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PËRMBAJTJA 1. NJOHURIT THEMELORE NË TEKNIKËN E FTOHJES 1.1. Nxehtësia .................................................... .................................................................... .................................6 1.2. Nxehtësia specifike........................................................... .................................................................... ............6 1.3. Nxehtësia e ndjeshme............................................................ .................................................................... ......6 1.4. Nxehtësia latente............................................................. .................................................................... .............6 1.5. Ndiki mi i nxehtësisë në trupa............................................................... .............................................................7 1.6. Varshmëria në mes shtypjes dhe temperaturës........................................................ ........................................9 1.7. Vetit e avullit............................................................. .................................................................... ...................10 1.8. Vetit e gazit............................................................... .................................................................... .................11 1.9. Ngufa tja e lëngut ose gazit............................................................... ..............................................................12 1.10. Bartj a e nxehtësisë.......................................................... 1

1.1-180- FRIG. DHE NGRIR - FAQE- 24.02

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PRMBAJTJA 1. hJDluRlT TlEVElDRE h TErhlrh E FTDlJE$ 1.1. Nxerls|a ......................................................................................................................................................... 1.2. Nxerls|a spec|l||e........................................................................................................................................... 1.3. Nxerls|a e rdjesrre...................................................................................................................................... 1.1. Nxerls|a |alerle.............................................................................................................................................. 1.5. Nd|||r| | rxerls|s r l(upa............................................................................................................................Z 1.. \a(srr(|a r res srlvpjes dre lerpe(alu(s................................................................................................9 1.Z. \el|l e avu|||l....................................................................................................................................................10 1.8. \el|l e daz|l....................................................................................................................................................11 1.9. Ndulalja e |rdul ose daz|l.............................................................................................................................12 1.10. 8a(lja e rxerls|s.......................................................................................................................................12 1.11. Terpe(alu(a dre ralja e lerpe(alu(s.......................................................................................................13 1.12. 3rlvpja dre ralja e srlvpjes.......................................................................................................................11 1.13. Pura dre luc|a.............................................................................................................................................1 1.11. Kapac|lel| | llorjes........................................................................................................................................1 !Rlh0l!l l FTDlJE$ 2.1.N p(dj|lrs|..........................................................................................................................................1Z 2.2.L|ojel e paj|sjeve llorse............................................................................................................................1Z 2.3.C|||| | llorjes | paj|sjes |orp(eso(||e............................................................................................................18 2.3.1. F|l|r| | llorjes s pard(p(e( r p(oces|r ca(|o(......................................................................................18 2.3.2. P(oces| | llorjes dre e|ererlel e paj|sjes |orp(eso(||e.........................................................................19 2.1.C|||| | llorjes | paj|sjes |orp(eso(|| r p|-d|ad(ar........................................................................................20 2.5.P(oces| | c||||l llors r paj|sjer |orp(eso(||e.......................................................................................22 J FRlSDRlFERT0lE FRlZ/T $lT!l/r 3.1.N p(dj|lrs|........................................................................................................................................2 