Anderson SAA 2014 Using CRM Data for "Big Picture" Research

  • Published on
    15-Jan-2015

  • View
    288

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

David G. Anderson (University of Tennessee) presented his paper, Using CRM Data for Big Picture Research, at the 79th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology in Austin, TX, in April 2014. This paper details the importance of CRM research in the development of Archaeology over the last forty years. Giving credit to the hundreds of thousands of technical reports and other forms of archaeological data stemming from ever-increasing amounts of CRM research in the Southeast, Anderson says this is the basis on which big picture research can now be accomplished. As technology and storage have caught up with the massive scale of new archaeological questions, digital repositories like DINAA can be utilized as highly effective tools.

Transcript

  • 1. Using CRM Data for Big Picture Research. David G. Anderson1 1Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee A paper presented in the session 40 Years of CRM (1974-2014): Accomplishments, Challenges, And Opportunities, organized by Francis McManamon. 79th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Austin, Texas. 25 April 2014

2. Men and women with PhDs by decade of degree award. Women and men are increasingly evenly represented in more recent award decades. Images and text courtesy Melinda A. Zeder, http://www.saa.org/Portals/0/SAA/publications /SAAbulletin/15-2/SAA9.html 3. Image courtesy Society for American Archaeology. American Antiquity 39(4):675-676. Me! 4. Cultural Resources Management (CRM) Archaeology National Historic Preservation Act (1966) National Environmental Policy Act (1970) Executive Order 11593 (1971) Image courtesy: http://www.museum.state.il.us/ismdepts/anthro/CRM-AppliedArchaeology.html; http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=22492 5. Image courtesy: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/i/image/image-idx?;c=bhl&ei=1&quality=2&view=entry&subview=detail&cc=bhl&entryid=x-bl006410 The Southeastern Archaeological Conference, November 1939. At the Earthlodge/council house, Ocmulgee National Monument SEAC, LIKE THE SAA, STARTED OUT SMALL! 6. No Bucks, No Buck Rogers! Gordon Cooper: You know what makes this bird go up? FUNDING makes this bird go up. Gus Grissom: He's right. No bucks, no Buck Rogers The Right Stuff, 1983 (movie) 7. No bucks, No books! 8. Monographs Resulting from CRM Work 9. Excavating Zebree site, 3MS20, in 1976, while the site was being destroyed around us.Shiloh Mound A Excavations, 1999-2004 The Richard B. Russell Dam on the Upper Savannah River, 1981. The Ruckers Bottom Site (9EB91), along the Upper Savannah River, at the close of the excavations in 1982. 10. Reconstructed view of the fortified Mississippian village at Ruckers Bottom, ca. A.D. 1400. (Painting by Martin Pate) 11. Archaeology, History, and Predictive Modeling: Research on Fort Polk 1972-2002 University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 1988 1995 Sample size = 2785 sites Sample size = 1661 sites 12. Image and text (modified somewhat) courtesy http://cast.uark.edu/other/nps/nadb/nadb.mul.html Report Citations per County Image courtesy http://cast.uark.edu/other/nps/maplib/USsittot.1993.html This map shows the total number of archeological sites per county inventoried between 1991 and 1993 by State Historical Preservation Officers and Information Centers. Recorded Archaeological Sites in NADB, 1993 n=941,019 total 13. Site data in the Southeast. 1970: ca. 15,000 1994: 179,944 2011: 376,269 1994 Archaeological Site File Management: A Southeastern Perspective. (David G. Anderson and Virginia Horak, editors). Interagency Archeological Services Division, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office, Atlanta, Georgia. 1994 2009 (partial sample) Table from Recent Developments in Southeastern Archaeology: From Colonization to Complexity, by David G. Anderson and Kenneth E. Sassaman. Society for American Archaeology Press, Washington, D.C. , p. 32. 14. Southeastern Archaeological Sites and Reports in NADB, 2004 9424 3015 2002 3611 2063 3625 9920 1037 1010 1056 tional Archaeological Database: utheastern Reports, 2004 3015 7154 1010 1037 1010 9920 Image courtesy: http://www.cast.uark.edu/other/nps/maplib/UScittot04.html Table adapted from Recent Developments in Southeastern Archaeology: From Colonization to Complexity, by David G. Anderson and Kenneth E. Sassaman. Society for American Archaeology Press, Washington, D.C. 15. Image and text (modified somewhat) courtesy http://cast.uark.edu/other/nps/nadb/nadb.mul.html This map shows the total number of archeological citations per county. It was created using the data uploaded in 2004 in the National Archeological Database, Reports module (NADB-R). Report Citations per County Reports per County in NADB, 2004 N = ca. 350,000 16. Archaeological Curation Images courtesy: http://www.nps.gov/archeology/collections/issues_pr.htm; http://www.archaeologysouthwest.