10 Early Adulthood Young Adulthood

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    7 Periods of

    Development

    4) Adolescence

    (prepubescence)

    (pubescence)

    (postpubecence)

    10-18 yrs female

    12-20 yrs male

    (2 yrs before onset)

    (4 yrs-hormones)

    (final 2 yrs)

    5)Young adulthood 18-40 yrs

    6) Middle adulthood 40-65 yrs

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    8 Periods of the Life

    Span

    AGE PERIOD MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS

    Young

    Adulthood

    (20 to 40 yrs)

    Physical health peaks, then declines

    slightly.

    Cognitive abilities assume morecomplexity.

    Decisions are made about intimate

    relationships.

    Most people marry, most become

    parents.

    Career choices are made.

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    7) PUBERTY or PREADOLESCENCE ten or

    twelve to thirteen or fourteen years

    8) ADOLESCENCE thirteen or fourteen to

    eighteen years

    9) EARLY ADULTHOOD - eighteen to forty years

    10) MIDDLE AGE forty to sixty years11) OLD AGE or SENESCENCE sixty years to

    death

    10 Stages in the

    Life Span

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    HavighurtsDevelopmental Tasks During

    The Life Span

    Early Adulthood: Getting started in an occupation

    Selecting a mate

    Learning to live with a marriage partner

    Starting a family

    Rearing children

    Managing a home

    Taking a civic responsibility

    Finding a congenial social group

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    ADULTHOOD

    adultusgrown to full size and strength

    Individuals who have completed theirgrowth & are ready to assume their status

    in society. Subdivided into three stages:

    Early adulthood ( 18 to 40 yrs)

    Begin to loss reproductive capability

    Middle adulthood (middle age) 40 to 60 yrs

    Physical & mental decline

    Late adulthood (old age) sixty to death

    Medical advances extends

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    EARLY

    ADULTHOOD Characteristics:

    1) Settling down age

    - too early (career & life partner) leads to discontent

    - dependent on two factors:

    >how soon they find a suitable lifestyle that

    satisfies their present & future needs> the willingness to assume the responsibility

    - once one decides upon the pattern of life that theythink will meet their needs, they develop patterns

    of behavior, attitudes and values.

    2) Reproductive age

    - parenthood

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    Early Adulthood

    Characteristics:3) Problem age

    - difficulty adjustment: poor preparation/coping,

    multiple roles, no help in meeting/solving problems.

    4) Period of Emotional Tension

    - worries: work, marital or parenthood

    5) Period of Social Isolation

    - from friendliness of adolescence to competitivenessof the successful adult

    6) Period of Commitments

    7) Period of Dependency

    - perpetual students

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    Early Adulthood

    Characteristics:

    8) Period of Value change

    - some common reasons:

    a. acceptance in a social group ( appearance)

    (conventional values and behavior)

    b. being married or becoming a parent

    predisposes to being more socially

    conscious and concerned

    9) Period of Adjustments to New lifestyles

    - egalitarian vs. traditional sex roles; new family-life

    patterns, new vocational patterns

    10) Creative age

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    DEVELOPMENTAL

    TASKS

    Getting started with a occupation

    Selecting a mate

    Learning to live with a marriage partner Starting a family

    Rearing children

    Managing a home

    Finding civic responsibility

    Finding a congenial social group

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    Mastery of

    Developmental Tasks

    Physical efficiency

    - peaks mid-twenties, then slow gradual decline into forties

    Motor abilities

    - Peak strength between 20 & 30 yrs- Maximum speed of response between 20 & 25 yrs

    - Learning new motor skills, superior in early 20s

    Mental abilities

    - recall of previously learned material, reasoning by analogy,creative thinking peaks early 20s

    Motivation- regarded as independent adults

    Role model - varies

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    INTERESTS in

    ADULTHOOD

    Conditions that predispose to changes in

    interest:

    Health condition

    Economic status Life patterns

    Values

    Sex-role changes

    Marital statue Assumption of parental role

    Preferences

    Cultural and environmental pressures

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    Personal interests

    Appearance

    Acceptance of their physiques & maximizing it

    Wane in the late twenties due to pressures inbusiness & family affairs, but resume once

    signs of aging set in (weight, sagging chins,

    graying hair, protruding abdomen)

    Clothes and personal adornment

    Improvement of appearance Indication of social status

    Individuality

    Socioeconomic success

    Sex appropriateness

    Interests In

    Adulthood

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    Symbols of maturity

    Status

    Money

    Religion Recreational Interests

    Activities that renews strength & refreshes

    spirit after toil or anxiety

    Talking , dancing, sports & games,entertaining, amusements, hobbies

    Interests In

    Adulthood

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    Moving from one social group to another

    Either social or vertical:

    Higher educational level

    Marriage to higher status person Family pull in the vocational world

    Acceptance & adoption of customs, values& symbols or the higher social group

    Money Transfer to a higher-status church

    SOCIAL

    MOBILITY

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    Active participation in prestigious

    community affairs

    Graduation from a prestigious school or

    college Membership in one or more exclusive

    community clubs

    Social Mobility

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    A high socioecenomic status

    A higher level of education than the majority of

    the group

    A realistic self-concept

    Realistic goals

    A high frustration tolerance

    The ability to express hostility tactfully

    The ability to accept succes or failure gracefully The ability & willingness to accept authority

    The ability & willingness to communicate with

    others

    A willingness to work for the group rather thanself

    Important Qualities

    of Adult Leaders

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    SEX ROLE

    ADJUSTMENTS

    Traditional vs Egalitarian concepts

    Men

    Male supremacy at home: wage earner,decision maker, adviser & disciplinarian of

    children; positions of authority & prestige

    outside the home.

    Works together in a companionship

    relationship, treats women as equals; notashamed if wife has more prestigious or

    remunerative job.

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    Women

    Role is other-oriented, fulfillment is based on

    serving others. Not expected to work outside

    home except on cases of financial

    necessity, and then does work that servesothers ( nursing, teaching or secretarial

    work.

    Able to actualize her own potentials without

    feeling guilty about using her abilities &training to achieve satisfaction, even if

    requires employing someone else to take

    care of home/children.

    Sex Role

    Adjustments

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    PERSONAL &

    SOCIAL HAZARDS

    Physical hazards

    - poor health; physical defects

    Religious

    - adjustments to new religious faith; mixed marriages

    Social

    - difficulty to be with a congenial social group;

    dissatisfaction with the role the social groups; social

    mobility

    Sex-role

    - Men: false practices to assert masculinity

    - Women: minority-group complex, trapped marriage

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    VOCATIONAL

    ADJUSTMENTS

    Common Attitudes:

    Society-maintaining Work Attitudes

    - have little or no interests in their work per se & gainlittle personal satisfaction

    - paychecks is the main interest

    - regard jobs as heavy & unpleasant burdens, looksforward to retirement time

    Ego-involving Work Attitudes

    - derives great personal satisfaction; work is a basis ofself-respect & sense of worth.

    - means of gaining prestige, a locus of social participationor source of intrinsic enjoyment or creative self-expression.

    - may become preoccupied to the exclusion of other

    interests; dreads retirement.

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    FAMILY

    ADJUSTMENTS

    Marital Adjustments

    Parenthood Adjustments

    Singlehood Adjustments

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