3.2.F(|do(|le(l...........................................................................................................................................2 3.3.F(|do(|le(l e |oro|rua(.............................................................................................................................28 3.1.F(|zal ve(l||a|...........................................................................................................................................293.5.F(|zal ro(|zorla|...................................................................................................................................31 4 Flul0ET FTDl$E 1.1.N p(dj|lrs|......................................................................................................................................32 1.2.Nd|||r| | l|u|d|l llors r rosrlje||s|r eozor|l.........................................................................................35 1.3.Nd|||r| | l|u|deve llorse r rd(orjer d|ooa|e...............................................................................................38 1.1.Nd|||r| | l|u|d|l llors r o(dar|zr|r e rje(|ul..........................................................................................391.1.1. To|s|c|lel|.........................................................................................................................................39 1.1.2. Ndezsrr(|a. djedsrr(|a dre zo(lr|r|.............................................................................................10 1.1.3. 3rlvpja.................................................................................................................................................11 1.5.F|u|delllorse p( l(|do(|le( dre l(|za srlp|a|......................................................................................11 1.5.1. F|u|d| llors R-12.................................................................................................................................11 1.5.2. F|u|d| llors R-131a............................................................................................................................12 1.5.3. F|u|d| llors R-101A dre R-1018...........................................................................................................12 1.5.1. F|u|d| llors R-10A..............................................................................................................................13 1.5.5. F|u|d| llors R-10Z0..........................................................................................................................13 2

1.5.. F|u|d| llors R-109A............................................................................................................................11 1.5.Z. F|u|d| llors R-113A...........................................................................................................................11 1.5.8. F|u|d| llors R-111A dre R-1118........................................................................................................11 1.5.9. F|u|d| llors R-11A...........................................................................................................................15 1.5.10. F|u|d| llors R-00a..........................................................................................................................15 5ElEVEhTET E FRlSDRlFERlT 0lE FRlZlT 5.1. Korp(eso(|..........................................................................................................................................1Z 5.1.1. N p(dj|lrs|.....................................................................................................................................1Z 5.1.2. E|ererlel re|ar||e l |orp(eso(|l.....................................................................................................19 5.1.3. E|ererlel e|e|l(||e l |orp(eso(|l..........................................................................................................51 a. E|e|l(orolo(|.....................................................................................................................................51 o. Kore|lo( | e|e|l(orolo(|l.....................................................................................................................55 c. Vo(ojls| | e|e|l(orolo(|l..........................................................................................................................5 d. Re|e sla(luese....................................................................................................................................5Z e. PTC ro(lrvesja sla(luese.................................................................................................................58 l.Kordersalo(|sla(lues..........................................................................................................................59 d. Kordersalo(| purues............................................................................................................................0 5.1.1. Luo(|l|||r| ||orp(eso(|l.....................................................................................................................1 a. \aj| r|re(a|..........................................................................................................................................2 o. P(z|e(ja V0/A8 e vaj|l...........................................................................................................................3 c.