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1 Adolescence Module 9

1 Adolescence Module 9. 2 Adolescence Adolescence Overview Physical Development Cognitive Development Social Development Emerging Adulthood Today

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  • 1 Adolescence Module 9
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  • 2 Adolescence Adolescence Overview Physical Development Cognitive Development Social Development Emerging Adulthood Today psychologists believe that development is a lifelong process.
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  • 3 Adolescence Adolescence the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence Puberty the period of sexual maturation when a person becomes capable of reproduction
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  • 4 Primary Sexual Characteristics During puberty primary sexual characteristics the reproductive organs and external genitalia develop rapidly. Ellen Senisi/ The Image Works
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  • 5 Secondary Sexual Characteristics :the nonreproductive traits such as breasts and hips in girls and facial hair and deepening of voice in boys develop. Pubic and armpit hair in both sexes.
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  • 6 Brain Development at adolescence, selective pruning of the neurons begins. Unused neuronal connections are lost to make other pathways more efficient.
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  • 7 Frontal Cortex The frontal cortex lags behind the limbic systems development. Hormonal surges and the limbic system may explain teen impulsiveness. Remember how everything negative in Jr. High was a disaster?
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  • 8 Cognitive Development Adolescents ability to reason gives them a new level of social awareness. 1.Their own thinking. 2.What others are thinking. 3.What others are thinking about them. 4.How ideals can be reached. They criticize society, parents, and even themselves.
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  • 9 Developing Morality Kohlberg (1981, 1984): formulated stages of moral development. He posed moral dilemmassuch as Should a person steal medicine to save a loved ones life? AP Photo/ Dave Martin Link Where is morality at PBS 14:08Where is morality at PBS
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  • Gilligans criticism Women score lower than men Kohlberg stages derived from interviews with males. For males, advanced moral thought revolves around rules, rights, and abstract principles. For women, morality centers not on rights and rules but on interpersonal relationships and the ethics of compassion and care.
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  • Why is something immoral? Would be all right for a brother and sister to have voluntary protected sex? Would it be all right for a family to eat a pet dog that had been killed by a car? Would it be all right to break a deathbed vow to visit your mothers grave?
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  • 15 3 Basic Levels of Moral Thinking 1.Preconventional Morality: Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward. 2.Conventional Morality: By early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake. 3.Postconventional Morality: Affirms peoples agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles.
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  • Woman needs drug and cant afford it, man steals itshould he have done this? 1 Should not steal because he will be jailed 2 Should steal because wife will repay him later 3 Should steal because he loves his wife and has duty to care for her, she and rest of family will approve 4 Should steal because he has a duty to care for her or not steal because it is illegal. 5 Should steal because life is more important 6 Should steal because of the principle of preserving and respecting life
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  • 24 Moral Action Moral action involves doing the right thing. People who engage in doing the right thing develop empathy for others and the self-discipline to resist their own impulses. Learning to behave in moral ways requires 1. Consistent modeling 2. Real life experience 3. Situational factors that support moral actions Delay Gratification link at TEDDelay Gratification link at TED 6:02
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  • 25 Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate ageStage Description of Task InfancyTrust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants (1st year) develop a sense of basic trust. ToddlerAutonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and (2nd year)and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. PreschoolerInitiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks (3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. ElementaryCompetence vs. Children learn the pleasure of applying (6 years-inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feel puberty) inferior. Mnemonic
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  • 26 Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development Mnemonic link Mnemonic link Approximate age StageDescription of Task Adolescence Identity vs. roleTeenagers work at refining a sense of self by (teens into confusiontesting roles and then integrating them to 20s)form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult Intimacy vs.Young adults struggle to form close relation- (20s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate 40s) love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri- (40s to 60s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult Integrity vs.When reflecting on his or her life, the older (late 60s and despairadult may feel a sense of satisfaction or up) failure.
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  • 27 Adolescence: Social Development Identity ones sense of self the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles Intimacy the ability to form close, loving relationships a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
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  • 30 Parents and Peers are influential. Peers more than parents sometimes
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  • 33 Emerging Adulthood 18-25 During this time, young adults may live with their parents and attend college or work.
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  • 34 EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition in Modules) David Myers Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University, James A. McCubbin, Ph.D. Clemson University, Amy Jones, Garber edits Worth Publishers, 2008