1 Axial (the center or axis) Appendicular (legs and arms) Skeletal Organization Skeleton is divided into two divisions!

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Slide 2 1 Axial (the center or axis) Appendicular (legs and arms) Skeletal Organization Skeleton is divided into two divisions! Slide 3 2 Slide 4 3 Axial skeleton 1. Skull (28 bones including auditory ossicles) 2. Hyoid bone (1 bone) 3. Vertebral column (26 bones) a. Cervical (7 vertebrae) b. Thoracic (12 vertebrae) c. Lumbar (5 vertebrae) d. Sacrum (1 5 fused vertebrae) e. Coccyx (1 -~4 fused vertebrae) 4. Thoracic Cage (25 bones) a. Ribs (24) b. Sternum (1 3 parts) 80 total bones in axial skeleton Slide 5 4 The Skull 28 bones Braincase encloses cranial cavity Surrounds & protects brain 6 bones, 8 when paired Facial bones forms facial structure 8 bones, 14 when paired Auditory ossicles form the middle ear These bones transmit vibration to eardrum Malleus, incus, & stapes Slide 6 5 Braincase bones 8 bones 2 parietals 2 temporals 1 frontal 1 occipital 1 sphenoid 1 ethmoid Slide 7 6 Braincase Parietals (wall) Most of sides & roof of cranial cavity Joined to temporal by squamous suture (scale-like) Joined to frontal by coronal suture (crown) Joined to occipital by lambdoid suture ( ) Sagittal suture joins two parietals Slide 8 7 Temporals (time) Inferior part of cranium & part of cranial floor Joined to occipital and parietal by squamous suture External auditory meatus sound waves travel through to eardrum Mastoid process neck muscle attachment for head rotation Other landmarks: Zygomatic Process articulates with zygomatic Mandibular Fossa articulates with mandible Styloid Process muscle attachment for tongue, hyoid, & pharynx movement Braincase Slide 9 8 Occipital (back of head) Posterior part & prominent portion of the base of the cranium Joined to parietals by lambdoid suture Occipital bone landmarks: Foramen Magnum passage of spinal cord (connects to brain) Occipital Condyles articulate with vertebral column Sphenoid (wedge-shaped) Connects to all other cranial bones Sella turcica (next slide) contains pituitary gland Braincase Slide 10 9 Ethmoid Light, spongy bone that increases surface area of nasal cavity Moistens & warms inhaled air Anterior floor of the cranium between the orbits Composes much of nasal cavity & part of nasal septum Ethmoid bone landmarks: Crista Galli Perpendicular Plate part of nasal septum (with vomer) Superior Nasal Conchae & Middle Nasal Conchae form lateral walls of nasal cavity Slide 11 10 Slide 12 11 Facial bones 14 bones 2 maxillae 2 zygomatic 2 palatine 2 nasals 2 lacrimals 2 inferior nasal conchae 1 mandible 1 vomer Slide 13 12 Facial Bones Zygomatic bones cheek bones form the floor & outer walls of the orbits Zygomatic bone landmarks: Temporal processes Zygomatic arches (temporal & zygomatic) Muscle attachment for moving the mandible Slide 14 13 Facial Bones Maxillae paired bones forming upper jaw (holds teeth) articulate with every bone of the face except the mandible Maxillary bone landmark: Palatine Processes = horizontal projection forming the anterior 2/3 of the hard palate (palatines form the rest) Slide 15 14 Mandible Lower jaw (holds teeth) Largest and strongest bone in the face the only moveable skull bone Articulates with the temporal bone to form the Temporal Mandibular Joint (TMJ) Mandible landmarks: Ramus = perpendicular portion of bone Angle Mandibular condyle = articulates with temporal Mandibular Notch Facial Bones Slide 16 15 Nasal bones Bridge of nose Lacrimals Forms part of tear duct Palatines Posterior 1/3 of hard palate Facial Bones Slide 17 16 Inferior nasal conchae Vomer Part of nasal septum (with perpendicular plate of ethmoid) Facial Bones Slide 18 17 Orbits Made by 7 bones! Orbit landmarks: Superior orbital fissures & Inferior orbital fissures Blood vessels & nerves Optic foramen (optic nerve) Nasolacrimal canal (tear duct) Nasal cavity Nasal septum = vomer + ethmoid (perpendicular plate) Nasal conchae Inferior nasal concha individual bone Superior & middle nasal conchae ethmoid bone Increase surface area Other Skull Features Slide 19 18 Paranasal sinuses Open into nasal cavity Decrease skull weight & serve as resonating chambers during voice production Frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal, & sphenoidal Slide 20 19 Hyoid bone U-shaped Not part of skull No direct bony attachment to skull (attached by muscles & ligaments) Attachment site for tongue & larynx muscles (speech & swallowing) Slide 21 20 Slide 22 21 Vertebral Column Backbone Central axis of skeleton 5 regions: Cervical vertebrae (neck + to turn) (C1-C7) Thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12) Lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) Sacral (S) Coccygeal bone (CO) 4 curves: Cervical curves anteriorly Thoracic curves posteriorly Lumbar curves anteriorly Sacral & coccygeal curve posteriorly Slide 23 22 Functions of Vertebral Column Supports weight of head & trunk Protects spinal cord Allows