prev

next

out of 56

Published on

06-Apr-2018View

213Download

0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

1/56

11

Ten Tips for Effective ProblemTen Tips for Effective ProblemSolvingSolving

Using Corporate Knowledge and the Laws OfUsing Corporate Knowledge and the Laws Of

Physics In ProblemPhysics In Problem--solvingsolving

Jay ZhouJay ZhouSenior Technical LeaderSenior Technical Leader

January 28, 2009January 28, 2009

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

2/56

22

SynopsisSynopsis

Ten Tips for Effective Problem SolvingTen Tips for Effective Problem Solving

Apply conventional problemApply conventional problem--solving toolssolving toolsmore effectively by using the approachesmore effectively by using the approachesof science and engineering, with a healthyof science and engineering, with a healthydose of mathematics and a framework ofdose of mathematics and a framework ofcorporate knowledge.corporate knowledge.

Aim to properly scope out a problem,Aim to properly scope out a problem,analyze root causes, and prevent problemanalyze root causes, and prevent problemrecurrence.recurrence.

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

3/56

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

4/56

44

All U.S.All U.S.--based Warranty Providers:based Warranty Providers:

Claims Paid WorldwideClaims Paid Worldwide

Source: Warranty Week from SEC data, http://www.warrantyweek.com/archive/ww20080326.html

Warranty Claims in Billion

$25.10

$27.00 $27.90

$28.30

$24.20

$20

$22

$24

$26

$28

$30

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

$Billions

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

5/56

55

All U.S. Manufacturers ClaimsAll U.S. Manufacturers Claims

Paid, 2007Paid, 2007

6%5%

18%

7%

3%

2%2%

2%

2%

5%

3%3%

2%

0%

40%

Auto OEM

Auto Parts

Aerospace

Computer

Telecom Equip

Semi & PCB

Consumer Elec

Medical & Sci Eq

Data Storage

Peripherals

Appl &HVAC

Homebuilders

Build Materials

Power Gen

Other

Auto OEM

Computer

Source: Warranty Week from SEC data, http://www.warrantyweek.com/archive/ww20080410.html

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

6/56

66

Opportunities for Problem SolvingOpportunities for Problem Solving

and Problem Preventionand Problem Prevention

Do we need more effective problem solving?

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

7/56

77

Examples of Tools and MethodsExamples of Tools and Methods

Six SigmaSix Sigma DMAICDMAIC

Six SigmaSix Sigma DFSSDFSS

8D Problem Solving8D Problem SolvingTaguchi Robust DesignTaguchi Robust Design

Shainin TechniquesShainin Techniques

TRIZTRIZ Inventive Problem SolvingInventive Problem Solving

Do we have enough tools for problem solving?

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

8/56

88

Six SigmaSix Sigma -- DMAICDMAIC

Average: 1.11426StDev: 0.183334

N: 31

Anderson-Darling Normality TestA-Squared: 1.899

P-Value: 0.000

0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

.001

.01

.05

.20

.50

.80

.95

.99

.999

Probability

ATC-R-S1

Normal Probability Plot

0.001(ohm)

Y.S.Lian

Apr.1,'0 3

Resistance Mater

Misc:

Tolerance:

Reported by:

Date of study:

Gage name:

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

21

Xbar Chart by Operators

SampleMean

Mean=1.453UCL=1.458LCL=1.448

0.010

0.005

0.000

21

R Chart by Operators

SampleRange

R=0.0028

UCL=0.009148

LCL=0

21

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

Operators

By Operators

543215432121

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

PartsOperators

By Parts (Operators)

%Contribution

%Study Var

%Tolerance

Part-to-PartReprodRepeatGageR&R

200

100

0

Components of Variation

Percent

Gage R&R of Resistance Mater(With Temperature Compensation)DefineDefine

MeasureMeasure

AnalyzeAnalyzeImplementImplement

ControlControl

A Proven Technique Aimed at Process Improvement

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

9/56

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

10/56

1010

Engineers and EngineeringEngineers and Engineering

"Engineers apply the principles of science"Engineers apply the principles of science

and mathematics to develop economicaland mathematics to develop economical

solutions to technical problems".solutions to technical problems". U. S.U. S.

Department of Labor , Bureau of LaborDepartment of Labor , Bureau of Labor

StatisticsStatistics

We need to get back to the basics and physicsWe need to get back to the basics and physics

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

11/56

1111

Ten Tips for Problem SolvingTen Tips for Problem Solving

1.1. What is the problem?What is the problem?

2.2. Where is the problem?Where is the problem?

3.3. When was the problem?When was the problem?

4.4. How big is the problem?How big is the problem?5.5. Understand the systemUnderstand the system

6.6. Understand the physicsUnderstand the physics

7.7. Find the experts & expertiseFind the experts & expertise

8.8. Find the existing solutionsFind the existing solutions9.9. Verify and validate the solutionsVerify and validate the solutions

