?· CCE) Ethics for School Teachers)

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<p>1.1 BapJw</p> <p>s]mXp-hmb Pohn-X-Kp-W-ta--sImv Cyp apgp-h amXr-I-bmb kwm-\-amWv tIc-fw. s]mXp-hn-Zym- ym-k-ns hym]\w, s]mXp-P-\m-tcm-Ky-cw-Ks</p> <p>anIhv Fnh-bmWv {][m-\-ambpw tIcf-ns Cu t\ -n\p Imc-Ww. kaq-</p> <p>l-nse Fm hn`mKw Ipn-I--sfbpw hnZ-ym-e-b--fn-se-n-m Ign-s-nepw</p> <p>Fm-hpw KpW-ta--bp hnZ-ym- -ymkw \IpI FXv tIc-f-nse hnZ-ym-</p> <p>-ym-k-cwKw t\cn-Sp Ghpw henb shp-hn-fnbm-Wv. 1986 se tZiob hnZ-ym-</p> <p>`ymk \bspSv KpW-ta eywhp hym-]-I-amb ASn-m-\-ku-</p> <p>I-c-y-hn-I-k-\hpw A[-ym-]-I-]-cn-io-e-\ -]-cn-]m-Sn-Ifpw \S-n- p-v. CtXm-sSmw</p> <p>]mT-y-]--Xnsb inip-tI-{o-Ir-Xhpw {]h\m-[n-jvTn-Xhpw {]{In-bm-_-n-X-</p> <p>hp-amn Imtem-Nn-X-am-p--Xn-\p ]cn-{i-a-fpw Dmbn. CXns ^e-ambn</p> <p>Adn-hns\ \nan-p {]{In-b-bmWv mkv-ap-dn-I-fn \S-t--sX Xncn--dn-</p> <p>hp-mbn. C{]-Imcw Ipnsb hnZ-ym- -ymk{]{In-b-bpsS tI{-m-\p \np-</p> <p>Xn-\p {]h-\-v XpSw Ipdn-m \app Ign-n- p-v.</p> <p>PohnXns kakvX- ta-J-e-Ifpw A\p-\n-anjw amdn-sm-n-cn-p-p. t_m[-</p> <p>\-imkv{Xw, ]T-\-a\ximkv{Xw Fn-h-bnse ]pXnb Is--ep-Ifpw {]mtbm-</p> <p>KnIm\p- -h-fpw IptdqSn sa-s- -co-Xn-bn ]T-\-km-a{KnIfpsS \nam-Whpw</p> <p>]T-\m-\p- -h--fpsS hn\n-a-bhpw hne-bn-cp-epw \S-p--Xn\v \s {]m]vX-</p> <p>cm-p-p. Fm hn`mKw Ipn-I-fp-sSbpw ]T\]ptcm-KXn \mw eywhbvpp.</p> <p>""hy-X-y-kvX-amb kmaq-lnIkm-nI ]m--e-ap, hy-X-y-kvX-amb imco-</p> <p>cn-Ihpw am\-kn-Ihpw _un-I-hp-amb Ign-hp-I-fp Fm Ipn-Ipw ]Tn-</p> <p>m\pw kvIqfp-I-fn hnPbw ssIh-cn-m\pw Ign-bp-sav Dd-p-h-cp--Ww. enwKw,</p> <p>PmXn, `mj, kwkvIm-cw, aXw, AwK-ssh-I-e-y- apX-em-b-h-bn\nv DS-se-</p> <p>Sp-p ]cn-an-Xn-I adn-I-S-m \b-fpw ]-Xn-Ifpw am{Xw t]mcm, ssii-</p> <p>h-Lw apX--Xs tbm-P-y-amb ]T-\-e--y-fpw A[-ym-]-\-co-Xn-Ifpw Xnc-s-</p> <p>Sp-p-Ibpw cq]-I-ev]\ sNp-Ibpw th-Xp-v'' (F.-kn.-F v. 2005, ]pdw27).</p> <p>$ hy-X-y-kvX-amb kmaq-lnIkm-nI ]m--e-fnep--h.</p> <p>$ imco-cn-Itam am\-kn-Itam _un-I-tam Bbn hy-X-y-kvX-amb Ign-hp-I-fp-</p> <p>h.