100th Anniversary Issue: Perspectives in t 100th Anniversary Issue: Perspectives in telecommunications

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  • 100th Anniversary Issue: Perspectives in telecommunications

    1 Guest Editorial; Berit Svendsen, CTO Telenor

    3 Enlightening 100 years of telecom development – From ‘Technical Information’ in 1904 to

    ‘Telektronikk’ in 2004; Per H Lehne, Telenor R&D

    10 Why 1904? A time of rapid and radical technological change; Harald Rinde, BI

    Section 1: Perspectives in telecommunications

    13 Internet Protocol – Perspectives on consequences and benefits by introducing IP;

    Terje Jensen, Telenor R&D

    22 Personal communication fabrication in the Lyngen Alps;

    Neil Gershenfeld and Manu Prakash, MIT

    27 Perspectives on the dependability of networks and services; Bjarne E Helvik, NTNU

    45 Vulnerability exposed: Telecommunications as a hub of society; Jan A Audestad, Telenor

    55 Radio interface and access technologies for wireless and mobile systems beyond 3G;

    Geir E Øien, NTNU

    69 The adoption, use and social consequences of mobile communication; Rich Ling, Telenor R&D

    82 How Telektronikk changed the Web; Håkon Wium Lie, Opera Software

    Section 2: Selections from Norwegian telecom history

    85 From radiotelegraphy to fibre technology – Telenor’s history and development on Svalbard;

    Viggo Bjarne Kristiansen, Telenor Svalbard

    97 INMARSAT – a success story! How it was established, Later developments,

    The role of Telenor – former NTA; Ole Johan Haga, Telenor

    113 Features of the Internet history – The Norwegian contribution to the development;

    Paal Spilling and Yngvar Lundh, UNIK

    134 Why and how Svalbard got the fibre; Rolf Skår, Norwegian Space Centre

    140 Technical solution and implementation of the Svalbard fibre cable; Eirik Gjesteland, Telenor

    Section 3: GSM – ideas, origin and milestones – a Norwegian perspective

    153 The engagement of Televerket in the specification of GSM;

    Bjørn Løken, Telenor Nordic Mobile

    155 How it all began; Thomas Haug, Telia

    159 My work in the GSM services area – An interview with Helene Sandberg;

    Finn Trosby, Telenor Nordic Mobile

    161 Wideband or narrow band? World championships in mobile radio in Paris 1986;

    Torleiv Maseng, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment

    165 GSM Working Party 2 – Towards a radio sub-system for GSM;

    Rune Harald Rækken, Telenor R&D

    170 The Mobile Application Part (MAP) of GSM; Jan A Audestad, Telenor

    177 Signalling over the radio path; Knut Erik Walter, Telenor R&D

    182 The 1987 European Speech Coding Championship; Jon Emil Natvig, Telenor R&D

    187 SMS, the strange duckling of GSM; Finn Trosby, Telenor Nordic Mobile

    195 The Norwegian GSM industrialisation – An idea that never took off;

    Rune Harald Rækken, Telenor R&D

    198 MOU of the GSM-MoU: Memorizing Old Undertakings of the GSM-Memorandum of

    Understanding; Petter Bliksrud, Telenor Nordic Mobile

    Section 4: From the archives

    202 Introduction; Per H Lehne, Telenor R&D

    203 The transatlantic telegraph cable of 1858 and other aspects of early telegraphy;

    Per H Lehne, Telenor R&D

    209 The second wireless in the world; Per H Lehne, Telenor R&D

    214 Terms and acronyms

    Contents

    Telektronikk Volume 100 No. 3 – 2004

    ISSN 0085-7130

    Editor:

    Per Hjalmar Lehne

    (+47) 916 94 909

    per-hjalmar.lehne@telenor.com

    Editorial assistant:

    Gunhild Luke

    (+47) 415 14 125

    gunhild.luke@telenor.com

    Editorial office:

    Telenor ASA

    Telenor R&D

    NO-1331 Fornebu

    Norway

    (+47) 810 77 000

    telektronikk@telenor.com

    www.telektronikk.com

    Editorial board:

    Berit Svendsen, CTO Telenor

    Ole P. Håkonsen, Professor

    Oddvar Hesjedal, Director

    Bjørn Løken, Director

    Graphic design:

    Design Consult AS (Odd Andersen), Oslo

    Layout and illustrations:

    Gunhild Luke and Åse Aardal,

    Telenor R&D

    Prepress and printing:

    Gan Grafisk, Oslo

    Circulation:

    4,000

    Networks on networks

    Connecting entities through networks – in

    technological, societal and personal terms –

    enables telecommunication. Networks occur on

    different levels, form parts of larger networks,

    and exist in numerous varieties. The artist Odd

    Andersen visualises the networks on networks

    by drawing interconnected lines with different

    widths. Curved connections disturb the order

    and show that networks are not regular but are

    adapted to the communication needs.

