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Finding the Probabilities of Disjoint and Overlapping Events

Essential Question- A problem such as find the probability of getting 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 red cards when you draw 5 cards can require many computations.

How can you simplify the solution? Demonstrated in writing in summary at end of notes.

Vocabulary

Compound Event- the union or intersection of two events

Disjoint or mutually exclusive events- Two events that have no outcomes in common

PROBABILITY OF COMPOUND EVENTS

If A and B are two events, then the probability of A or B is:

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A and B)

If A and B are disjoint events, then the probability of A or B is:

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)

Example 1: You roll a six-sided number cube. What is the probability of rolling a 2 or a 5?

Checkpoint Complete the following exercise.

You roll a six-sided number cube. What is the probability of rolling a 1 or an even number?

Example 2: You roll a six-sided number cube. What is the probability of rolling an odd number or a number less than 3?

Example 3: In a survey of 300 students, 150 like pop music or country music. There are 97 students who like pop music and there are 83 students who like country music. What is the probability that a randomly selected student likes both pop music and country music.

PROBABILITY OF THE COMPLEMENT OF AN EVENT Complementary events are two outcomes of

an event that are the only two possible outcomes. This is like flipping a coin and getting heads or tails. Of

course, there are no other options, so these events are complementary.

Denoted

The probability of the complement of A is P( ) =1- P(A)

Example 4: When two six-sided dice are rolled, there are 36 possible outcomes. Find the probability that (a) the sum is not 4 and (b) the sum is greater than or equal to 3.

1 2 3 4 5 6

1

2

3

4

5

6

Checkpoint Complete the following exercises. You roll a six-sided number cube. What is the probability of

rolling a number less than 4 or an even number?

In a survey of 125 people, 90 of them like orange juice or grape juice. There are 62 people who like orange juice and 43 people who like grape juice. What is the probability that a randomly selected person likes both orange juice and grape juice?

From Example 4, find the probability that the sum is not 8.

Homework: Workbook Page 155 #1-16 even