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1 Early Adulthood Personality & Sociocultural Development Love Marriage Work

1 Early Adulthood Personality & Sociocultural Development Love Marriage Work

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Page 1: 1 Early Adulthood Personality & Sociocultural Development Love Marriage Work

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Early AdulthoodPersonality & Sociocultural Development

• Love

• Marriage

• Work

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The Personal Self

1- Abraham Maslow

2- Carl Rogers

3- EriK Erikson

4- Three basic Identity Styles

5- Lois Hoffman

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1- Abraham Maslow

• Emphasized needs

• The goal is self actualization

• The hierarchy of needs

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Abraham Maslow• Hierarchy of Needs

1- Safety & Physiological Needs

2- Emotional & Psychological Needs

3- Self-acctualization

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What Are Self-Acctualizers Like?

• Tend to be realistic• Have sense of humor• Creative• Have a positive self-concept• Are not necessarily perfect• Aren’t necessarily happy all the time• It is a lifelong quest that can never be

fully satisfied

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2- Carl Rogers

• Conditions of Worth

An individual who internalizes such conditions develops low self-esteem, a sense of failure, and recurrent anxiety and despair.

• Unconditional Positive Regard

Being warmly accepting without reservations or conditions

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3- Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage of Development

Intimacy-versus

Isolation

Stage

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4- Three Basic Identity Styles

1- Those who unrealistically prefer to see themselves as unchanging.

2- Those who are predominantly accommodative and too changeable as a result of experiences.

3- Those who are balanced and realistically “integrate’ both positive and negative experiences into their identities.

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5- Lois Hoffman (1984)Transition from the Family Adults Grow

in, to the Family they May Create

1- Emotional Independence

2- Attitudinal Independence

3- Functional Independence

4- Conflictual Independence

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Love and Relationships

• Maybe God wants us to meet a few wrong people before meeting the right one so that when we finally meet the right person, we will know how to be grateful for that gift.

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Aspects of IntimacyErik Erikson

• Selflessness Sacrifice of one’s own

needs for others

• Sexuality Joint pleasure for the

gratification of one’s self

and one’s partner

• Devotion Fusing one’s identity

with one’s partner

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Separation AnxietyMary Ainsworth

• The Strange Situation Experiment

Three Categories of Children

1-Securely attached

2-Avoidant

3-Anxious-ambivalent

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Causes for Insecure Attachment

• 1-The Child’s temperament and genetic disposition

• 2-The child’s family circumstances

• 3-Later stressful events in childhood

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Attachment Styles in AdultsPhilip Shaver

• Securely Attachment Style

• Avoidant Attachment Style

• Anxious-ambivalent Style

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• Which comes first,

cognition or emotion?

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How Thoughts Create EmotionsGregorio Maranon

• 1924• Generating emotions by injecting subjects

with epinephrine• 30% of subjects reported feeling genuine

emotions• More than 70% reported physical

changes. (My heart is beating fast, my throat feels

tight.)

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How Thoughts Create EmotionsGregorio Maranon

• Emotion involves:

• 1- Physical component – bodily changes accompanying the state of arousal

• 2- Psychological or mental component – consisting of the interpretation the individual gives to the physical changes.

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The Story of Emotion

Sensory Information

Amygdala makes a decision to react

Sends alarm signals to adrenal gland

Sends epinephrine & norepinephrine

Activate sympathetic nervous system

Produces a state of arousal

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The Six Styles of LoveJohn Alan Lee

• 1-Eros (romantic, passionate love)

• 2-Ludus (game-playing love)

• 3-Storge (affectionate, friendly love)

• 4-Pragma (logical, pragmatic love)

• 5-Mania (possessive, dependent, “crazy” love)

• 6-Agape (unselfish love)

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Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love

• The Intimacy Component

• The Passion Component

• The Decision/Commitment Component

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Sternberg’s Triangular Theory(8 Components of Love)

Intimacy Passion CommitmentNonlove - - -Liking + -

-

Infatuated - + -Empty - - +Romantic + + -Companionate + - +Fatuous - + +Consommate + + +

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Marriage

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Marriage

• “Be subject to one another out of reverence for Christ. Wives be subject to your husbands, as to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, His body, and is Himself its Savior”

(Ephesians 5:21-23)

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Marriage

• “Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the church and gave Himself up for her, that he might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word, that He might present the church to Himself in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy without blemish.”

