1. Background After WWII, U.S. and USSR emerge as rival superpowers Truman didn’t trust Stalin Stalin finds out U.S. tried to keep atomic bomb development

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  • BackgroundAfter WWII, U.S. and USSR emerge as rival superpowersTruman didnt trust StalinStalin finds out U.S. tried to keep atomic bomb development secret

    United Nations established in June, 1945*

  • Potsdam ConferenceJuly 1945Final conferenceBig ThreeEngland = AttleeUSA = TrumanUSSR = StalinStalin promised to allow free elections in Eastern Europe at Yalta Conference*

  • Satellite NationsCountries dominated by the Soviet Union

    Stalin never allowed truly free elections in PolandInstead, communist governments installed in Eastern European nations.WHY?Protect USSR from invasion from the West*

  • Containment PolicyGeorge Kennan, career Foreign Service Officer

    Formulated the policy of containment:US would contain communism where it already existed, not allow it to spread.

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  • The Iron CurtainWinston Churchill coined this term.Famous speech on March 5, 1946 at Westminster College, in Fulton, Missouri.Stalin declared Churchills words as a call to warAnnounces beginning of Cold Warhttp://www.c-span.org/video/?191439-6/iron-curtain-speech

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  • What is the Cold War?Conflict between U.S. and Soviet Union in which neither nation directly confronts each other on the battlefield.Dominates global affairs and U.S. foreign policy for next 60 years.*

  • Truman Doctrine March 12, 1947Greece & Turkey struggling economicallySupport by Britain until they ran out of moneyU.S. takes over as support Truman ask Congress for $400 million in economic and military aid for countries to reduce communist influencepolicy of the U.S. to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressureJune, 1947MARSHALL PLAN-provide aid to all European countries that need it*

  • Division of GermanyThe Allies decided to divide Germany into 4 zones after the war.Also, the capital of Berlin was divided into 4 sectors.*

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  • Problem with Berlin?Berlin was in the Soviet Sector.

    Stalin didnt want a small piece of democracy in Eastern Europe.What did he do? *

  • Berlin BlockadeJune 1948, Stalin attempts to starve West Berliners into submission.All rail and street access was blocked. *

  • Berlin AirliftAllied planes flew food and supplies into Berlin for 327 days.Operation Little Vittles dropped candy to childrenStalin lifted the Blockade by May 1949.*

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  • North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNATO was established by a treaty in 1949This organization established a system of collective defense where its members pledged military support in case any member was attacked.Original members were:United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg. Greece (1952), West Germany (1955)*

  • The Warsaw PactCommunist Response to NATO.Signed on May 1, 1955 in Warsaw, PolandMilitary treaty, which bound its signatories to come to the aid of the others, should any one of them be the victim of foreign aggression. Original Members:Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Rumania, the USSR, and the Czechoslovak Republic.

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  • *Cold War in Asia

  • Struggle for ChinaMao Zedong communist statePeasant supportRead, improve work

    Chiang Kai ShekNationalist governmentfought to stop the communistsbacked by U.S.corrupt

    *CIVIL WARU.S. tried to mediateMay, 1949 Chiang flee to Taiwan (Formosa)

    U.S. refuses to recognize new government under Mao Peoples Republic of China

  • Korean War June 25, 1950North Korea crosses the 38th ParallelKorean War begins

    June 27Truman ordered troops stationed in Japan to support South KoreaUnited Nations - 16 nations sent 520,000 troops / aid90% - American troopsGeneral Douglas MacArthur = commander of all forces

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  • U.S. FightsNorth Korea = Unstoppable at firstDriving deep into South Korea

    MacArthur launched a surprise counterattackSurrounded troopsPushed North Korean troops across line and deep into North Korea

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  • China Fights BackChinas foreign minister warnedhis country would not stand idly by and let the Americans come to the border

    November 1950300,000 Chinese troops joined the war Wanted North Korea as a communist buffer state

    Main opponents of war changedChina v. U.S.