</p> <p>123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789</p> <p>123456789012345678123456789012345678123456789012345678123456789012345678123456789012345678123456789012345678</p> <p>tIcf kvIq ]mTy-]-Xn 2013s]mXpkao-]\w</p> <p>6</p> <p>So sSIvv</p> <p>Cs\- Fm hn`m-K-nepw s] -hv ]T-\-t\w Dm-Ip--Xn\v hnZ-ym- -ym-k-</p> <p>{]-{In-b-bpsS Fm taJ-e-I-fnepw IqSp-X kqvahpw imkv{Xo-b-hp-amb \ne-</p> <p>]m-Sp-I kzo-I-cn-p-I-bm-bn-cn--Ww \psS Ftmgsbpw ImgvN-mSv Fv</p> <p>F.-- kn-. F v. kqNn-n-p-p. Imtem-Nn-X-ambn ]mT-y-]-Xn \ho-I-cWw \S-</p> <p>n-s-m-n-cn-p-Ibpw kwhn-[m-\s {]h\-\nc-XampIbpw sNbvXm</p> <p>am{Xta Cu eyw ssIh-cn-m\mIq Fv CXp ImWn-p-p. Cu ImgvN-m-</p> <p>Sns ASn-m-\-n-emWv Ctm ]mT-y-]-Xn ]cn-jvI-cn-p--Xv. hnZ-ym- ymk</p> <p>{]{In-b-bn \nc-cw CS-s]- p-sImncn-p Fm-h-cp-sSbpw A\p- -h-fpw</p> <p>Is--ep-Ifpw ]T-\K-th-j-W-fpw kzmw-io-I-cn-p-sIm-mWv CXp \S-p-</p> <p>-Xv. icn-bn\nv IqSp-X icn-bn-tev F imkv{Xobkao-]-\-amWv ChnsS</p> <p>kzo-Icnncn-p--Xv.</p> <p>1.2 ]mT-y-]-Xn ]cn-jvI-c-W-ns {]kn</p> <p>Ign Ap-hjn-\n-S-bn hnZ-ym- -ymkcwKv \ho-\-amb Htsd Bi-b-</p> <p> Ah-X-cn-n--s- n- p-v. C-y-bn-em-Is, 2009 se hnZ-ym- -ymk Ah-Imi</p> <p>\nbaw {]m_-e-y-nh-tXmsS KpW-ta--bp hnZ-ym- -ymkw Ipn-I-fpsS Ah-</p> <p>Im-i-ambn amdn--gnp. Ah-Im-im-[n-jvTnX hnZ-ym-ebw (Right based EducationalInstitution) F eyw t\Sp--Xn-\p- ka{Kamb kvIqhn-I-k\ ]cn-t{]yw\S-n-em-p--Xn\v ]mT-y-]--Xnsb AtZ-iob \ne-hm-c-n Fn-t--</p> <p>Xp-v. AtZ-iob\ne-hmcw FXv GsX-nepw Hcp cmP-y-ns \ne-hm-c-</p> <p>a, Hcp {]tX-yI Lw ]nn-Sp Ipn temI-s-hn-sS-bm-sW-nepw BPn-</p> <p>t Adn-hp-I-fp-sSbpw A\p- -h--fp-sSbpw BIpI-bmWv. BtKm-f-X-e-n</p> <p>Ah-X-cn-n--s anI ]T-\ -t_m-[\amXr-I-I tIc-f-nse Ipn-Iv e`y-</p> <p>am-t--Xpsv CXp ImWn-p-p.</p> <p>]cn-kc-]-T\w</p> <p>7</p> <p>hnZym- ymk Ah-Imi\nb-a-nse ]mTy-]-Xn, hne-bn-cp- Fn-h-bp-ambn</p> <p>_-s \nb-a- ]mT-y-]-Xn ]cn-jvI-c-Wn ]cn-K-Wn-t-Xv Bh-</p> <p>iy-am-Wv.</p> <p>hnZym- ymk Ah-Imi\nbaw 2009</p> <p>skIvj 29 (A[ymbw 5)</p> <p>]mTy-]--Xnbpw hne-bn-cp- \S-]-Sn-{I-ahpw</p> <p>(1) {]mY-anI hnZym- ym-k-n-\p-th-n-bp ]mTy-]--Xnbpw hne-bn-cp-</p> <p>\S-]-Sn-{I-ahpw kap-Nn-X-km-cn-\m hnm-]\w hgn \ntZ-in--</p> <p>s-Sp Hcp Am-Z-anI A[n-Im-c-m-\-m {]Xn-]m-Zn--s-tS-</p> <p>-XmWv.