spinal nerves to exit spinal cord Site for muscle attachment Permits head & trunk movement Slide 24 23 Vertebral Column Defects Lordosis abnormal anterior curvature Lumbar Swayback Kyphosis abnormal posterior curvature Usually upper thoracic Hunchback Scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature Slide 25 24 Vertebral Column Damage Herniated disk Compresses nerves Broken Tailbone Fractured coccyx Can occur during childbirth and from falls Slide 26 25 Vertebral Anatomy Body bears weight Intervertebral disks separate bodies; dense fibrous connective tissue Vertebral arch forms vertebral foramen Vertebral foramen houses spinal cord Vertebral canal formed by all vertebral foramina; spinal cord passage/protection Pedicle extend from body to transverse process (feet); forms part of vertebral arch Lamina extend from transverse process to spinous process; forms part of vertebral arch Slide 27 26 Transverse process extend laterally from the arch between pedicle & lamina Spinous process- project dorsally from laminae; can feel externally Intervertebral foramina- notches formed by adjacent vertebrae; spinal nerves exit here Articular process area of vertebral articulation Articular facet smooth surface articulates with ribs Vertebral Anatomy Slide 28 27 Differences in Vertebrae Cervical small bodies (except atlas) Transverse foramen on transverse process for vertebral arteries going to brain Some have split spinous processes Atlas 1 st vertebra holds up head Axis 2 nd vertebra allows rotation (dens) Slide 29 28 Differences in Vertebrae Thoracic Long, think spinous processes directed inferiorly Lateral articular facets for rib articulation Lumbar Large, thick bodies Heavy, rectangular transverse & spinous processes Medially facing superior articular facets (locks vertebrae together for stability) Slide 30 29 Differences in Vertebrae Sacrum 5 fused vertebrae Median sacral crest spinous processes on 1 st 4 vertebrae Sacral hiatus- inferior end of sacrum without a crest Site of anesthetic injection prior to childbirth Sacral promontory- bulge in anterior edge of body of 1 st vertebra in sacrum Palpated before childbirth to determine pelvic opening size Coccyx (tailbone) 4 fused vertebrae Reduced vertebral bodies No foramina or processes Slide 31 30 Thoracic Cage Rib cage Functions: Protects vital organs in thorax Prevents collapse of thorax during respiration Consists of: Thoracic vertebrae Ribs + associated cartilages Sternum Slide 32 31 Slide 33 32 Ribs & Costal Cartilages 12 pairs (24 total) Articulate with thoracic vertebrae True ribs (1-7) superior 7 attach to sternum via cartilage False ribs (8-12) inferior 5 do not directly attach to sternum Floating ribs (11-12) inferior 2 not attached to sternum at all Slide 34 33 Sternum Breastbone Three parts: Manubrium (handle) Jugular notch superior to manubrium; between clavicular articulations Body Sternal angle at junction of manubrium & body; locates 2 nd rib & used to find apex of heart Xiphoid process (sword) Used in CPR alignment Slide 35 34 Appendicular Skeleton, Joints & Movement Ch. 6 Appendicular = to hang something on Slide 36 35 Appendicular Skeleton 1.Pectoral girdle (scapulae & clavicle) 2.Upper limbs (arm, forearm, wrist, hand) 3.Pelvic girdle (2 coxae) 4.Lower limbs (thigh, leg, ankle, foot) Slide 37 36 Slide 38 37 Slide 39 38 Pectoral Girdle 2 scapulae Articulates with humerus 2 clavicles Articulates with sternum & scapula Slide 40 39 Upper Limb Arm Forearm Wrist Hand Slide 41 40 Upper Limb: Arm Humerus region between shoulder and elbow Slide 42 41 Upper Limb: Forearm Radius (lateral or thumb side) & Ulna (medial or little finger side) Slide 43 42 Upper Limb: Wrist & Hand Wrist region between forearm and hand 8 carpals Hand attached to carpals 5 metacarpals 5 digits 3 phalanges per finger (2 on thumb) Slide 44 43 Pelvic Girdle 2 coxae Coxa formed by 3 fused bones: ilium, ischium, pubis Sex differences: larger pelvic inlet and outlet in females, broader pelvis in females, greater subpubic angle in females (childbirth) Slide 45 44 Slide 46 45 Slide 47 46 Lower Limb Thigh Leg Ankle Foot Slide 48 47 Lower Limb: Thigh Femur region between hip and knee Articulates with coxa and tibia Patella Slide 49 48 Lower Limb: Leg Tibia (shin) and fibula Slide 50 49 Lower Limb: Foot & Ankle Ankle = 7 tarsals; articulates with tibia & fibula; calcaneus forms heel Foot = 5 metatarsals; 3 phalanges per digit (except great toe has 2) Slide 51 50 Joints or Articulations Articulation = place where two bones come together Classification methods: Function: Synarthrosis (non-movable) Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable) Diarthrosis (freely movable) Structure (connective tissue type): Fibrous (fibrous tissue) Cartilaginous (cartilage) Synovial (synovial fluid) Slide 52 51 1.Fibrous joints No movement Sutures in fetal skull 2.Cartilaginous joints Slight movements Epiphyseal plates, costal cartilage 3.Synovial joints Free movements Most joints (wrist, knee, shoulder, hip, etc