\aj| a||||oerzer..........................................................................................................................................3 d. \aj(al po||o|esle(.........................................................................................................................................3 5.1.5. Florja e |orp(eso(|l.................................................................................................................................5 a. Florja re ((jedrjer e avu|||l l l|u|d|l llors..............................................................................................5 o. Florja slal||e..........................................................................................................................................5 c. Florja re vaj........................................................................................................................................ d. Florja re verl||alo(.....................................................................................................................................Z 5.2.Avu||ues|...................................................................................................................................................8 5.3.Kordersalo(|.............................................................................................................................................9 5.1.Tuo| |ap||a(..........................................................................................................................................Z1 5.5.F||l(|-lra(s|.................................................................................................................................................Z2 5.5.1. F||l(|........................................................................................................................................................Z2 5.5.2. Tra(s|.................................................................................................................................................Z2 a. 3||||ade||...................................................................................................................................................Z3 o. A|ur|r|ur| a|l|v|zues.............................................................................................................................Z3 c. 3|la ro|e|u|a(e.........................................................................................................................................Z3 5.5.3. F||l(|-lra(s|.............................................................................................................................................Z1 5..Te(roslal|............................................................................................................................................Z5 5..1. Te(roslal| p( l(|do(|le(.....................................................................................................................ZZ 5..2. Te(roslal| p( l(|do(|le( l |oro|rua(.......................................................................................................Z8 5..3. Te(roslal| p( l(|za...................................................................................................................................80 5.Z.Taslalu(a e l(|z|l..........................................................................................................................................82 5.8.3rlp|za..................................................................................................................................................83 5.9.0a(|u e|e|l(||.............................................................................................................................................81 3

.!uh/ hDRV/lE E FRlZlT 0lE FRlSDRlFERlT .1.K(|esal c p(odrues| durel l| p|olsoj....................................................................................................85 .1.1. L|oda(|lja p( llorje l revojsrre dre (adr|lja e |a(a|le(|sl||ave l e|ererleve puruese.........................8 .1.2. Korsl(u|l|r| | paj|sjes dre | e|ererleve ve e ve..................................................................................8 .1.3. Pajluesrr(|a e rale(|a||l dre l|u|d|l......................................................................................................8Z .1.1. Vorl|r| | paj|sjes llorse........................................................................................................................8Z .1.5. 