Session : 2012-2013 technical description on personal computer Batch : CS-3 Submitted To: Submitted By: meera shroti mam yash agrawal
Acknowledgement I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during the completion of file. My deepest thanks to Lecturer, Meera Shroti mam the Guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care. She has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed. I express my thanks to the Principal of, Acropolis institute of Technology and Research, for extending his support. I would also thank my Institution and my faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well wishers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1} Introduction 2} History 3} Types Of Computer 4} Components And Working 5} Advantages and Disadvantages 6} Uses
Introduction Computer is an electronic Device that is used for information Processing. A computer system includes a computer, peripheral devices, and software Accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output Input refers to whatever is sent to a Computer system Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas Processing is the way that a computer manipulates data A computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit (CPU)
History of computers The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies, automated calculation and programmability. However no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term. A few devices are worth mentioning though, like some mechanical aids to computing, which were very successful and survived for centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator, like the Sumerian abacus, designed around 2500 BC of which a descendant won a speed competition against a modern desk calculating machine in Japan in 1946, the slide rules, invented in the 1620s, which were carried on five Apollo space missions, including to the moon and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient astronomical computer built by the Greeks around 80 BC. The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 1070 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when. In 1642, the Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator, a device that could perform all four arithmetic operations without relying on human intelligence. The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways. Initially, it was in trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators that the computer was first theorized by Charles Babbage and then developed. Secondly, development of a low-cost electronic calculator, successor to the mechanical calculator, resulted in the development by Intel of the first commercially available microprocessor integrated circuit.
FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS 1. Use of vacuum tubes 2. Big & Clumsy 3. High Electricity Consumption 4. Programming in Mechanical Language 5. Larger AC were needed 6. Lot of electricity failure occurred
SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS 1. Transistors were used 2. Core Memory was developed 3. Faster than First Generation computers 4. First Operating System was developed 5. Programming was in Machine Language & Assembly Language 6. Magnetic tapes & discs were used 7. Computers became smaller in size than the First Generation computers 8. Computers consumed less heat & consumed less electricity
THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS 1. Integrated circuits developed 2. Power consumption was low 3. SSI & MSI Technology was used 4. High level languages were used
FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS 1. LSI & VLSI Technology used 2. Development of Portable Computers 3. RAID Technology of data storage 4. Used in virtual reality, multimedia, simulati on 5. Computers started in use for Data Communication 6. Different types of memories with very high accessing speed & storage capacity
FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS 1. Used in parallel processing 2. Uses superconductors 3. Used in speech recognition 4. Used in intelligent robots 5. Used in artificial intelligence
Type of computer Digital computer Analog computer Hybrid Computer Micro Computer Main frame Computer Super Computer Home PC Mini Computer
Analog computer Analog Computer is a computing device that works on continuous range of values. The results given by the analog computers will only be approximate since they deal with quantities that vary continuously. It generally deals with physical variables such as voltage, pressure, temperature, speed, etc. Signals are continuous of (0 to 10 V) Accuracy 1% Approximately High speed Output is continuous Time is wasted in transmission time
Digital Computers On the other hand a digital computer operates on digital data such as numbers. It uses binary number system in which there are only two digits 0 and 1. Each one is called a bit. The digital computer is designed using digital circuits in which there are two levels for an input or output signal. These two levels are known as logic 0 and logic 1. Digital Computers can give more accurate and faster results. Digital computer is well suited for solving complex problems in engineering and technology. Hence digital computers have an increasing use in the field of design, research and data processing. Signals are two level of (0 V or 5 V) Accuracy unlimited low speed sequential as well as parallel processing Output is continuous but obtain when computation is completed.
Micro Computer Micro computer are the smallest computer system. There size range from calculator to desktop size. Its CPU is microprocessor. It also known as Grand child Computer. Application : - personal computer, Multi user system, offices.
Main Frame Computer Mainframe computers can also process data at very high speeds i.e., hundreds of million instructions per second and they are also quite expensive. Normally, they are used in banking, airlines and railways etc for their applications. Application Host computer, Central data base server.
Mini Computer Mini computers are lower to mainframe computers in terms of speed and storage capacity. They are also less expensive than mainframe computers. Some of the features of mainframes will not be available in mini computers. Hence, their performance also will be less than that of mainframes. Mini computer are also known as mid range computer or Child computer. Application :- Departmental systems, Network Servers, work group system.
Super Computer Super computer are those computer which are designed for scientific job like whether forecasting and artificial intelligence etc. They are fastest and expensive. A super computer contains a number of CPU which operate in parallel to make it faster. It also known as grand father computer. Application whether forecasting, weapons research and development.
Type Components Physical Size and Capacity Cost Usage Microcomputer All components in a single unit Smallest Cheapest At homes, in schools and offices Minicomputer Several functional units Small Cheap In universities, mediu m-sized companies, depart ments of large companiesMainframe computer Several separate units Large Expensive In large organizations, universities, government Supercomputer Several separate units Largest Most expensive In scientific research, weather forecasting, space exploration, military defense Comparisons between different types of computers:
Working of a computer Basically, computers work by taking commands and giving feedback: input and output. The hardware in the computer takes the input from the user or a program and provides the result (text, image, file) that is desired.For example, when you type letters on a keyboard, it analyzes the keystroke and electronically displays the image of the letter on the screen. This requires several dozen operations that you never see, and which operate at incredible speed. A computer works by manipulation of binary coded symbols (numbers), according to lists of binary coded instruction symbols. Everything in an electronic (digital) computer is binary coded symbols, whether it is data or instructions. A computer has many compon