10 Tips Solving Problem

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    Ten Tips for Effective ProblemTen Tips for Effective ProblemSolvingSolving

    Using Corporate Knowledge and the Laws OfUsing Corporate Knowledge and the Laws Of

    Physics In ProblemPhysics In Problem--solvingsolving

    Jay ZhouJay ZhouSenior Technical LeaderSenior Technical Leader

    January 28, 2009January 28, 2009

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    SynopsisSynopsis

    Ten Tips for Effective Problem SolvingTen Tips for Effective Problem Solving

    Apply conventional problemApply conventional problem--solving toolssolving toolsmore effectively by using the approachesmore effectively by using the approachesof science and engineering, with a healthyof science and engineering, with a healthydose of mathematics and a framework ofdose of mathematics and a framework ofcorporate knowledge.corporate knowledge.

    Aim to properly scope out a problem,Aim to properly scope out a problem,analyze root causes, and prevent problemanalyze root causes, and prevent problemrecurrence.recurrence.

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    All U.S.All U.S.--based Warranty Providers:based Warranty Providers:

    Claims Paid WorldwideClaims Paid Worldwide

    Source: Warranty Week from SEC data, http://www.warrantyweek.com/archive/ww20080326.html

    Warranty Claims in Billion

    $25.10

    $27.00 $27.90

    $28.30

    $24.20

    $20

    $22

    $24

    $26

    $28

    $30

    2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

    $Billions

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    All U.S. Manufacturers ClaimsAll U.S. Manufacturers Claims

    Paid, 2007Paid, 2007

    6%5%

    18%

    7%

    3%

    2%2%

    2%

    2%

    5%

    3%3%

    2%

    0%

    40%

    Auto OEM

    Auto Parts

    Aerospace

    Computer

    Telecom Equip

    Semi & PCB

    Consumer Elec

    Medical & Sci Eq

    Data Storage

    Peripherals

    Appl &HVAC

    Homebuilders

    Build Materials

    Power Gen

    Other

    Auto OEM

    Computer

    Source: Warranty Week from SEC data, http://www.warrantyweek.com/archive/ww20080410.html

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    Opportunities for Problem SolvingOpportunities for Problem Solving

    and Problem Preventionand Problem Prevention

    Do we need more effective problem solving?

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    Examples of Tools and MethodsExamples of Tools and Methods

    Six SigmaSix Sigma DMAICDMAIC

    Six SigmaSix Sigma DFSSDFSS

    8D Problem Solving8D Problem SolvingTaguchi Robust DesignTaguchi Robust Design

    Shainin TechniquesShainin Techniques

    TRIZTRIZ Inventive Problem SolvingInventive Problem Solving

    Do we have enough tools for problem solving?

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    Six SigmaSix Sigma -- DMAICDMAIC

    Average: 1.11426StDev: 0.183334

    N: 31

    Anderson-Darling Normality TestA-Squared: 1.899

    P-Value: 0.000

    0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

    .001

    .01

    .05

    .20

    .50

    .80

    .95

    .99

    .999

    Probability

    ATC-R-S1

    Normal Probability Plot

    0.001(ohm)

    Y.S.Lian

    Apr.1,'0 3

    Resistance Mater

    Misc:

    Tolerance:

    Reported by:

    Date of study:

    Gage name:

    1.6

    1.5

    1.4

    1.3

    21

    Xbar Chart by Operators

    SampleMean

    Mean=1.453UCL=1.458LCL=1.448

    0.010

    0.005

    0.000

    21

    R Chart by Operators

    SampleRange

    R=0.0028

    UCL=0.009148

    LCL=0

    21

    1.6

    1.5

    1.4

    1.3

    Operators

    By Operators

    543215432121

    1.6

    1.5

    1.4

    1.3

    PartsOperators

    By Parts (Operators)

    %Contribution

    %Study Var

    %Tolerance

    Part-to-PartReprodRepeatGageR&R

    200

    100

    0

    Components of Variation

    Percent

    Gage R&R of Resistance Mater(With Temperature Compensation)DefineDefine

    MeasureMeasure

    AnalyzeAnalyzeImplementImplement

    ControlControl

    A Proven Technique Aimed at Process Improvement

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    Engineers and EngineeringEngineers and Engineering

    "Engineers apply the principles of science"Engineers apply the principles of science

    and mathematics to develop economicaland mathematics to develop economical

    solutions to technical problems".solutions to technical problems". U. S.U. S.

    Department of Labor , Bureau of LaborDepartment of Labor , Bureau of Labor

    StatisticsStatistics

    We need to get back to the basics and physicsWe need to get back to the basics and physics

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    Ten Tips for Problem SolvingTen Tips for Problem Solving

    1.1. What is the problem?What is the problem?

    2.2. Where is the problem?Where is the problem?

    3.3. When was the problem?When was the problem?

    4.4. How big is the problem?How big is the problem?5.5. Understand the systemUnderstand the system

    6.6. Understand the physicsUnderstand the physics

    7.7. Find the experts & expertiseFind the experts & expertise

    8.8. Find the existing solutionsFind the existing solutions9.9. Verify and validate the solutionsVerify and validate the solutions

    10.10. Prevent problem recurrencePrevent problem recurrence

    Science

    Mathematics

    Engineering Tools and

    Methods

    Knowledge

    Apply conventional problemApply conventional problem--solving tools more effectively bysolving tools more effectively byusing the approaches of science & engineering, with a healthyusing the approaches of science & engineering, with a healthydose of mathematics and a framework of corporate knowledgedose of mathematics and a framework of corporate knowledge

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    1. What Is the Problem?1. What Is the Problem?