3|du(ac|or| | paj|sjes llorse.................................................................................................................88 .1.. udrz|r| p( p(do(|r|r e paj|sjes llorse...........................................................................................88 .2.Pura ro(ra|e e l(|do(|le(|l dre l(|z|l.........................................................................................................89 7 /h/llZ/ E !Rl$lJEvE Z.1.N p(dj|lrs|.....................................................................................................................................91 Z.2.0a(|u e|e|l(|| | |orp(eso(|l..................................................................................................................92 Z.2.1. Vurdor lu(r|z|r re lers|or......................................................................................................................93 Z.2.2. Kao||oja e lu(r|z|r l paj|sjes r dele|l...............................................................................................91 Z.2.3. Nd(p(e(je r ca(|ur e|e|l(|| l |orp(eso(|l............................................................................................91 Z.2.1. L|drja e daoua( e e|ererleve l ca(|ul e|e|l(||.....................................................................................95 Z.3.Korp(eso(|............................................................................................................................................95 Z.3.1. Psrlje||jel e e|e|l(orolo(|l l djedu(a........................................................................................................95 Z.3.2. Rolo(| | o||o|ua(.....................................................................................................................................99 Z.3.3. Esrl zvod|ua( |apac|lel| | |orp(eso(|l...................................................................................................100 Z.3.1. Korp(eso(| |a rurou( |apac|lel|r...................................................................................................102 Z.3.5. Terpe(alu(a e lej |a(l r srlvps l |orp(eso(|l...............................................................................101 Z.3.. Luo(|l|||r| | dool | |orp(eso(|l...............................................................................................................105 Z.1.Re|ea sla(luese.....................................................................................................................................10Z Z.1.1. 0ele|lel e (e|es sla(luese.........................................................................................................................10Z Z.1.2. Re|e sla(luese jo djedjse..................................................................................................................109 Z.5.PTC ro(lrvesja sla(luese.................................................................................................................109 Z..Kordersalo(| sla(lues.........................................................................................................................111 Z.Z.Kordersalo(| purues............................................................................................................................112 Z.8.Vo(ojls| | rolo(|l................................................................................................................................112 Z.8.1. P(|srjel e ro(ojls|l l rolo(|l..............................................................................................................112 Z.8.2. 0jal sla(l|r|l ro(ojls| |(cer |a|l|v|zorel).............................................................................................111 Z.8.3. Vo(ojls| |(cer |a|l|v|zorel) djal purs.............................................................................................115 a. Ters|or| srur | |a(l......................................................................................................................115 o. Terpe(alu(a e |a(l e ((elr|rs. verl|||r| | dool. srlvpja |ordersuese e |a(l..............................11 c. Nd|||r| | lerpe(alu(s s avu|||r|l ....................................................................................................11 d. Kusrlel lje(a......................................................................................................................................11 Z.9.Taslalu(a e l(|z|l.................................................................................................................................11Z Z.10. Te(roslal|............................................................................................................................................11Z Z.11. Nd(vsr|r| | lers|or|l dre | l(e|uercs s ((jel|l..........................................................................................118 Z.11.1. Ele|l| | |(|ua( djal rorerl|l sla(lues...........................................................................................119 Z.11.2. Nda(|esa |u|ro(e |red|ale pas sla(l|r|l..........................................................................................120 Z.11.3. ''Ndulalja '' e rolo(|l djal |ors s purs.............................................................................................120 Z.11.1. P(oo|erel re sla(l|r djal lerpe(alu(ave l u|la l ((elr|rs.............................................................120 Z.12. Tuo| |ap||a(.......................................................................................................................................121 Z.13. Avu||ues|...........................................................................................................................................121 Z.13.1. El||as|lel| | zvod|ua( | avu||ues|l p( sr|a| l djerdjeve r l dre ((elr saj..........................................121 a. Avu||ues| rda jasrl | p(|ve( ose | rou|ua( re ves ose re a|u||.........................................................121 4