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/salmon_curation_3.jpg; http://i.imgur.com/qfMLJWA.gif; http://img4.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20080523032114/indianajones/images/9/9a/400.jpg Bulk collection storage at the Bureau of Land Management, Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores, Colorado. facility at Salmon Pueblo New curation facility at Salmon Pueblo. curation facility at Salmon Pueblo 17. CRM Information: What is needed Compile the information Curate it for posterity Develop procedures to use it efficiently 18. Grand Challenges for Archaeology Keith W. Kintigh, Jeffrey H. Altschul,, Mary C. Beaudry, Robert D. Drennan, Ann P. Kinzig, Timothy A. Kohler, W. Fredrick Limp, Herbert D. G. Maschner, William K. Michener, Timothy R. Pauketat, Peter Peregrine, Jeremy A. Sabloff, Tony J. Wilkinson, Henry T. Wright, and Melinda A. Zeder 2014a Grand challenges for archaeology PNAS 111 (3) 879-880. 2014b Grand Challenges for Archaeology. American Antiquity 79(1):5-24. 19. Grand Challenges for Archaeology Keith W. Kintigh, Jeffrey H. Altschul,, Mary C. Beaudry, Robert D. Drennan, Ann P. Kinzig, Timothy A. Kohler, W. Fredrick Limp, Herbert D. G. Maschner, William K. Michener, Timothy R. Pauketat, Peter Peregrine, Jeremy A. Sabloff, Tony J. Wilkinson, Henry T. Wright, and Melinda A. Zeder 2014a Grand Challenges for Archaeology. American Antiquity 79(1):5-24. 2014b Grand challenges for archaeology PNAS 111 (3) 879-880. the greatest payoff will derive from investments that allow us to exploit the explosion in systematically collected archaeological data [and] far more comprehensive online access to thoroughly documented primary research data and to unpublished reports and other documents detailing the contextual information essential for the comparative analyses (Kintigh et al. 2014a:19). 20. The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR) is an international digital repository for the digital records of archaeological investigations. tDARs use, development, and maintenance are governed by Digital Antiquity, an organization dedicated to ensuring the long-term preservation of irreplaceable archaeological data and to broadening the access to these data. Images and text courtesy http://www.tdar.org/about/ https://www.tdar.org/news/2013/01/taking-a-look-back-at-tdar-in-2012/ 21. Preserving Archaeological Reports Image and text courtesy http://www.tdar.org/news/2014/04/preserving-archaeological- legacies-turning-a-citation-into-a-resource/ 22. Grand Challenges for Archaeology Keith W. Kintigh, Jeffrey H. Altschul,, Mary C. Beaudry, Robert D. Drennan, Ann P. Kinzig, Timothy A. Kohler, W. Fredrick Limp, Herbert D. G. Maschner, William K. Michener, Timothy R. Pauketat, Peter Peregrine, Jeremy A. Sabloff, Tony J. Wilkinson, Henry T. Wright, and Melinda A. Zeder 2014a Grand Challenges for Archaeology. American Antiquity 79(1):5-24. 2014b Grand challenges for archaeology PNAS 111 (3) 879-880. our survey emphatically reinforced the need for the kinds of online access provided by the Digital Archaeological Record (Kintigh et al. 2014b:879) 23. Images and text courtesy http://opencontext.org/ Open Context is maintained and administered by a dedicated staff with the Alexandria Archive Institute, a not-for-profit organization. The California Digital Library at the University of California provides data archiving and preservation services. Open Context development has been funded by foundation grants and charitable donations. Open Context 24. Image courtesy Jason ODonoughue (2007) Living In The Low Country: Modeling Archaeological Site Location In The Francis Marion National Forest, South Carolina. MA Thesis, University of Tennessee. FMNF 2007 Predictive Model (Images courtesy Jason ODonoughue) Sample size = 1883 sites 25. Kisatchie National Forest, Louisiana Images courtesy: Erik N. Johanson, 2011 Predictive Modeling in Western Louisiana: Prehistoric and Historic Settlement in the Kisatchie National Forest, MA Thesis, University of Tennessee, pages 2 , 116, 160. Sample size = 4175 sites (Images courtesy Erik N. Johanson) 26. Images from Anderson, David G., and Steven D. Smith 2003 Archaeology, History, and Predictive Modeling: Research on Fort Polk 19722002. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Fort Polk, Louisiana: 1988 and 1995 Predictive Models Sample size = 2785 sites Sample size = 1661 sites 27. Images courtesy: Chamblee, John F. 2006. Landscape Patches, Macroregional Exchanges and Pre-columbian Political Economy in Southwestern Georgia. