy and commitment to excellence. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.22 Berger/Brownell 23. Group Dynamics and Goals Group lifecycle has a beginning, amiddle and an end.Middle BeginningEnd 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved. 23 Berger/Brownell 24. The BeginningIt is during these early stages of development that groups begin togenerate plans, formulateideas, and set goals.Storming is an early period punctuated by fears, anxieties, anddissatisfaction that can lead tohostility and conflict. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.24 Berger/Brownell 25. The Middle Time for Norming and Performing Norming is the time when alternatives are chosenand agreed upon, policies set, and goals established Performing categorizes functional role relatednessas solutions develop and members carry out the work Members align and work together toward a realistic appraisal of what they can accomplish 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.25 Berger/Brownell 26. The EndThe end is the period of disengagement, ending andadjournment. It is a timeconcerned withsadness, good-byes, andself-evaluation. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.26 Berger/Brownell 27. Setting Personal Goals Brainstorm DesiresRank IdeasIdentify Methods ofAchievement Consider LimitationsIdentify Risks 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.27 Berger/Brownell 28. Achieving Personal Goals Develop a positive attitude and enthusiasmAllow yourself to relax Imagine accomplishment Reorient, resume normal activities 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved. 28 Berger/Brownell 29. Goals Into Action State requirements and method Set up a time frame Break down goals into smaller units Set deadlines Re-evaluate and set new deadlines 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality IndustryAll Rights Reserved.29 Berger/Brownell