o. \aj| r avu||ues.....................................................................................................................................121 c. Korla|l| | dool | luoave re p||a|r..........................................................................................................121 d. 0a(|u|||r| | aj(|l r raps|(r llorse srl | dool....................................................................................12 e. Vousrja jo djedjse e s|sler|l................................................................................................................125 Z.13.2. Avu||ues| | sl(rda(|ua(...................................................................................................................125 Z.13.3. 0|rerz|or|r | daoua( | avu||ues|l.....................................................................................................125 Z.13.1. P(|srje l rd(vsrre l avu||ues|l..........................................................................................................12 Z.11. Kordersalo(|......................................................................................................................................12 Z.11.1. Er|s|or| | rxerls|s s |ordersalo(|l jo djedjse p( sr|a| l djerdjes ((elr l|j...................................12 a. Kordersalo(| | p(|ve( rda jasrl.........................................................................................................12 o. 0a(|u|||r| | dool | aj(|l...........................................................................................................................12Z c. Terpe(alu( e |a(l e aj(|l p( ((elr........................................................................................................12Z d. Terpe(alu( srur e u|l e aj(|l p( ((elr...............................................................................................12Z Z.11.2. Er|s|or| | rxerls|s s |ordersalo(|l jo djedjse p( sr|a| l djerdjes r s|sler...............................128 Z.11.3. 0ao|rel r |orsl(u|l|r|r e |ordersalo(|l........................................................................................128 Z.11.1. 0|rerz|or|r | daoua( | |ordersalo(|l................................................................................................128 Z.11.5. P(|srjel e rd(vsrre l |ordersalo(|l................................................................................................128 Z.15. F||l(|-lra(s|.......................................................................................................................................129 Z.1. Vousrje jo djedjse e s|sler|l.............................................................................................................129 Z.1Z. Pe(|udra e cels|r|l dre oa(az|r| | srlvpjes........................................................................................131 Z.1Z.1. Pe(|udra e oa(az|r|ll srlvpjeve.........................................................................................................132 Z.1Z.2. Pe(|udra e cels|r|l.......................................................................................................................131 Z.18. 3rlesal r s|sler.............................................................................................................................13 Z.18.1. uj|..................................................................................................................................................13 Z.18.2. Aj(|.................................................................................................................................................13Z Z.18.3. \aj|..................................................................................................................................................138 Z.18.1. Papasl(l|l re|ar||e......................................................................................................................138 Z.19. 3rlp|za...........................................................................................................................................139 Z.20. Zru(ra................................................................................................................................................110 Z.21. PARA0lTJA E PRl3lJE\E TE FRl00RlFERE\E 0lE FRlZA\E...................................................112 Z.21.1. F(|do(|le(| |l(|z|) NuK PuN0N. |orp(eso(| ru| sla(lor. ru| |(cer ro(ojls| | rolo(|l........................112 Z.21.2. F(|do(|le(| |l(|z|) NuK PuN0N. |orp(eso(| ru| sla(lor. po( ro(ojls| | rolo(|l |(cer.........................112 Z.21.3. F(|do(|le(| |l(|z|) NuK PuN0N. |orp(eso(| sla(lor. po( djal sra(l|r|l apo d|(e|l pas sla(l|r|l sr|vcel. sepse |(cer ro(ojls|.......................................................................................................................................113 Z.21.1. F(|do(|le(| |l(|z|) 'FT0lE 008ET. |u(se puror djal ose pa rd(p(e.................................................113 Z.21.5. F(|do(|le(| |l(|z|) 'FARE NuK FT0lE. |u(se puror pa rd(p(e(je......................................................111 Z.21.. F(|do(|le(| |l(|z|) 'FT0lE TEPER. dre puror pa rd(p(e(je...............................................................111