    ConsiderConsider

    GeometriesGeometries11

    PropertiesProperties11

    DefectsDefects11

    EnergyEnergy11

    DesignDesignManufacturing ProcessesManufacturing Processes

    1 & 2 - ASQ Automotive Excellence, 2008

    WhyAsk Why When You Should Ask What 2

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    1. What Is the Problem?1. What Is the Problem?

    Problem TypeProblem Type ExamplesExamples

    GeometryGeometry Roundness, Concentricity;Roundness, Concentricity;

    Length, width, heightLength, width, heightPropertyProperty Elastic buckling, Viscosity,Elastic buckling, Viscosity,

    Fracture Strength, ShearFracture Strength, Shear

    Strength, Tensile StrengthStrength, Tensile Strength

    DefectDefect Contamination, dirt, scratchesContamination, dirt, scratches

    EnergyEnergy Impact failureImpact failure

    Understanding the problem type helps to select a proper tool

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    More Examples of FailureMore Examples of Failure

    SAE 961794

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    2. Where Is the Problem?2. Where Is the Problem?

    ConsiderConsider

    Location of the problemLocation of the problem

    Climate and seasonClimate and seasonCustomer demographicsCustomer demographics

    Commercial vs. retailsCommercial vs. retails

    Determine the problem space and isolate the problem

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    2. Where Is the Problem?2. Where Is the Problem?

    Consider the locations of:Consider the locations of:

    Product assemblyProduct assembly

    Material processMaterial processComponent manufacturingComponent manufacturing

    Determine the problem space and further isolate the problem

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    2. Where Is the Problem?2. Where Is the Problem?

    Consider the logistics of:Consider the logistics of:

    TransportationTransportation

    Inspection centersInspection centersDealers, shopsDealers, shops

    Determine the problem space and further fence around theproblem

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    2. Where Is the Problem?2. Where Is the Problem?

    Component Supplier Transportation

    Transportation

    Product Assembly

    Transportation

    Sea ShipPort

    Port Happy Customer

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    3. When Did the Problem Happen?3. When Did the Problem Happen?

    Consider the time whenConsider the time when

    Material was processedMaterial was processed

    Product was assembledProduct was assembledComponent was manufacturedComponent was manufactured

    Determine the start and end points of the problem andsegregate any product produced during that time

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    3. When Did the Problem Happen?3. When Did the Problem Happen?

    Consider the time ofConsider the time of

    TransportationTransportation

    Sale or registrationSale or registrationProblem occurringProblem occurring

    Problem Occur

    Product Built

    Component Built

    Sold at

    Dealer

    Transportation

    Materials Processed

    Time

    Define the Problem Timeline: component vs product

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    4. How Big Is the Problem?4. How Big Is the Problem?

    Quantify the problem:Quantify the problem:

    By problem/100 (/1000)By problem/100 (/1000)

    By time in serviceBy time in serviceBy production monthBy production month

    By sale monthBy sale month

    By regionBy regionBy seasonBy season

    It helps to determine the root causes

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    4. How Big Is the Problem?4. How Big Is the Problem?

    P/1000 vs Months In Service

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

    Month In Service

    P/1000

    It helps to determine the effect of the product age

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    4. How Big Is the Problem?4. How Big Is the Problem?

    P/1000 vs. MOP aligns product/process changes to MOP

    P/1000 vs Month of Production

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    J F M A M J J A S O N D

    Month of Production

    P/1000

    Tie physical changes (design or process) to P/1000

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    4. How Big Is the Problem4. How Big Is the Problem

    P/1000 vs. MOS determines if seasonality effects exist

    P/1000 vs Month of Sale

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    J F M A M J J A S O N D

    Month of Sale

    P/1000

    Tie P/1000 to the Seasonality

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    4. How Big Is the Problem?4. How Big Is the Problem?

    Example of Failure RateExample of Failure Rate

    Consider failure rate:Consider failure rate:

    DecreasingDecreasing

    ConstantConstantIncreasingIncreasing

    DetermineDetermine

    InfantInfant

    RandomRandom

    Wear outWear outt

    H(t)

    DFR

    CFRIFR

    Failure rate helps to determine a problem type

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    5. Understand the System5. Understand the System

    What kind of system?What kind of system?