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Georgias Middle Woodland Mounds and Sites Image from Chamblee 2006:253 28. Images courtesy: Chamblee, John F. 2006. Landscape Patches, Macroregional Exchanges and Pre-columbian Political Economy in Southwestern Georgia. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Georgias Late Woodland Mounds and Sites Image from Chamblee 2006:254 29. Images courtesy: Chamblee, John F. 2006. Landscape Patches, Macroregional Exchanges and Pre-columbian Political Economy in Southwestern Georgia. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Georgias Early Mississippian Mounds and Sites Image from Chamblee 2006:255 30. Images courtesy: Chamblee, John F. 2006. Landscape Patches, Macroregional Exchanges and Pre-columbian Political Economy in Southwestern Georgia. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Georgias Middle Mississippian Mounds and Sites Image from Chamblee 2006:258 31. Images courtesy: Chamblee, John F. 2006. Landscape Patches, Macroregional Exchanges and Pre-columbian Political Economy in Southwestern Georgia. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Georgias Late Mississippian Mounds and Sites Image from Chamblee 2006:263 32. Working with archaeological site file managers is critical to integrating information. A 1994 workshop brought southeastern site file managers and data together for the first time. 1994 Archaeological Site File Management: A Southeastern Perspective. (David G. Anderson and Virginia Horak, editors). Interagency Archeological Services Division, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office, Atlanta, Georgia. 140 pp. 33. As part of an NSF collaborative proposal awarded to PIs David G. Anderson and Stephen J. Yerka at the University of Tennessee, Eric and Sarah Kansa of Open Context/Alexandria Archive, Berkeley, and Joshua J. Wells of Indiana University, South Bend, a workshop was held at the UT Office of Research on March 19th and 20th to develop procedures for linking large archaeological datasets. 34. Eastern Woodlands Household Archaeology Data Project The goal of the Eastern Woodlands Household Archaeology Data Project is to assemble information about prehistoric residential structures in eastern North America: these remains are a basic unit of analysis in archaeological studies of households. As of March 2014 the database contains information about the location, time period, shape, and size of 2130 structures and 16 domestic areas from 272 archaeological sites across the eastern United States and Canada. Created and maintained by: Andrew White aawhite@umich.edu Images and text courtesy http://www.householdarchaeology.org/ 35. Primary Data Is Available Online at: http://pidba.tennessee.edu/main.htm Paleoindian Database of the Americas 36. Fluted Points (including Clovis, excluding some later fluted types) 13,000 -12,000 cal BP n=11,906 points >1500 locations. 37. DINAA (Digital Index of North American Archaeology) DINAA partnerships as of April 2014 showing the distribution of cultural resources at low resolution within states whose data has been received thus far. Dots do not refer to exact site locations, but to groups of five sites whose position has been randomly distributed within 20x20km grid cells. 38. DINAA (Digital Index of North American Archaeology) Distribution at low resolution within states whose data has been integrated thus far. Data is displayed using 20x20km grid cells. Middle Woodland Sites (n=27,387) 39. DINAA (Digital Index of North American Archaeology) DINAA datasets are archived with the California Digital Library, a world leader in digital preservation. There are multiple search options with the data. 40. Using site file data to examine the impacts of sea level rise At present 10,766 sites are at sea level In 100 years, 14,105 sites will be covered! 41. Past and future sea- level projections Sea level data chart courtesy I. Allison, N. L. Bindoff, R.A. Bindschadler, P.M. Cox, N. de Noblet, M.H. England, J.E. Francis, N. Gruber, A.M. Haywood, D.J. Karoly, G. Kaser, C. Le Qur, T.M. Lenton, M.E. Mann, B.I. McNeil, A.J. Pitman, S. Rahmstorf, E. Rignot, H.J. Schellnhuber, S.H. Schneider, S.C. Sherwood, R.C.J. Somerville, K.Steffen, E.J. Steig, M. Visbeck, A.J. Weaver. 2009. The Copenhagen Diagnosis, 2009: Updating the World on the Latest Climate Science. The University of New South Wales Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney, Australia Site loss due to sea-level rise in six southeastern states given a one, two, and three meter rise in sea level. Numbers of known sites at risk in red 10,677 14,105 21, 123 17,004 42. Fluted Points (including Clovis, excluding later fluted types) 13,000 -12,000 cal BP n=11,906 points >1500 locations. The End! Support Big Picture Research!

Recommended

View more >