</p> <p>(2) Am-Z-anI A[n-Im-c-m\w 1mw D]-h-Ipv {]Im-c-ap ]mTy-]--</p> <p>Xnbpw hne-bn-cp- \S-]-Sn-{I-ahpw {]Xn-]m-Zn-p-tm Xmsg ]d-</p> <p>bp-h ]cn-K-Wn-t--Xm-Wv. AXm-bXv :-</p> <p>(a) `c-W-L-S-\-bn {]Xn-jvTm-]n-X-amb aqey--tfm-Sp A\p-tbm-PyX.</p> <p>(b) Ipn-bpsS kh-ap-J-amb hf.</p> <p>(c) Ipn-bpsS Adnhpw Ignhpw sshZ-Kv[yhpw {ItaW h[n-n-.</p> <p>(d) imco-cn -Ihpw am\-kn-I-hp-amb Ign-hp-I-fpsS kqWhnIk\w.</p> <p>(e) Ipnv kulr-Z-]-c-am-bXpw Ipnsb tI{o-I-cn-n- p--Xp-ambHcp coXn-bn {]h-\hpw Ip]n-Sn-hpw ]cy-th--</p> <p>Whpw aptJ-\-bp ]T\w.</p> <p>(f) t_m[-\-am-[yaw {]mtbm-Kn-I-am-bn-p-n-S-tmfw Ipn-bpsSamXr-`m-j-bn-embncnt--Xm-sW--Xv.</p> <p>(g) `bw, am\-knI ]ncn-ap-dp--ap-m-p kml-N-cyw, DXvIWvTFn-h-bn\nv Ipnsb hnap--am-epw kzX-{-ambn A`n-</p> <p>{]mbw {]I-Sn-n-p--Xn\v Ipnsb klm-bn--epw.</p> <p>(h) Adnhv {Kln-p--Xn-\pw AXv {]tbm-Kn-p--Xn-\pap Ipn-bpsS Ign-hn-s ka-{Khpw \nc--c-hp-amb hne-bn-cp-.</p> <p>8</p> <p>So sSIvv</p> <p>kuP\yhpw \n_nXhpamb hnZym`ymkn\p IpnIfpsSAhImiw - tIcf Nfpw hIp-p-Ifpw 2011</p> <p>Am-Z-anI A[n-ImctI{w</p> <p>1. 29 mw hIpns Bhiyntev kwm\ hnZym`ymk KthjW</p> <p>]cnioe\ Iukn (SCERT) Bbncnpw AmZanI A[nImctI{w.2. (1) mw D]Nn Iogn hnm]\w sNbvXnp AmZanI</p> <p>A[nImctI{w Icnpehpw aqey\nWb \S]Sn{Iafpw</p> <p>Xbmdmptm Cu BIvSnse 29mw hIpns (2) mw D]hIpns</p> <p>D]Jfiw (a) apX (f) hscbp hyhIv tZmj-IcamImhn[w.(a) {]kIvXhpw {]mbm\pkrXhpamb kne_kn\pw ]mT]pkvXIpw</p> <p>ASnm\ PohnXss\]pWn ]Ip \IpXn\mhiyamb</p> <p>]T\kma{KnI DssSbp ap ]T\kma{KnIpw cq]w</p> <p>\IpIbpw;</p> <p>(b) HpapX Fphscbp mkpIfntev Hmtcm hnjbn\pwBhiyamb an\naw ]T\^ew \nWbntXpw IpnIpthn</p> <p>anIhpkqNI hnIknnptXmsSmw IpnIfpsS</p> <p>]T\^en\p thnbp A[ym]IcpsS DchmZnXz</p> <p>am\Zfiv cq]w \IpIbpw;</p> <p>(c) ]T\t_m[\ ^ens ASnm\n C khokv A[ym]I]cnioe\ kma{KnI hnIknnpIbpw;</p> <p>(d) 1995 se sshIeyap hynI (XpeymhImi,AhImifpsS kwcWhpw ]qW ]mfnhpw) BIvSns</p> <p>hyhI A\pkcnv sshIeyap IpnIv hnZym`ymkw</p> <p>\IpXn\p thn A[ym]Iv {]o khokv, C khokv</p> <p>]cnioe\ ]cn]mSnIv cq]w \IpIbpw;</p> <p>(e) \nc--chpw ka-{K-hp-amb aqey-\nWbw \S-n hcp-p--Xn\v Bh-iy-amb amK-\ntZ-i- Xbm-dm-p-Ibpw;</p> <p>(f) \b]cn]mSnI, t{]m{KmapI, Icnpew, IpnIfpsS t_m[\^ewFnhsbpdnv KthjWfpw ]T\fpw GsSppIbpw AXv</p> <p>Ioj sNpIbpw.