    Per H Lehne, Editor in Chief

  • 1

    Telektronikk’s forerunner, TECHNICAL INFORMA- TION from the Telegraph Administration, appeared in April 1904, with the intention “to impart knowl- edge, to all personnel, of the State Telegraph Admin- istration technical installations, and to supply the more important news in the areas of telegraphic and telephonic technology.”

    This modest beginning took place at a time when telecommunications was dominated by the telegraph. Since the establishment of the Norwegian Telegraph Administration in 1855, the countrywide telegraph services had in 1904 grown to be a necessary instru- ment, a must, in all kinds of commercial activities. The telephone service was in its early youth; it existed mainly within the cities with poor coverage. Long distance telephone calls might be dispatched only on a few routes.

    Radio communications had hardly come to Norway. The first trials with radiotelegraphy had taken place in 1903 in the northern part of the country.

    There is a huge gap between the state of the art in 1904 and the technology of today and the wide port- folio of advanced services which are now being offered. In a number of short articles in this issue, Telektronikk’s editor, Per H. Lehne, gives an overview of the technology and how some events have been reflected in the journal. In all the years after the introduction of the journal idealistic engi- neers and technologists have presented information about innovations in telecom with emphasis on appli- cations in Norway. In older issues you will find pre- sentations about the bigger paradigm shifts in tech- nology and new technical installations in the network. The journal has in that way kept up with the original idea to update the personnel in the technical field. Looking back in the old volumes a historian may find detailed information about the first long distance net- work made up of open-wire lines on poles, the devel- opment in telephony, the manual systems, conversion to automatic systems, automation of the long distance network, the introduction – and the end – of the telex network, the large scale deployment of micro wave systems in the trunk network, satellite communica- tion systems, introduction of fibre technology, and not to forget the digitalisation of the telecom network.

    In 1967 the Research Institute was established as part of the Telegraph Administration and opened for an

    influx of young and ambitious researchers, which led to a new keenness in all professional operations of the company. A natural development was that this new personnel category gradually left their mark on the journal and raised the quality of the content. Further- more, the journal could also serve as a channel to external readers, within and outside the country, and might thus promote the company as a modern techno- logical enterprise. As a consequence articles written in English appeared in the journal.

    The objective of promoting the company was even more emphasized when the state enterprise in 1994 was converted to the private company Telenor (although fully state owned) and later introduced to the stock exchange. A new editorial policy was intro- duced for the journal, with more systematic selection of topics for each issue, aiming at readers both at home and abroad. As a consequence, it was decided that Telektronikk should have full production in English.

    So, what is ahead? A leading engineer and later Director of the Telegraph Administration, Sverre Rynning Tønnesen, formulated his vision for the tele- phone service in the 1930s as: “Anyone, located any- where, should at any time easily get access to a tele- phone, and be able to establish a telephone call with good quality to any other person, located anywhere in the world.”

    Certainly, it can be said that this vision is a reality today. But this is not the end of the development and the demands from the users. Mobile communication has revolutionized the possibility for any person to be accessible at any time and wherever the person might be, not only for telephone conversations, but also for all other kinds of communication which may be real- ized face-to-face. The demand for portability and higher capacity is increasing and must be expected to increase furthermore in the years to come, as a pre- requisite to realizing new and enhanced services. While fixed-line technology generally offers higher capacity than mobile communication, mobile offers portability. You can easily predict that much creative research may be invested in efforts to bridge this kind of gap between the two technologies.

    The modern society of today depends on efficient and reliable telecommunications services to enable busi- ness operations and public services to society. Over

    100 years

    B E R I T S V E N D S E N

    Berit Svendsen

    is Executive Vice

    President Tech-

    nology / CTO of

    Telenor ASA and