10.10. Prevent problem recurrencePrevent problem recurrence

Science

Mathematics

Engineering Tools and

Methods

Knowledge

Apply conventional problemApply conventional problem--solving tools more effectively bysolving tools more effectively byusing the approaches of science & engineering, with a healthyusing the approaches of science & engineering, with a healthydose of mathematics and a framework of corporate knowledgedose of mathematics and a framework of corporate knowledge

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

12/56

1212

1. What Is the Problem?1. What Is the Problem?

ConsiderConsider

GeometriesGeometries11

PropertiesProperties11

DefectsDefects11

EnergyEnergy11

DesignDesignManufacturing ProcessesManufacturing Processes

1 & 2 - ASQ Automotive Excellence, 2008

WhyAsk Why When You Should Ask What 2

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

13/56

1313

1. What Is the Problem?1. What Is the Problem?

Problem TypeProblem Type ExamplesExamples

GeometryGeometry Roundness, Concentricity;Roundness, Concentricity;

Length, width, heightLength, width, heightPropertyProperty Elastic buckling, Viscosity,Elastic buckling, Viscosity,

Fracture Strength, ShearFracture Strength, Shear

Strength, Tensile StrengthStrength, Tensile Strength

DefectDefect Contamination, dirt, scratchesContamination, dirt, scratches

EnergyEnergy Impact failureImpact failure

Understanding the problem type helps to select a proper tool

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

14/56

1414

More Examples of FailureMore Examples of Failure

SAE 961794

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

15/56

1515

2. Where Is the Problem?2. Where Is the Problem?

ConsiderConsider

Location of the problemLocation of the problem

Climate and seasonClimate and seasonCustomer demographicsCustomer demographics

Commercial vs. retailsCommercial vs. retails

Determine the problem space and isolate the problem

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

16/56

1616

2. Where Is the Problem?2. Where Is the Problem?

Consider the locations of:Consider the locations of:

Product assemblyProduct assembly

Material processMaterial processComponent manufacturingComponent manufacturing

Determine the problem space and further isolate the problem

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

17/56

1717

2. Where Is the Problem?2. Where Is the Problem?

Consider the logistics of:Consider the logistics of:

TransportationTransportation

Inspection centersInspection centersDealers, shopsDealers, shops

Determine the problem space and further fence around theproblem

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

18/56

1818

2. Where Is the Problem?2. Where Is the Problem?

Component Supplier Transportation

Transportation

Product Assembly

Transportation

Sea ShipPort

Port Happy Customer

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

19/56

1919

3. When Did the Problem Happen?3. When Did the Problem Happen?

Consider the time whenConsider the time when

Material was processedMaterial was processed

Product was assembledProduct was assembledComponent was manufacturedComponent was manufactured

Determine the start and end points of the problem andsegregate any product produced during that time

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

20/56

2020

3. When Did the Problem Happen?3. When Did the Problem Happen?

Consider the time ofConsider the time of

TransportationTransportation

Sale or registrationSale or registrationProblem occurringProblem occurring

Problem Occur

Product Built

Component Built

Sold at

Dealer

Transportation

Materials Processed

Time

Define the Problem Timeline: component vs product

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

21/56

2121

4. How Big Is the Problem?4. How Big Is the Problem?

Quantify the problem:Quantify the problem:

By problem/100 (/1000)By problem/100 (/1000)

By time in serviceBy time in serviceBy production monthBy production month

By sale monthBy sale month

By regionBy regionBy seasonBy season

It helps to determine the root causes

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

22/56

2222

4. How Big Is the Problem?4. How Big Is the Problem?

P/1000 vs Months In Service

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

Month In Service

P/1000

It helps to determine the effect of the product age

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

23/56

2323

4. How Big Is the Problem?4. How Big Is the Problem?

P/1000 vs. MOP aligns product/process changes to MOP

P/1000 vs Month of Production

0

5

10

15

20

25

J F M A M J J A S O N D

Month of Production

P/1000

Tie physical changes (design or process) to P/1000

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

24/56

2424

4. How Big Is the Problem4. How Big Is the Problem

P/1000 vs. MOS determines if seasonality effects exist

P/1000 vs Month of Sale

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

J F M A M J J A S O N D

Month of Sale

P/1000

Tie P/1000 to the Seasonality

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

25/56

2525

4. How Big Is the Problem?4. How Big Is the Problem?

Example of Failure RateExample of Failure Rate

Consider failure rate:Consider failure rate:

DecreasingDecreasing

ConstantConstantIncreasingIncreasing

DetermineDetermine

InfantInfant

RandomRandom

Wear outWear outt

H(t)

DFR

CFRIFR

Failure rate helps to determine a problem type

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

26/56

2626

5. Understand the System5. Understand the System

What kind of system?What kind of system?