</p> <p>hnZym- ymk Ah-Im-i-\n-b-a-ns ]m-e-n \nc--chpw ka-{K-hp-amb</p> <p>hne-bn-cp- `c-W-L-S\m_m[y-X-bmbn amdn-bn-cn-p-IbmWv. CXv Ddphcp-</p> <p>p Xc-n ]mTy-]-Xn ]cn-jvI-cn-t-Xv AXym-h-iy-am-Wv. Cu- ]m-</p> <p>-e-n-emWv ]mTy-]-Xn ]cn-jvI-c-Ws \mw hon-t--Xv.</p> <p>tIcf kvIq ]mTy-]--Xn- (2013) bpsS khn-ti-j-X-I Fsm-s-sbv ]cn-</p> <p>tim-[n-mw.</p> <p>]cn-kc-]-T\w</p> <p>9</p> <p>1. ]TnXmhn tI{oIrXamb {]{Inbm_nXhpw {]ht\mpJhpw</p> <p>aqeym[njvTnXhpamb ]mTy]Xn.</p> <p>2. _unIXenepw {]{InbmXenepw at\m`mhXenepw aqeyfpsS</p> <p>Xenepw ]TnXmhv Fnttc ]T\t\v Du \Ipp.</p> <p>3. m\-\nnXn F XmznIamb ASndbn\npsImp</p> <p>]mTy]Xn.</p> <p>4. hn\n-ab{]{In-b-bn sshhn-[y-amXpw bp-hp-amb ]T-\-X-{- kzoI-</p> <p>cn-m\pw D]-tbm-Kn-m-\p-ap kzmX{yw A[ym-]-Iv \Ip-p.</p> <p>5. ]T-\-t\- w, D-Skz`m-hw, ]Tn-Xm--fpsS hyXykvX \ne-hmcw Fnh</p> <p>Xncn--dnv hnhn[ ]T\t_m[\ coXn-I \S-n-em-p-Xn-\p hg-</p> <p>w. Is- ]T\w, Bi-b-k-m-Z\coXn, BK-a-\-NnmcoXn, Nn-sb-</p> <p>p-dnv Nnn-m-\p Ign-hp-I hf, kl-I-c-W-]-T\w, kl-hnX-</p> <p>]-T-\w, {]Xn- -e-\-Nn hf, hyn-]-c-ambpw kwL-]-c-ambpw Ah-</p> <p>k-c- \I apX-em-bh ]cn-K-Wn-p-p.</p> <p>6. kuP-\yhpw kmh-{Xn-I-hp-amb hnZym- ym-kw F-Xp-t]mse Fm Ipn-I-</p> <p>fp-sSbpw ]T-\-t\w Dd-m-pI-sb--Xn\p {]m[m-\yw \Ip-p.</p> <p>7. {]oss{]adn apX lb sk--dn hsc ]cn-K-Wn-p-sIm-p-- ka-{K-</p> <p>amb ]mTy-]--Xn.</p> <p>8. Hmtcm mknepw hnhn-[ -hn-j-b--fnse D-Sw tZiobXe-nse D-</p> <p>StmSv GIo-I-cn-p-sImv tIc-f-n-t-Xmb ]mT-]p-kvXI Xbm-</p> <p>dm-pp.</p> <p>9. tZio-b-X-e-n-se-Xpt]mse Hv, cv mkp-I-fn-tev amXr- mj (]cn-</p> <p>k-c-]-T\w DZv{K-Ynv), KWnXw, Cwojv Fn-s\ aqp ]mT-]p-kvX-I-</p> <p> Xbm-dm-p-p.</p> <p>10. Hp apX \mep hscbp mkpIfntev Cwojv aoUnbw</p> <p>]mT]pkvXIfpw Xbmdmp-p.</p> <p>11. t{ijvT`mj F \nebnepw amXr`mj F \nebnepw aebmf</p> <p>`mjm]T\n\v {]tXyI {]m[m\yw \Ipp.