(Ephesians 5:25:27)

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Conditional Love

• I want to live for the rest of my life• With you, my dearest lovely wife,• But if you defy me in any way,• I will not be compelled to stay.• You would be testing my reliability,• And it would be your responsibility.

• Forever, you will be • My bride and I’m your bridegroom• As long as, with me, you agree,• But you can certainly be

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Conditional Love

• The architect of your doom• If, eye to eye, we don’t see. • I will show goodness ’n kindness

• If, your duties, you don’t forsake,• But I’m not a paragon of forgiveness• When it comes to mistake after mistake.• And last but not least, • I don’t like to be pushed to the max,• But my dearest wife, relax• ’Cause if you do everything you should,• I will be a husband, gentle and good.

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Marital ChoiceSimulus-Value-Role Theory

Bernard Murstein• The Stimulus Stage

• Relationships are built on surface, physical characteristics. (First encounter)

• The Value Stage

• Increasing similarity of values and beliefs

• The Role Stage

• Relationships are built on roles played by the participants. (boyfriend/girlfriend)

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What DeterminesCompatibility

• Homogamy The tendency to marry someone who is

similar in age, race, education, and other characteristics.

• The Marriage Gradient The tendency to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller and lower in status, and women to marry men who are

slightly older, larger and higher in status.

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Why Do Couples Choose to Marry?

• Appropriate culmination of love

• The right thing to do after reaching a particular age

• Significant emotional, financial, and health benefits

• Filling a sexual role

• Therapeutic and recreational role

• Offers children

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Early Marital Conflict

• Initial idealization of partner and then becoming aware of flaws

• Difficulty making the transition from children to autonomous adults

• Difficulty developing an identity apart from spouse

• A baggage from the past

• Poor communication skills

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Early Marital Conflict

• Working hard to change the other person

• Focusing on one’s own needs

• Setting high expectations

• Holding a grudge

• Mismanaging of time

• Roles are not well-defined

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“Unless the Lord builds the house, those who build it labor in vain.”

(Psalms 127:1)

“Be angry but do not sin; do not let the sun go down on your anger.”

(Ephesians 4:26)

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Cohabitation

• The census bureau calls people living together POSSLQs (Persons of the Opposite Sex Sharing Living Quarters)

• Tend to be young.

• Almost 40% are under 25

• If the couple chooses to get married, their chances of divorce are higher

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Why Cohabitation and Not Marriage?

• Not ready to make a lifelong commitment

• Provides practice for marriage

• Some reject the institution of marriage

• Trying to maintain benefits (disability, welfare, child support)

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Divorce

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The Transition to Parenthood

1- Changes in identity and inner life

2- Shifts in roles and relationships within the marriage

3- Shifts in generational roles and relationships

4- Changing roles and relationships outside the family

5- New parenting roles and relationships

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Galinsky (1980)Coping with Children’s Developmental

Stages1- Image-Making Stage (conception to

birth)

2- Nurturing Stage (birth to 2 years)

3- Authority Stage (2 to 5)

4- Interpretive Stage (middle childhood)

5- Interdependence Stage (adolescence)

6- Departure Stage (grown children)

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Work

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Holland’s Personality Types Theory

Realistic Farmers, laborers, truck drivers

Intellectual Careers in math and science

Social Salesmen, teachers, counselors

Conventional Clerks, secretaries, bank tellers

Enterprising Managers, politicians,

Artistic Occupations involving arts

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Motivation to Work

• Satisfaction on the job

• The job itself

• Variety

• Influence over others

• Supportive relationships

• Useful feedback

• Opportunities offered

• Clear and consistent rules

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Why Do People Work?

• 1- Extrinsic Rewards

• 2- Intrinsic Rewards

• 3- Personal Identity

• 4- Social Lives

• 5- Status

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The Occupational Cycle

• A variable sequence of periods or stages in a worker’s life, from occupational exploration and choice, through education and training, novice status, promotions and more experienced periods.

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Robert Havighurst (1964)Stages of Vocational Life

1- Identification with the worker (5-10)

2- Acquiring basic habits of industry (10-15)

3- Acquiring an identity as a worker (15-25)

4- Becoming a productive person (25-40)

5- Maintaining a productive society (40-70)

6- Contemplating a productive and responsible life (70 on)