8!RD0E0uR/T SJ/T !uh$ 8.1.Zo(azja e s|sler|l................................................................................................................................115 8.1.1. Lsr|r| | l(eor|l llors p(ej s|sler|l.........................................................................................................115 8.1.2. Nxje((ja e l(eor|l llors p(ej s|sler|l..................................................................................................115 8.2.Prfryrja e s|sler|ldre | e|ererleve l s|sler|l...................................................................................11 8.3.Pasl(|r| | s|sler|l dre e|ererleve le s|sler|l......................................................................................11 8.1.Ndj|lja |oasr||r|) e luoave.................................................................................. ........................................118 8.1.1. Ka(a|le(|sl||ale l|a|s acel||er-o|s|djer............................................................................................150 8.1.2. P(ocedu(al djal sa|d|r|l l luoave r s|slerel llorse........................................................................151 8.1.3. 0ao|rel djal sa|d|r|l.....................................................................................................................151 8.5.\a|ur|r| | s|sler|l...........................................................................................................................155 5

8..Vousrja e s|sler|l.............................................................................................................................15Z 8.Z.\e(|l|||r| re(rel|z|r|l l s|sler|l...........................................................................................................159 8.8.P(ocedu(al djal purs r s|slerel re R-00a....................................................................................10 9 EvlTlVl l !Rl$lJEvE 9.1.Nd((|r| | |orp(eso(|l...............................................................................................................................11 9.2.Nd((|r| | l||l(|l-lra(s|l........................................................................................................................12 9.3.Nd((|r| | avu||ues|l.............................................................................................................................13 9.3.1. A(r|r|...............................................................................................................................................11 9.1.Nd((|r| | vaj|l r |orp(eso(......................................................................................................................15 9.5.Nd((|r| | |zo||r|l r avu||ues .....................................................................................................................1 9..Nd((|rel e e|ererleve lje(a..................................................................................................................1Z 10.RlrDh$TRulVl l $l$TEVlT hS/ R-' h Flul0ET TJER/ FTDl$E 10.1. Np(dj|lrs|.....................................................................................................................................1Z 10.2.R||orsl(u|l|relpa rd((|r l vaj|l........................................................................................................1Z0 10.3.R||orsl(u|l|relre rj rd((|r l vaj|l.............................................................................................1Z0 10.1.R||orsl(u|l|rel re rd((|re l srurl|srla l vaj|l.............................................................................1Z1 11.Vasal e s|du(|s djal purs................................................................................................................1Z3 a. Nd|||r| | l|u|deve llorse......................................................................................................................1Z3 o. Pura r paj|sjer llorse.....................................................................................................................1Z3 c. 0od|lja e ((vrs e|e|l(||e............................................................................................................................1Z1 d. 0epor|r| dre p(do(|r| | ooroo|ave.....................................................................................................1Z1 12.3rlojca................................................................................................................................................1Z5 13.Vjelel dre paj|sjel e purs.....................................................................................................................1ZZ PRE8|H 8P0NZ0R NCA NJERZ HE VLERA PER KT L|R |N8hA-ALLAh. 6