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  • ContinuedChinese outnumbered UN forces10 to 1

    UN and South Korean troops pushed out of North KoreaLost control of South Korean Capital Seoul

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  • MacArthur1951MacArthur wants to attack ChinaNuclear weapons = Chinese citiesTruman rejected ideaSoviet Union = mutual-assistance pact with ChinaDid not want to start WWIII

    Wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy

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  • MacArthur Verses TrumanMacArthur continued to urge full scale war against ChinaTried to go over presidents headSpoke / wrote privately to newspapers / magazinesRefused warnings to follow orders

    April 11, 1951Truman fired MacArthur

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  • StalemateJune 23, 1951Soviet Union suggested cease-fire = truce

    Reached an agreementCease fire line = 38th paralleldemilitarized zone

    Spent another year arguing over POWs

    July 1953Signed an armisticeEnding the War

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  • ContinuedAgreement = StalemateCommunism had been containedNo use of atomic weaponsKorea = 2 nations54,000 American causalitiesCost = $67 Billion

    Increased fear of Communism in United States

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  • Loyalty Review BoardSet up by President Truman in March 1947.Purpose?Investigate Federal government employees and dismiss those disloyal to US212 dismissed*

  • House on Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)1947= House of Representatives

    Investigate Communist influence in the movie industry*

  • Hollywood Ten10 Hollywood screenwriters and directors who refused to testify before HUAC.Charged with contempt of Congress.Claimed 1st Amendment right of free speech*

  • Spy Cases Shock the USDuring the late 1940s and early 1950s, America was rocked by sensational stories of Americans spying for the Soviet Union.*

  • Alger HissHiss worked for the US State Department.Accused of being a spy for the USSR.Found guilty of perjury.Later (1990s) Hiss was proven to be a spy for the USSR.*

  • The RosenbergsAmerican Communists who were found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American nuclear bomb to the Soviet Union. The couple were executed at sundown in the electric chair at Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York, on June 19, 1953. *

  • McCarthyismSenator Joe McCarthy became the most famous anti-Communist activist.Used the issue to help win re-election in 1950.*

  • McCarthys TacticsMade one unsupported accusation after another.He would bully witnesses.McCarthyism - unfair tactic of accusing people of disloyalty without providing evidence*

  • Change in LeadersThe early 1950s saw a change in leaders in both the US and USSR.USA = Dwight Eisenhower wins the election of 1952

    USSR = Nikita Khruschev takes over when Stalin dies in 1953.*

  • Hydrogen BombUS exploded the 1stH-bomb on November 1, 1952 in South Pacific. That bomb completely destroyed one island and left a crater 175 feet deep. Russians exploded on in August of 1953.*

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  • BrinkmanshipDefined as willingness to push nation to the brink of nuclear war to keep peace

    Policy advocated by John Foster Dulles; Secretary of State.*

  • Central Intelligence Agency Used spies to gather information abroadBegan to carry out covert operations to weaken or overthrow governments unfriendly to the United States.*

  • Suez War -1956Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal and would not allow ships headed for Israel to pass through all nations were supposed to have access.French, English, Israeli force attacked Egypt.After discussion, the canal opened.*

  • Hungarian Uprising 1956The Hungarian people, tired of Soviet domination in their country, rose in revolt and called for a democratic government.The Soviet response was swift and brutal:*

  • USSR Crushes RebellionSoviet tanks rolled into Hungary and killed 30,000 Hungarians and executed the resistance leader Imre Nagy.

    US and UN did nothing to help.*

  • Space Race On October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I.The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball.Orbited the earth in 98 minutes.*Race to control space was on!

  • U-2 IncidentU-2 high altitude reconnaissance plane.CIA -- spy on USSR shot down on May 1, 1960DENIED BY EISENHOWER*

  • Francis Gary PowersRecruited by CIA to fly spy missions.Pilot shot down in U2 over USSR and convicted of espionage.Exchanged for a KGB colonel the US had captured.*