</p> <p>12. {]o-ss{]adn hnZym`ymkn\mbn GIoIrX]mTy]Xn cq]oIcnv</p> <p>Hu]NmcnI hnZym`ymkns `mKamn amtXmsWv \n-tZinpp.</p> <p>13. hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy (sF.kn.Sn.) Hcp {]tXyI ]mTyhnjbw</p> <p>FXnep]cn ]mTyhnjbfpsS hn\nabw ^e{]ZampXntep</p> <p>Hcp D]m[nbmbn D]tbmKntXmWv.</p> <p>10</p> <p>So sSIvv</p> <p>14. {]tXyI ]cn-K-W-\-bln-p Ipn-Iv hyXy-kvXhpw \qX-\-hp-amb ]T-</p> <p>\-X-{- Bhn-jvI-cnp \S-n-em-p--Xn-s\mw A\p-tbm-P-y-amb hne-</p> <p>bn-cp- {]h-\-fpw cq]-s-Spn \S-n-em-pp.</p> <p>15. ]T-\-t\- --fn-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb ka-{Khpw \ncc-hp-amb hne-bn-cp- (CCE)Ddphcp-pp.</p> <p>16. BtcmKyImbnIhnZym`ymkw, IemhnZym`ymkw, {]hr-n-]cn-Nb]-T\w</p> <p>Fnh \n_nX ]mTyhnjbfmn ]cn-K-Wn-p-p.</p> <p>17. lbsk---dn-X-e-n Imem-\p-kr-X-amb ]mT-]p-kvX-I- Xbm-dm-</p> <p>pp.</p> <p>18. tZiobhnZym-`ym-k-\nb-a-ns shfn--n Ah-Im-im-[n-jvTnXhnZym-`ym-</p> <p>k-n\v Du \Ip-p.</p> <p>19. A[-ym-]-Is\ Hcp kl-c-m-Im-hns (Mentor) Xe-n-tev DbnIpnv kvIqfn-\-Ipw mkvap-dn-bnepw thp Icp-Xepw XWepw A\p-</p> <p>-hn-m Ah-k-c-sam-cp-pp.</p> <p>20. A[ym-]-I ]men-t [manI\nb-a-kw-ln-Xbvv (Code of ProfessionalEthics for School Teachers) Du \Ip-p.</p> <p>21. 21mw \qm-nse ]T\ss\]p-Wn-I (21st Century Learning Skills) BPn-p- -X-c-n Imtem-Nn-X-am-b-Xv.</p> <p>22. am\p-jnIaqey- Dsm-p Xe-ap-dsb krjvSn-m ]cym-]vX-</p> <p>am-b-Xv.</p> <p>23. Ah-k-c-Xp-ey-Xbpw ka-Xzhpw (Equity and Equality) e`n-p hnZym- ym-k-n-\-\p-kr-X-am-b-Xv.</p> <p>]T-\s kzm- m-hn-I-am-n, ]Tn-Xm--fp-sS _u-n-Ihpw am-\-kn-I--hpw {]-h--</p> <p>\-]-c-hpam-bp k-a-{K hn-Im-kw e--y-amp a-kv-Xn-jv-Ilr-Z-bl-kv-Xka-</p> <p>\-zn-X-am-b ]mT-y-]--XnbmWv (Curriculum for the harmony of Head, Heart andHand) \mw hnh-n-p-Xv.Fn ]mTy-]-Xn kao-]\w F-s\-bm-bn-cn-Ww? AXns sskm-n-</p> <p>Ihpw {]mtbm-Kn-I-hp-amb ASn-d Fm-bn-cn-Ww?</p> <p>1.3 ]mTy-]-Xnkao-]\w</p> <p>mt\-{n-b-fneqsS Npp-]m-Sn\np ]Tn-m-\p ss\kKn-I-amb Ign-</p> <p>hp-I-tfmsS-bmWv Ipn P\n-p--Xv. temIs ]pXnb coXn-bn t\mn-m-</p> <p>Wm\pw a\-n-em-m\pw CS-]-g-Im-\pw hne-bn-cp-m-\p-ap km[y-X-I-fmWv hnZym-</p> <p>e-b-nse Hu]-Nm-cnI]T\w hgn Ipnv e`n-pXv.