1.NJOHURIT THEMELORE N TEKNIKN E FTOHJES 1.1.NXEHTSIA Nxerls|asrlrj||ojere(dj|eec||asrl(ezu|lal||v|zjes|aol||elalorevedrero|e|u|avel rale(|es.T(up|srl|rxerlacsasrl|v|zjaed(|rcave|rlers|ve.dol(up|arjrxerls|.sepser la(do lerpe(alu(e |v|zja e d(|rcave pusror|rda|el) r ze(or aoso|ule. djedjs|srl r lerpe(alu(r: T=0HK [t = -273.156}. |) Nxerls|asporlar|srl|a|orp(ejl(up|llrxerlrallllorl.3as|aerxerls|ssrlpjese ere(dj|sso(erdsrrell(up|lec||a|a|orrl(up|rljel(velrp(a(svesel(upal|arlerpe(alu(al rd(vsrre.Ka||r||rxerls|srdarjl(uprljel(|rsr|a|lor((|ljerelerpe(alu(ssal|jl(up|cp(aror rxerls|r. dre rurd l sr|a|loj edre rd(vsr|r|r e djerdjes ad(edale l l|j. Nxerls|a c | re((el l(up|l l lloru( curel rxerls| e llorjes dre ralel re xrau||J).Te llorja a(l|l|c|a|e paj|sja llorse |a re(( rxerls|r l(up|l l c|||r ellor. 0l rurd l oj |l. paj|sjallorserd(vsrordjerdjerere(djel||elrjel|lllors.du|e|azo(|lu(lerpe(alu(rrrr|ve||rrlu|l lerpe(alu(||l(up|llc|||rellor.Nraps|(rellorl.l|zo|ua(rverd|reca|lua(|(vrel-e|ze|ulorel zo(|lja e lerpe(alu(s l rj sas|e l ca|lua( l rjel|l llors. pas s c||s rxerls|a e red|ur|l c llorel. r rrv(ralv(o(e.sporlar|srl|a|orrrjel|rllors.Nsesrlerevojsrrecrjel|llorsp(s(|l (|p(do(el p( llorje. rxerls|a e l(recu( durel l'| jepel rdorj l(up| ljel( c durel l jel r | llorl se rjel| llors.Nsel(up||dvlru|srlr|llorl.paj|sja|apa(al|)llorsdurell'rd(|lr|ve||relerpe(alu(sl rjel|l llors c rxerls|a l rurdel sporlar|srll |a|oj lel(up| ljel(. Paj|sja llorse r rrv( a|le(ral|ve rd((or djerdjer ere(djel||e l rjel|l llors. | c||| e re(( rxerls|r rda l(up| r | llorl |l(up| | c||| llorel) dre |a do(zor l(up|l r l rxerl |rjed|s|l). |) 1.2. NXEHTSIASPECIFIKE Nr rxerls|r spec|l||e l rdorj l(up| rr|uplorel sas|a e rxerls|s. l c||r durel srlua( ose l(recu( rj |||od(ar l al|j l(up|. c lerpe(alu(a l| rd((orel p( rj sr|a|| Ke|v|r| |1K). Njs|a ralse e rxerls|s spec|l||e srlJ|kg K. Nxerls|a spec|l||e e daz(ave. avu|||l dre |rdjeve rd(vsror s|pas djerdjes l|z||e r l c||r l(up| djerdel |lerpe(alu(a. srlvpja elj). T(upal e dazl |dazel) |ar dv rxerls| spec|l||e: rxerls|a spec|l||e djal srlvpjes |orslarle dre rxerls|a spec|l||e djal v|||r|l |orslarl. r va(s| rda ajo se c||a srl radrs| |orslarle. dre c||a rd(vsror.|2) 1.3. NXEHTSIA E NDJESHME Nxerls|aec||asr|a|lorrd(vsr|r|relerpe(alu(srl(upcurelrxerls|aerdjesrre.Nsel(up| rxerel||srlorelrxerls|).drereal(asllerpe(alu(a((|lel.ajolerpe(alu(esrlua(curelrxerls|ae rdjesrre. Nse l(up| llorel || re((el rxerls|a). |u(se lerpe(alu(a o|e. ajo rxerls| e l(recu( srl dj|lrasrlu rxerls| e rdjesrre. 1.4. NXEHTSIA LATENTE Terpe(alu(a c | re((el apo | srlorel l(up|l re c|||r l rd(vsr|r|l l djerdjes ad(edale. djal s c||s lerpe(alu(a e l(up|l ru| rd(vsror. curel rxerls| |alerle |e lsreru(). 7

0jalrd(orjess|rdullerpe(alu(ael|jrdada|dol((|lel.Nrjrorerl.rrjlerpe(alu(l ca|lua(|rdudoll|||ojlv|ojd.r.lr.lavu||orel.El(rxerls|ac|srlorelrluljedolra(xrorelr avu|||r. do l lrol se lerpe(alu(a e |rdul l v|ua( ru| do l rd(vsroj. Avu||| c rd(|ll rda |rdu | v|ua( |a lerpe(alu(lrjjls||u(seedrevel|rdu.Kjodollrolserxerls|acs|||eldjalv||r|ll|rdulru| ra(xrorel r rd(|ljer e rxerls|s s rdjesrre po( roelel e lsreru( r avu||. Vu p( |l a(sve |jo rxerls|edre curel rxerls| e lsreru(. djedjs|srl rxerls| |alerle. |2) Tdj|lrap(ocesel|(veso(er c||||rllors|orp(eso(||jarloazua(r|lodvrxerls|.lrdjesrre dre |alerle. 1.5.NDIKIMI I NXEHTSIS N TRUPA 0jal sje||jes s rxerls|s rdorj l(up|. r l rdodr|r rd(vsr|re l p(ca|lua(a.l c||al va(er rda ralv(a el(up|l|djerdjessrxerls|sslv(e)drerda|usrlelejasrlre|srlvpja.lerpe(alu(a)rlc||rrdodrel l(up|. 3|pas djerdjes ad(edale l(upal rurd l jer l rdu(l. l |rdl dre l dazl. uj| do l ra sr(oej s| srerou|| p( srpjed|r|r e rd|||r|l l rxerls|s r l(upa dre rd(vsr|r|r e djerdjes ad(edale. Esrl e rjoru( c uj| pa(ac|lel r l(| djerdje ad(edale: l rdu(l |a|u||). l |rdl. dre l dazl |avu||). Pocsel|||orelresrl|r|rerxerls|sra|u|||sr||ol|d.1-1.)lerpe(alu(ado|((|lelde(|lep||ae sr|(|(jes |0C). Kjo rxerls| srl rxerls| e rdjesrre. Ku( l l|||oj sr|(|(ja edre rse vazrdorel re srl|r l rxerls|s |rxerls|a |alerle). lerpe(alu(a ru| rd(vsror. p(de(|sa ru| sr|(|rel edre copza e lurd|l e a|u|||l. Ndaa|rorerlresrl|r|rerluljesrrlrxerls|s|rxerls|aerdjesrre)lerpe(alu(a((|lelde(|r 100C. |u( uj| l|||or l v|oj. Ve srl|r|r e rluljesrre l rxerls|s |rxerls|a |alerle) lerpe(alu(a rda|or s rd(|lu(| de(|sa ru| avu||orel edre p||a e lurd|l e uj|l. N |l rrv( uj| |a|or r djerdje l dazl. djedjs|srl avu||. Fig. 1-1. Diagrami i ndryshimit t gjendjes agregate t 1 uji n shtypjen atmosferike101.3 kPa. 8

NdaA r -djerdja e rdu(l e uj|l|a|u||). revoj|ler 100kJ c lerpe(alu(a e a|u|||l l ((|lel rda -506 de(| 06 P||a - p||a e sr|(|(jes s a|u|||l.Ndade(|6-sr|(|(jaea|u|||l|djerdjeerdu(ldree|rdleuj|l).durel335kJru||ard(vsr|rl lerpe(alu(s. Nda6de(|0 - djerdje e |rdl.revoj|ler420kJclerpe(alu(aeuj|l l ((|lelrda 06 r 1006. P||a0 - p||a e v||r|l l uj|l. Nda0de(|E-avu|||r||uj|l|djerdjee|rdldreeavu||leuj|l).revoj|ler220kJ.ru||ard(vsr|rl lerpe(alu(s. Nda Ee lulje - re srl|r l rlejr l rxerls|s ((|lel lerpe(alu(a e avu|||l. Nse avu||| l|||or l llorel || re((el rxerls|a). p(oces| do l ((jedr r |arjer e |urd(l. 3 pa(| avu||| do l |ordersorel r uj. dre re llorje l rlejre uj| do l rd(|j. N |l (asl durel l(recu( po l rjjlr sas| l rxerls|s c srl dasru( c a|u||| l srrd((orel r avu||. Esrl re (rds| |lu l p(rerdel c | l( p(oces| | p(sr|(ua( ||lr|r| | a|u|||l r avu||) zrv|||orel rr srlvpje alrosle(||e ro(ra|e. djedjs|srl r v|e( |orslarle l srlvpjes.Po c se srlvpja ((|lel r 311 |Pa lerpe(alu(a e v||r|l l uj|l do l jel 133C. Nse srlvpja o|e r 