    MechanicalMechanical

    ElectricalElectricalHydraulicHydraulic

    ThermalThermal

    ChemicalChemicalMagneticMagnetic

    A ParameterDiagram helps

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    Parameter DiagramParameter Diagram

    SystemInputIdeal

    Function

    NoiseFactors

    ControlFactors

    FailureModes

    Its essential to understand these parameters

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    Input and Ideal FunctionInput and Ideal Function

    SystemsSystems InputInput Ideal FunctionIdeal Function

    MechanicalMechanical ForceForce VelocityVelocity

    TorqueTorque Angular velocityAngular velocity

    ElectricalElectrical VoltageVoltage CurrentCurrent

    HydraulicHydraulic PressurePressure Volume flow rateVolume flow rate

    ThermalThermal TemperatureTemperature Entropy change rateEntropy change rate

    PressurePressure Volume change rateVolume change rateChemicalChemical Chemical potentialChemical potential Mole flow rateMole flow rate

    EnthalpyEnthalpy Mass flow rateMass flow rate

    MagneticMagnetic MagnetoMagneto--motive forcemotive force Magnetic fluxMagnetic flux

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    Function vs. TimeFunction vs. Time

    Time

    Function

    Ideal Function

    No Function

    0 %

    100%

    Function

    Ideal Function

    Partial Function

    0 %

    100%

    Over Function

    80%

    120%

    Time

    No FunctionNo Function Over or Partial FunctionOver or Partial Function

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    Function vs. TimeFunction vs. Time

    Function

    Ideal Function

    Degraded Function b)

    0 %

    100%

    Degraded Function a)

    Time Time

    Function

    Ideal Function

    Intermittent Function

    0 %

    100%

    Degraded FunctionDegraded Function Intermittent FunctionIntermittent Function

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    6. Understand the Physics6. Understand the Physics

    What kind of physics behind?What kind of physics behind?

    KineticKinetic

    DynamicDynamicChemical reactionChemical reaction

    Thermal dynamicThermal dynamic

    Electrical and electronicsElectrical and electronicsFluid mechanicsFluid mechanics

    Determine which discipline of science is in work

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    6. Understand the Physics6. Understand the Physics --

    ExampleExample

    PhysicsPhysics: Air is: Air is

    compressible. Water iscompressible. Water is

    not compressible.not compressible.

    Potential problemPotential problem: an: an

    engine connecting rodengine connecting rod

    may bend when watermay bend when water

    enters a cylinder.enters a cylinder.

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    3333

    6. Understand the Physics6. Understand the Physics --

    ExampleExample

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    6. Understand the Physics:6. Understand the Physics:

    ExampleExample

    PhysicsPhysics: the air pressure: the air pressure

    increases within anincreases within an

    automotive lamp w/oautomotive lamp w/o

    vents when temperaturevents when temperatureincreases.increases.

    Potential problemPotential problem: the: the

    adhesive may fail andadhesive may fail and

    leaks may happen.leaks may happen.

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    7. Find the Experts and Expertise7. Find the Experts and Expertise

    Tap the experts throughTap the experts through

    NetworkingNetworking

    Technical ClubsTechnical ClubsCorporate Yellow PagesCorporate Yellow Pages

    Technical Specialist DatabaseTechnical Specialist Database

    Office of Technical FellowsOffice of Technical Fellows

    Utilize Corporate Knowledge

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    7. Find the Experts7. Find the Experts -- ExampleExample

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________

    From:From: Wright, Philip (P.A.)Wright, Philip (P.A.)Sent:Sent: Tuesday, November 25, 2008 1:37 AMTuesday, November 25, 2008 1:37 AMTo:To: Cavallaro, Andrea (A.); Zhou, Jay (J.)Cavallaro, Andrea (A.); Zhou, Jay (J.)

    Subject:Subject: RE: Glass ScratchesRE: Glass Scratches

    Jay, do you know if any of the TS's have expertise in this?.Jay, do you know if any of the TS's have expertise in this?.

    CheersCheers

    Phil WrightPhil Wright

    Quality DirectorQuality DirectorAsia Pacific and AfricaAsia Pacific and Africa

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    Located Tech Specialists, Karry Roberts, TomLocated Tech Specialists, Karry Roberts, TomPearson, and Frank Maslar, who helped out.Pearson, and Frank Maslar, who helped out.____________________________________________________________________________________________

    From:From: Wright, Philip (P.A.)Wright, Philip (P.A.)Sent:Sent: Tuesday, November 25, 2008 9:33 PMTuesday, November 25, 2008 9:33 PMTo:To: Zhou, Jay (J.)Zhou, Jay (J.)Subject:Subject: RE: Glass ScratchesRE: Glass Scratches

    Thanks Jay, great response.Thanks Jay, great response.

    I need you use your contacts more.I need you use your contacts more.

    cheers.cheers.

    Phil WrightPhil Wright

    7. Find the Experts7. Find the Experts -- ExampleExample

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    7. Find the Experts and Expertise7. Find the Experts and Expertise --

    ExamplesExamples

    Fatigue experts for durability problemsFatigue experts for durability problems

    NVH experts for wind noise problemsNVH experts for wind noise problems

    Glass experts for scratch problemsGlass experts for scratch problemsSPC experts for process control problemsSPC experts for process control proble...