Talent Management: Herding cats or building the future?

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  • 1. Talent Management : Herding cats or building the future? Presented to theGulf States Federal Human Resources Conference March 7, 2007 byMaureen Hannay, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Management/Human Resource Management Troy University

2. Outline of presentation

  • Talent management occurs in different forms in the various phases of human resource management
  • Federal service faces new HR challenges with the introduction of NSPS and the large number of forecasted retirements
  • We will examine what can be done in recruitment/selection, training and development, and employee retention to better manage the talent pool within the organization

3. Strategy and Human Resources

  • The goal of strategic management in an organization is to deploy and allocate resources in a way that gives it a competitive advantage
  • Human resource managers should:
    • be a partner in the development of the strategic plan
    • have specific knowledge of the organizations strategic goals
    • know what types of employee skills, behaviors, and attitudes are needed to support the strategic plan
    • develop programs to ensure that employees have those skills, behaviors and attitudes

4. Model of the Strategic Management Process HR Practices Recruiting,Training, Performance management,Labor relations,Employee relations,Job analysis Job design,Selection, Development,Pay structure,Incentives, Benefits Firm Performance Productivity, Quality, Profitability Human Resource Actions Behaviors, Results Human Resource Capability Skills, Abilities, Knowledge Human Resource Needs Skills Behavior Culture Mission Goals Strategic Choice Internal Analysis Strengths Weaknesses External Analysis Opportunities Threats Strategy Formulation Strategy Implementation 5. Employee Recruitment/Selection 6. Forecasting Stage of Human Resource Planning

  • Determining Labor Demand
    • derived from product/service demanded
    • externalin nature
  • Determining Labor Supply
    • internalmovements caused by transfers, promotions, turnover, retirements, etc
    • maintain skill inventories of current employees
    • transitional matrices identify employee movements over time
    • useful for AA / EEO purposes
  • Determining Labor Surplus or Shortage

7. Personnel Policies

  • Develop job descriptions for jobs needed in future
  • Updated hiring profiles reflecting new KSAs
  • Personnel Policies vary:
    • Internal versus External recruiting
      • opportunity for advancement
    • Market leader pay strategy
    • Image advertising
    • *Realistic job preview

. 8. Interviews

  • The utility of an interview can be increased by the following suggestions:
    • Interviews should be structured, standardized, and focused on goals oriented to skills and behaviors that are observable
    • Ask questions that force the applicant to display job-required behaviors or knowledge
    • Use multiple, trained interviewers who can avoid personal bias

. 9. Situational Interview

  • Asituational interviewconfronts applicants on specific issues, questions, or problems that are likely to arise on the job
  • These interviews consist of:
    • experience-based questions
    • future-oriented questions

10. Work Samples

  • Work samples simulate the job in miniaturized form
  • One approach is the in basket test
  • Used in assessment centers
  • Research indicates that one of the best combinations of selection methods includes:
    • Work sample tests
    • Highly structured interview
    • Measure of general cognitive ability

11. Employee Training and Development 12. Outcomes of Training

  • Ensure that employees have the basic skills to work with new technology
  • Help employees understand how to work effectively in teams to contribute to product and service quality
  • Ensure that the companys culture emphasizes innovation, creativity, and learning
  • Ensure employment security by providing new ways for employees to contribute to the company when their jobs change, their interests change, or their skills become obsolete
  • Maximize abilities of current employees

13. Training

  • Trainingis a planned effort by a company to facilitate the learning of employees
  • High-leverage training:
    • is linked to strategic business goals and objectives
    • is supported by top management
  • Continuous learning expects employees to acquire new skills and knowledge, apply them on he job, and share this information with other employees

14. Designing Effective Training Activities

  • The Training Process
  • 1.Needs Assessment
  • Organizational Analysis
  • Person Analysis
  • Task Analysis
  • 2.Ensuring Employees readiness for Training
  • Attitudes and Motivation
  • Basic Skills
  • 3.Creating a Learning Environment
  • Identification of learning objectives and training outcomes
  • Meaningful material
  • Practice
  • Feedback
  • Observation of others
  • Administering and coordinating program

15. Designing Effective Training Activities(cont.)

  • 4.Ensuring Transfer of Training
  • Self-management strategies
  • Peer and manager support
  • 5.Selecting Training Methods
  • Presentation Methods
  • Hands-on Methods
  • Group Methods
  • 6.Evaluating Training Programs
  • Identification of training outcomes and evaluation design.
  • Cost-benefit analysis

The Training Process 16. Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs OUTCOME Cognitive Outcomes Skill-based Outcomes Affective Outcomes Results Return on Investment

  • Acquisition of
  • Knowledge
  • Behavior
  • Skills
  • Motivation
  • Reaction to Program
  • Attitudes
  • Company Payoff
  • Economic value of
  • Training
  • Pencil and paper tests
  • Work sample
  • Observation
  • Work sample
  • Ratings
  • Interviews
  • Focus groups
  • Attitude surveys
  • Observation
  • Data from information system
  • or performance records
  • Identification and comparison
  • of costs and benefits of the
  • program

17. Comparison between Training and Development Focus Use of workexperience Goal Participation Training Current Low Preparation for current job Required Development Future High Preparation for changes Voluntary 18. Approaches to Employee Development

  • Feedback Systems
  • Succession Planning
  • Leadership development

19. Feedback Systems

  • Accurate performance appraisals identify high potential employees to target for development
  • 360 Degree Feedback is a performance appraisal system for managers that includes evaluations from a wide range of persons who interact with the manager
  • Basis for the succession plan

20. Common Elements of Successful Succession Plans

  • Visible support from the CEO and all members of top management
  • Clearly defined leadership criteria
  • A defined plan to find, retain and motivate future leaders
  • A simple, easy-to-follow, measurable process
  • Process focuses primarily on leadership development
  • Process must be a real organizational priority
  • Adapted from:Berchelman, D.K. (2005, Fall).Succession planning.The Journal for Quality and Participation, 28,3, 11-13

21. Types of Leadership Development Options

  • Assessment
    • Psychometric assessment
    • Multi-rater feedback
    • Competency assessment
    • Assessment centers
  • Coaching
    • Internal
    • External
    • Mentoring