</p> <p>]cn-kc-]-T\w</p> <p>11</p> <p>Xs apn-ep {]iv\-k- --</p> <p>fn CS-s]- p-sImv {]iv\-]-cn-l-</p> <p>c-W-n Gs-Sp --Xn-eq -sS-</p> <p>bmWv ]T\w \S-p--Xv. ]mTy-]-</p> <p>Xn hn\n-ab-k-ao-]-\-ns khn-</p> <p>ti-j-X-I Fsm-s-bm-bn-cn-</p> <p>Ww?</p> <p>$ {]h--\m-[n-jvTnXw</p> <p>$ {]{In-bm-_-nXw</p> <p>$ ]T\w Dd-m-p-Xv.</p> <p>$ ]T-\-t\- - ssIh-cn-p-</p> <p>-Xn\v ]cym-]vX-am-b-Xv.</p> <p>$ ]cn-n-Xn- kulr-Z-]-c-am-</p> <p>bXv.</p> <p>$ hnIm-k-ta-JeIsf ]cn-K-</p> <p>Wn-p--Xv.</p> <p>$ ]Tn-Xm-hns {]Ir-X-n\p</p> <p>tbmPn-Xv.</p> <p>$ ]T-\-tm-sSmw hne-bn-cp-</p> <p>epw Hp-tNp</p> <p>t]mIp--Xv.</p> <p>m\\nanXnhmZ-n-e-[n-jvTn-X-</p> <p>amb ]T-\-co-Xn-bmWv ]mTy-]--Xn-</p> <p>bpsS B[m-cw. ]Tn -Xm -hns</p> <p>BPnXamb Adn-hn-s\bpw Bi-</p> <p>b-]-cn -k-c-sbpw ]cn-K-Wn-p-</p> <p>sImv e-{]-Z-amb ]T-\-{]-h-</p> <p>\- Hcp-p--Xn-eqsS kzm`m-hn-</p> <p>I-ambn Adnhv \nan-s-Sp-m</p> <p>km[npw F-XmWv Cu ImgvN-</p> <p>m-Sn-s {]tXy-I-X.</p> <p>]T\m-\p- -h-</p> <p>hyXykvX PohnXkml-N-cy--fn</p> <p>\np- h-cp ]Tn -Xm --fpsS</p> <p>Ipn-I Gs-n-cn-p m\\nam-W-{]-{In-b-</p> <p>bn A[-ym-]-I IqSp-X kPo-h-amb ]p-h-ln-</p> <p>p-I-bm-sW-n, AXv Ipn-I-fpsS Adn-hns\ in-</p> <p>s-Sp-p--Xm-bn-cn-pw. ]T-\-n hym-]r-X-cm-bn-cn-</p> <p>p Ipn-I kzw Adnhv \nan-p-I-bmWp</p> <p>sNp--Xv. X kvIqfn ]Tn-p--Xns\</p> <p>]pdp \S-p Imc-y--fp-ambn _n-n-m</p> <p>th tNmZ-y- tNmZn-p-hm Ipn-Isf A\p-h-</p> <p>Zn-p-I, ImWm-mTw ]Tnv Hscm icn-bp-cw</p> <p>\Ip--Xn\p ]Icw kzw A\p-`-h--fn\nv</p> <p>kzw hmp-I-fn Dcw ]d-bm t{]mm-ln-n-</p> <p>p-I. CsXmw X-fpsS Adnhv hnI-kn-n-p-hm</p> <p>Ipn-Isf klm-bn-p-, sNdpsX-nepw {][m-\-amb</p> <p>Nph-Sp-I-fmWv. _pn-]qh-I-amb Duln- AY-</p> <p>h-mb Hcp t_m[t\m]m-[n-bm-Wv. AXv t{]mm-</p> <p>ln-n--Ww. ]e-tmgpw X-fpsS ssZ\w-Zn-\m-\p- -</p> <p>h--fn\ntm am[-y-a-k--n\ntm Ipn-I-</p> <p>fpsS a\-n Nne Bi-b- cq]-s- n- p-m-hmw.</p> <p>]t, So {]Xo-n-p hmp-I-fn Ah {]I-</p> <p>Sn-n-m Ahp ]n-sbp hcn-. Adn--</p> <p>Xnsbpw IjvSnv Adn-bp--Xnsbpw CS-bvp</p> <p>CS-n BWv ]pXnb Adnhv krjvSn--s-Sp-Xv.</p> <p>kvIqfn\p ]pdv hontem kaq-l-ntem hfn-</p> <p>sm-p-h-cp Ic-hn-cp-Xp-I-fpsS cq]-n-em-bn-</p> <p>cnpw ]e-tmgpw Ccw Adnhv krjvSn--s-SpI.