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System analysis and design

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2. Topics covered.. Introduction Fact-finding interviews Planning the interview Conducting the interview Questionnaires Observation Record Searching Document Analysis 3. Introduction Second stage in system analysis model-asking questionsand collecting data To collect data and related information, following factfinding methods can be used: Interviewing Questionnaires Observation Searching records Document analysis 4. Interviews Interview is defined as a conversation with a specificpurpose Purpose can be : Selection in a recruitment interview Counseling in a performance appraisal interview Collecting information in a fact finding interview Two way communication Interviewer should Have good interpersonal skills Be a good listener Skillful in using the questions so that conversation flows smoothly 5. 3 stages of interview1. Planning the interview2. Conducting the interview3. Recording the interview 6. I Planning the interview In this, we are trying to answer 5 questions: 7. Answer to Question 1: helps to identify a set of objectives Question 2: leads to a list of interviewees and thesequence in which they will be interviewed Question 3: gives a format or structure for the interview Question 4: gives the agenda Question 5: gives the location of interview 8. First stage is to set clear, specific andmeasurable objectives An objective can be : passive or active Passive objective: concerned with collecting information from the interviewee Active objective: is about decisions or actions that the interviewee must take 9. Structure of an interview 4 stages :- Social chat Overview Questions and answers Closing Length of each stage depends on The individual being interviewed Amount of detail required 10. 1 Social chat Interview begins with a casual, friendly opening to createa relaxed atmosphere and put interviewee at their ease In this stage interviewer can give the interviewee somebackground information about the reasons for theinvestigation and answer any questions they have Early minutes of an interview are critical in buildingrapport with the interviewee 11. 2 Overview Outlining the various parts of the interview Also explains: Objectives of the interview Time you will need Main topics to be covered Asking for interviewees permission to take notes 12. 3 Questions and answers Fact finding part of the interview In this stage, we ask questions to find out as much aspossible about the interviewee and their role inorganisation By listening carefully to the answers, making notes &checking understanding of the information collected, a lotof useful information can be gathered It is important to keep control and direct the interview toensure objectives are met It is important to maintain rapport with the interviewee 13. Model for structuring question & answerstage 14. Context questions: Contains the words tell, explain, describe Information about the background and work environment of theinterviewee within the organisation Detailed questions: helps to obtain specific information about the areas explored in stepone This contain facts & figures that indicate volume as well asoperational peaks and troughs Context and detailed questions helps to understand thecurrent system & enables to identify the nature and causeof specific problems Once problems have been identified, ask furtherquestions to find out what effects the interviewee believeseach problem has on the organisation 15. Next step ,which can take place alongside step three, is toexplore users views about the solution to a problem andto find out what the user needs to correct the problem Then discover what the users real needs are so that anysolution developed will be effective and efficient4 Closing In closing the interview: Summarize the points discussed Checking key facts with the interviewee Describe what will happen next as a result of the information obtained 16. As a final step in planning- The location of the interview should also considered There is usually a choice of location-either on client premises or at analysts office 17. II Conducting the interview Listening Is an essential component of any effective face to face communication Questioning Asking the appropriate question to obtain the information required is central to fact finding interviewing 18. III Recording the interview No matter how skilled the interviewer, or how good theirquestioning and listening, the interview is likely to be lessthan successful if the recording techniques are incompleteor inappropriate Some general guidelines for note taking include: Always asks for permission to take notes Use an open note taking style, and dont hide what we are writingfrom the interviewee Pause during the interview while recording important information;dont try to listen and write at the same time Check with the interviewee that the information recorded is correctand make sure that any actions required by either party areaccurately recorded 19. A formal record should contain the following information as a minimum: Date, location & duration of the interview Names of attendees Agenda or objectives Main points discussed Any conclusions Any actions The date of next meeting if appropriate 20. Questionnaires Data can be collected from a lot of people without havingto visit them all It is difficult to design a questionnaire that is both simpleand comprehensive Questions should be kept short and clear otherwise it willbe misunderstood by those questioned, making datacollected unreliable Questionnaire is most effective method of fact finding tocollect small amount of data from a lot of people: For eg: when staffs are located over a widely spread geographicalarea, When time is short etc.. 21. Contd.. Questionnaire can also be used as a means for verifying data collected using other methods or As the basis for question & answer section of a fact findinginterview When designing questionnaire, 3 sections are to be considered: Heading section: describes the purpose of questionnaire andcontains the main references-name, staff identification no:, dateetc.. Classification section: for collecting information that can later beused for analysing & summarizing the total data such as age,gender, grade, job title Data section: made up of questions designed to elicit the specificinformation being sought by the analyst 22. Heading sectionClassificationsection Data section 23. Open and closed questions can be used One way of avoiding misunderstanding & gaining cooperation is to write a covering letter explaining the purpose of the questionnaire & emphasising the date by which the questionnaire should be returned 24. Observation Observation provide clues about why the current systemis not functioning properly Observation is good for tracing bottlenecks and checkingfacts that have already been noted Analyst does planned or conscious observations-watching an operation for a period to see exactly whathappens Formal observation is done if agreement is given & usersare prepared to cooperate Systematic activity sampling:- making observations of aparticular operation at predetermined times Time is chosen initially by some random device 25. Record Searching Involves looking through written records to obtainquantitative information, & to confirm information alreadysupplied by user staff or management Information can be collected about: Volume of file data & transactions, frequencies and trends Frequency with which files are updated Accuracy of data held in the system Unused forms Exceptions & omissions Using this information Assessment of volatility of information can be made Usefulness of existing information can be questioned 26. If there is large number of documents, statistical samplingcan be used Statistical sampling- sampling randomly or systematicallyto provide the required quantitative and qualitativeinformation 27. Document Analysis Involves collecting documents that show how theinformation is organized in the system Different documents include: Reports Forms Organisation charts Formal lists Document analysis is powerful when used with othertechniques Analyst must ask questions about how, where, why andwhen the document is used-helps in understanding thepurpose of document and its importance to business

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