MechanicalMechanical

ElectricalElectricalHydraulicHydraulic

ThermalThermal

ChemicalChemicalMagneticMagnetic

A ParameterDiagram helps

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

27/56

2727

Parameter DiagramParameter Diagram

SystemInputIdeal

Function

NoiseFactors

ControlFactors

FailureModes

Its essential to understand these parameters

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

28/56

2828

Input and Ideal FunctionInput and Ideal Function

SystemsSystems InputInput Ideal FunctionIdeal Function

MechanicalMechanical ForceForce VelocityVelocity

TorqueTorque Angular velocityAngular velocity

ElectricalElectrical VoltageVoltage CurrentCurrent

HydraulicHydraulic PressurePressure Volume flow rateVolume flow rate

ThermalThermal TemperatureTemperature Entropy change rateEntropy change rate

PressurePressure Volume change rateVolume change rateChemicalChemical Chemical potentialChemical potential Mole flow rateMole flow rate

EnthalpyEnthalpy Mass flow rateMass flow rate

MagneticMagnetic MagnetoMagneto--motive forcemotive force Magnetic fluxMagnetic flux

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

29/56

2929

Function vs. TimeFunction vs. Time

Time

Function

Ideal Function

No Function

0 %

100%

Function

Ideal Function

Partial Function

0 %

100%

Over Function

80%

120%

Time

No FunctionNo Function Over or Partial FunctionOver or Partial Function

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

30/56

3030

Function vs. TimeFunction vs. Time

Function

Ideal Function

Degraded Function b)

0 %

100%

Degraded Function a)

Time Time

Function

Ideal Function

Intermittent Function

0 %

100%

Degraded FunctionDegraded Function Intermittent FunctionIntermittent Function

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

31/56

3131

6. Understand the Physics6. Understand the Physics

What kind of physics behind?What kind of physics behind?

KineticKinetic

DynamicDynamicChemical reactionChemical reaction

Thermal dynamicThermal dynamic

Electrical and electronicsElectrical and electronicsFluid mechanicsFluid mechanics

Determine which discipline of science is in work

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

32/56

3232

6. Understand the Physics6. Understand the Physics --

ExampleExample

PhysicsPhysics: Air is: Air is

compressible. Water iscompressible. Water is

not compressible.not compressible.

Potential problemPotential problem: an: an

engine connecting rodengine connecting rod

may bend when watermay bend when water

enters a cylinder.enters a cylinder.

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

33/56

3333

6. Understand the Physics6. Understand the Physics --

ExampleExample

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

34/56

3434

6. Understand the Physics:6. Understand the Physics:

ExampleExample

PhysicsPhysics: the air pressure: the air pressure

increases within anincreases within an

automotive lamp w/oautomotive lamp w/o

vents when temperaturevents when temperatureincreases.increases.

Potential problemPotential problem: the: the

adhesive may fail andadhesive may fail and

leaks may happen.leaks may happen.

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

35/56

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

36/56

3636

7. Find the Experts and Expertise7. Find the Experts and Expertise

Tap the experts throughTap the experts through

NetworkingNetworking

Technical ClubsTechnical ClubsCorporate Yellow PagesCorporate Yellow Pages

Technical Specialist DatabaseTechnical Specialist Database

Office of Technical FellowsOffice of Technical Fellows

Utilize Corporate Knowledge

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

37/56

3737

7. Find the Experts7. Find the Experts -- ExampleExample

____________________________________________________________________________________________

From:From: Wright, Philip (P.A.)Wright, Philip (P.A.)Sent:Sent: Tuesday, November 25, 2008 1:37 AMTuesday, November 25, 2008 1:37 AMTo:To: Cavallaro, Andrea (A.); Zhou, Jay (J.)Cavallaro, Andrea (A.); Zhou, Jay (J.)

Subject:Subject: RE: Glass ScratchesRE: Glass Scratches

Jay, do you know if any of the TS's have expertise in this?.Jay, do you know if any of the TS's have expertise in this?.

CheersCheers

Phil WrightPhil Wright

Quality DirectorQuality DirectorAsia Pacific and AfricaAsia Pacific and Africa

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

38/56

3838

Located Tech Specialists, Karry Roberts, TomLocated Tech Specialists, Karry Roberts, TomPearson, and Frank Maslar, who helped out.Pearson, and Frank Maslar, who helped out.____________________________________________________________________________________________

From:From: Wright, Philip (P.A.)Wright, Philip (P.A.)Sent:Sent: Tuesday, November 25, 2008 9:33 PMTuesday, November 25, 2008 9:33 PMTo:To: Zhou, Jay (J.)Zhou, Jay (J.)Subject:Subject: RE: Glass ScratchesRE: Glass Scratches

Thanks Jay, great response.Thanks Jay, great response.

I need you use your contacts more.I need you use your contacts more.

cheers.cheers.

Phil WrightPhil Wright

7. Find the Experts7. Find the Experts -- ExampleExample

8/3/2019 10 Tips Solving Problem

39/56

3939

7. Find the Experts and Expertise7. Find the Experts and Expertise --

ExamplesExamples

Fatigue experts for durability problemsFatigue experts for durability problems

NVH experts for wind noise problemsNVH experts for wind noise problems

Glass experts for scratch problemsGlass experts for scratch problemsSPC experts for process control problemsSPC experts for process control proble...