and we share the same capabilities and limitations. We are subject to the same rules.
Understanding how we all think can help us generate better ideas
and help us craft and deliver better experiences.
Relevant Fields of Psychology Behavioral Ecological / Environmental Cognitive Social Consumer Industrial / Organizational Human Factors / HCI Experimental Psychometrics Quantitative / Mathematical Educational Developmental Personality Physiological / Neurological
UX is not magic.
A System for thinking about UX design, research, and strategy with a psychological perspective.
Who, where, what?
Who are the people? Demographics, experiences, skills, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge Where are they? Place, environment, situation, conditions, circumstances What are the devices, objects, and tools they are using? Phones, tablets, computers, kiosks, cameras, pen & paper, chisel & stone Context
Who, where, what?
UX Research When and how do people use their mobile devices? About 70% of all mobile phone usage is for playing games, socializing, and entertainment. That ranges from 64% for all web and apps combined to 79% for just mobile apps. http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1733
Are we having fun yet?
What are the objectives? What is the desired outcome, and is it: Productive, focused, goal-directed, playful, exploratory, meandering What is the value of the goals and objectives? Important, essential, necessary, optional, nice-to-have, elective How urgent are the goals and objectives? Time-sensitive, critical, compelling, casual, open-ended Goals
How do people sense and perceive the world? Vision, audition, and touch Color deficient vision Gestalt Principles Image recognition Motion Pre-conscious processing and attention Perception
Definition: The force that initiates, directs, and sustains behavior. Why we do what we do. Theories: Achievement, Affiliation, and Power Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (ERG) Biological Drives Internal vs. External Not Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Motivation
Why do people spend so much time on social networks, and what do they get from it? Affiliation with others (we are social creatures and seek contact) Personal achievement (competition with self and others) Social influence and credibility (social currency) Motivation
Definition: The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thinking, experience, and the senses. Types: Learning Decision-making Memory Recognition Language Spatial operations Problem-solving Concept formation Reasoning and logic Metacognition Attention And many, many biases Cognition
Cognitive Load Memory and attention are limited resources use them wisely. Cognitive friction occurs when we force users to think harder and try to remember more than they need to. Deliver what people need when they need it: Just in time, not just in case.
Cognitive Biases Our cognitive abilities are fallible. Von Restorff Effect Peak-End Rule Confirmation Bias Loss Aversion Hyperbolic Discounting Recency Bias And dozens more
Should we Reduce deaths or Maximize quality of life?
What did the first cars look like? Horse-drawn carriages.
We may not be designing for ourselves, but
We are susceptible to the same biases.
Definition: A complex, subjective experience resulting in physiological and psychological changes that influence thought and behavior. Theories: Ekman (Happiness, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Fear, Disgust) James-Lange (physiological reaction precedes emotion) Cannon-Bard (physiological reaction and emotion are concurrent) Schachter-Singer (physiological reaction precedes cognition) Lazarus (cognition precedes physiological reaction and emotion) Emotion
Emotion Emotions may be positive (love, joy) or negative (anger, fear.) We have about 20,000 emotional experiences per day (Kahneman, 2002.) Attractive things are judged to work better and be more effective.
Positive Emotions Fredrickson (2009) discovered that we need three positive emotions to lift us up and overcome just one negative emotion. Have you ever said, Meh. It could be better, but it works? Is the rest of the interface three times better to make up for it?
Definition: The actions by which an organism reacts and adjusts to their environment and other organisms; a response to various stimuli. Theories: Classical Conditioning (association) Operant Conditioning (reinforcement and punishment) Social Learning Theory (live, verbal, and symbolic) Relational Frame Theory (language and cognition) Drive Reduction (biology and homeostasis) Behavior
Rewards Participation in social services is often encouraged with rewards such as badges and points that have personal and social value and which are delivered through complex reinforcement schedules.
There is a dark side.
Behavior Modification As UX designers we are in the business of changing behavior. Sometimes we are asked to make design decisions that lead people to choices and actions that are not always in their own best interests. Dark patterns lead people to interact in ways they would not have otherwise chosen to do.
Be the good guy.
More than visibility we must craft accessible experiences where we can perceive the opportunities to interact in any modality. People are less likely interact if they do not perceive the opportunity to interact, even if they need or want to interact. Perceivability
Predictability The ability to accurately and confidently predict the outcomes or results of an interaction and that it will move us toward our goal(s). People are less likely to interact if they are not confident in their predicted outcomes or if they believe the results are not what they want or need.
Mental Models Mental Model Conceptual Model System Model
Not what she predicted
Feedback Meaningful information about the status and outcomes of an interaction and the process(es) it started, modified, or terminated. People are less likely to continue interacting if they do not receive meaningful information about status, progress, outcomes, or results.
After editing the gift message three times, it was still too long How long is it now? How much too long is it? What is the maximum number of characters? HELP! What should I do?
Learnability We can learn and remember interactions when we accurately predict desirable outcomes, avoid errors, and when the feedback is underst