</p> <p>C-c-n-ep Fm Adn-hp-Ifpw _lp-am-\n--</p> <p>s-S -Ww. Adnhpw kwth-Z -\--a -X-bp -ap</p> <p>Hc[ym]nI CXn-s\-n t_m[-h-Xnbm-bn-cn-pw. Ipn-</p> <p>I-fpsS hnIm-k-km-[-y-X-I kmm-cn-m</p> <p>klm-bn-p--hn[w {]h-\- \In-b-pw tNm-</p> <p>Z-y- tNmZnpw Ahsc \bn-m Sop Ign-</p> <p>bpw.</p> <p>At\-z -jWw, ]c-y -th--Ww, tNmZ-yw -tNmZn -,</p> <p>Unt_-p-I, knm--cq-]o-I-c-W-n-tepw Bi-</p> <p>b--fp-sSbpw \ne-]-mSp-I-fp-sSbpw krjvSn-bn-</p> <p>tepw \bn-p {]tbm-Khpw NnbpwCh-</p> <p>sbms kPo-h-amb CS-s]-S-ens mK-am-Wv. kvIqfp-</p> <p>I, tNmZ-y - tNmZn-m\pw At\-z-jn-m\pw</p> <p>Xn-m\pw a\\w sNm\pw k-ev]-\--fn</p> <p>Fn-t-cm\pw ]pXnb Bi-b Dm-m\pw</p> <p>Hs Ah-kcw Hcp-Ww.</p> <p>(F.-kn.-F- v. 2005, ]pdw 41, 42)</p> <p>12</p> <p>So sSIvv</p> <p>BPnXamb Adn-hv, Ign-hv, Xmcyw Fnh hyXy-kvX-am-W-tm. Cu sshhn-</p> <p>[ys Dsm-v, hyn-hy-Xym-k-sbpw _lp-apJ_pn-sbbpw ]cn-K-Wn-</p> <p>p-sImv ]T-\m-\p- -h- Hcp-pI F-XmWv {][m\w.</p> <p>]T-\m--cow</p> <p>]Tn-Xm-hns Xmev]-cy-hpw hnIm-khpw ]cn-K-Wn-p-sImv sshhn-[y-ap ]T-\-</p> <p>{]-h-\--fn ]m-fn-I-fm-m Ign-bpw-hn[w mkvapdn {Iao-I-cn-Ww. ]T-</p> <p>\-{]-h-\- hnZymYn-tI-{o-IrXam-h-Ww. AXn\p klm-b-I-am-Ipw-hn[ap</p> <p>]T-\m--co--amWv k-am-t-Xv.</p> <p>]T-\-{]-{Inb</p> <p>$ Hmtcm ]Tn-Xmhpw Ah-cpsS ap A\p- -h--fp-ambn _-s-Sp-n-bmWv</p> <p>m\\namWw (Knowledge construction) \S-p--Xv.</p> <p>$ hyn-X-e-nepw kmaq-lnIXe-n-ep-w m\\nam-Ww \S-p-p-v.</p> <p>$ hnhn[ ]T-\-ssi-en-I (Learning styles), ]T-\-th-Kw (Learning pace) Fnh]cn-K-Wn-p-sImv hnhn[ C{n-bm-\p-`-h- (Multi sensory experiences)\Ip-Xp hgn ]T\w ^e-{]-Z-am-Ipp.</p> <p>$ kl-I-c-Wm-fl-Ihpw kwhm-Zm-fl-I-hp-amb A-co--n ]T\w IqSp-X</p> <p>^e-{]-Z-am-Ip-p.</p> <p>$ ]mTy-h-kvXpX Xm-cy-P\Ihpw AY-]qW-hp-am-p-Xphgn ]T-\w</p> <p>IqSpX ^e-{]-Z-am-Ip-p.</p> <p>$ ]T-\m-\p- -h- Nm{In-I-ambn (Spiralling) Ah-X-cn-n-p-Xphgn ]T\wIqSp-X ^e-{]-Z-am-Ipp.</p> <p>$ ]T\{]h-\-v A\p-tbm-Py-amb hgw (Flexibility), A\p-cq-]o-I-cW km[yX (Adaptations) Fnh Dd-m-pXneqsS hyXykvX]T\mhiyap-h-scbpw A`n-cp-Nn-bp-h-scbpw ]cn-K-Wn-mw.</p> <p>$ aXn-b...</p>