18|Pa. lerpe(alu(aev||r|lluj|lsrlr80C.Nse srlvpjaedrerlejo|edrelar|srl20|Pa.lerpe(alu(ae v||r|l l uj|l do l jel 2C. P(a. la(do v|e(e l srlvpjes | p(dj|djel velr rj v|e( e ca|lua( e lerpe(alu(s. 3r||o l|d. 1-2 dre 1-3. Figura 1-2. Ndikimi i shtypjes n temperaturn e avullimit 3as|aerxerls|scp(aroruj|rdap||aev||r|lde(|lerorerl||avu|||r|llp||sslurd|lluj|l. curel rxerls|a e avu|||r|l. N l |urd(lr. sas|a e rxerls|s c | l(r|cel avu|||l de(| r rorerl|r |u( | l( avu||||lrerelruj.curelrxerls|ae|orders|r|l.Nxerls|aeavu|||r|lsrlerjjlrerxerls|re |orders|r|l. velr srl re dorelrr|e l |urd(l. Nj(a | srlorel. ljel(a | r|cel|| re((el). Nxerls|aeavu|||r|lru|srlradrs|l|z||e|orslarle:ajord(vsrorrelerpe(alu(dresrlvpje. P(de(|salerpe(alu(aev||r|ll|rdsrr(|ssp(ca|lua(srlreradreacrevod|doljel rxerls|a eavu|||r|l.3r||o l|d. 1-3.Lrdu v|or r lerpe(alu( r l |a(l ac sa srlvpja alrosle(||e srl e |a(l r l c||r |rdu avu||orel. P(a. durel sas| r e vod| e rxerls|s p( avu|||r r srlvpjel r l |a(la. N l |urd(lr. r srlvpje r l u|l. djedjs|srl lerpe(alu( r l u|l. revoj|lel sas| r e radre e rxerls|s p( avu|||r. 0jalrd(vsr|r|lldjerdjesad(edalelel|u|delllorse.p(oces|srl|rjjls||u(lea||uj|l.velrse rdjarrlerpe(alu(dresrlvpjelrd(vsrre.P(srerou||l(eor|R12rsrlvpjeralrosle(||erd(|rr lerpe(alu(r -155C. dre avu||orel r lerpe(alu( -28.9C. N srlvpje p(ej 200 |Pa avu||or r -10C. de(|sa r srlvpjer p(ej 2 |Pa avu||or r -11C. 3r||o l|du(r 1-2. $TYPJA 62kPa101,3kPa200kPa Uji89C100C122C R-12-41C-29C-10C 9

Figura 1-3. Diagrami i ndikimit t shtypjes (temperaturs) n sasi t nxehtsis s nevojshme pr ndryshim t gjendjes agregate.

1.6. VARSHMRIA N MESE SHTYPJES DHE TEMPERATURS 3|pasdjerdjesad(edalerale(|elrurdljerlrdu(la.l|rdladreldazla.0jal|usrlevel ca|lua(a rale(|a rurdl |a|oj rda rj(a djerdje |laz) r ljel(r.P( srpjed|rdolsr(oerer|rel|d.1-1 resr-l d|ad(ar|r. La|o(jaasrl|a|o(ja|ul|la(ecrdarlazredazldrel|rdleccurel-|a|o(jaeavu|||r|l. La|o(jaopa(acel|ul|(|re|a||r|lrdadjerdjaerdu(lrl|rdldrecurel-|a|o(jaesr|(|(jes.laps|(a rd(rjel |a|o(es a dre o srl zora r l c||r rale(|a srl r djerdje l |rdl |lazr e |rdl). La|o(ja c pa(acel |a||r|r rda djerdja e rdu(l r al l dazl dre curel- |a|o(ja e suo||r|r|l. laps|(a rd(rjel |a|o(eve o dre c srl zora |u rale(|a srl r djerdje l rdu(l. |u(se raps|(a rd(rjel |a|o(eve a dre c srl laza 8 (105 Pa ) t (C) 4123 ab Faza e ngurtFaza e gazt . T Faza e Ingt 4 Fig.1-4. $h-t diagrami

edazo(e.3ec||arda|lol(||a|o(er(ea||leljarrjva(ddjerdjesr.djalsc||avedjerdjelerd(vsrre ad(edal||e jar r e|u|||o(. P(e(ja e l l(| |a|o(eve pa(acel p||r e|u|||o(use l(esre %|u rale(|a djerdel r l l(| djerdjel ad(edale. Verd(orjererale(|esec||adjerdelrdjerdjererdu(l|p||a1).djalsrlvpjes|orslarle. lerpe(alu(aesajdol((|lelde(|rp||r2.d.r.lr.de(|le|ajr(|r||sr|(|(jes.0jal|orsssr|(|(jes lerpe(alu(a ru| rd(vsror. Ve rd(orjer e rale(|es r djerdje l |rdl. asaj | ((|lel lerpe(alu(a |de(| r p||r 3) dre ajo l|||or l v|oj |p||a3). 0jal |ors s v||r|l lerpe(alu(a ru| rd(vsror. Tasr rale(|a srl r djerdje ldazl.p(|als|srlsrlo(avu|||p||a1).Vevazrd|r|rerluljesrrlrxerls|savu|||ldol|((|lel lerpe(alu(a.N d|ad(ar|r8-t|erl v(erel c p( v|e(a l lje(a l srlvpjes. p||al 2 |sr|(|(ja) dre 3 |v||r|) do l |er v|e(alje(al lerpe(alu(s. 1.7.VETIT E AVULLIT N coll se |rdu rxerel|| srlorel rxerls|a).lerpe(alu(a e l|j do l ((|lel. N rj rorerl |rdu l|||or l v|oj.Alre(lerpe(alu(a|aa((|lu(v|e(reca|lua( drecurellerpe(alu(aeavu|||r|l.Nxerls|avazrdorl| srlorel. po( lerpe(alu(a ru| rd((or p(de(|sa ru| avu||orel edre p||a e lurd|l e |rdul. Terpe(alu(a e v||r|l l |rdul srl e oa(aoa(l re lerpe(alu(r e avu|||l. Avu|||c|al|||ua(lrd(|llrda|rdu|v|ua(curelavu|||rdopu(.Avu|||rerdopu(e|a(a|le(|zojr srlvpja dre lerpe(alu(a p|ols|srl l va(u(a dre l p(ca|lua(a r res vele. Lrdu djal srlvpjes l ca|lua( |a velrrjlerpe(alu(lavu|||r|l.Alov|e(alsrlvpjesdrellerpe(alu(scurer:srlvpjaerdopjesdre lerpe(alu(a e rdopjes. P(a. r rj rjed|s l rdopu(. srlvpja dre lerpe(alu(a jar rjs| l va(u(a rd(rjel vel| dre dj|lrror rj(a e p(ca|lor ljel(r. 3rlvpja e rdopjes r la|l srl srlvpje e avu|||r|l. |u(se lerpe(alu(a e rdopjes r la|l srl lerpe(alu(a e avu|||r|l. Avu||| | rdopu( c djerdel ro| |rd srl avu|| | |adsrl dre roelel | |adsrl de(|sa ru| avu||orel p||a e lurd|l e |rdul. Alre( avu||| | rdopu( | |adsrl orel avu|| | rdopu( | lral. Nxerls|aec||asrlerevojsrrec|rdurrlerpe(alu(rev||r|ll(s|srllaavu||oj|crda |rdu | v|ua( l |(|jorel avu||| | lral) curel- nxenres|a avu||uese. djedjs|srl lerpe(alu( |alerle e avu|||r|l. 3||u(se lerpe(alu(a e avu|||r|l. po asrlu edre rxerls|a e avu|||r|l va(el rda srlvpja. 3a ra e radre l jel srlvpja. rxerls|a e avu|||r|l srl r e vod|. dre arasje||las. rse srlvpja srl r e vod| rxerls|a e avu|||l srl r e radre. |2) Nse avu||| | lral | rdopu( rd(orel edre r lejlerpe(alu(a e l|j do l ((|lel dre avu||| dol orel | lej rxeru(. P(a. avu||| | lejrxeru( |a lerpe(alu( ro| lerpe(alu(r e rdopjes s l|j. Edrerjre(:Nseavu||||rdopu(rd(orelro|lerpe(alu(rlc||rsrl|(|jua(rev||r.l|lorel avu||||lejrxeru(.Kvavu|||aldj|lravel|ledaz(ave:rurdlllorelelros|ordersorel|velrde(|r lerpe(alu(.djedjs|srlde(|ledjerdjac||orverorrdopjessl|j).rurdlrdjesrldjalsc||s| rrsrl(orel ||djeve l daz(ave. |2) Nseavu||||lejrxeru(llorel||re((elrxerls|a)djalsrlvpjes|orslarle.lerpe(alu(aeavu|||r|lo|e dreavu||||a|orrdjerdjelrdopu(.Terpe(alu(adjalsc||savu||||lloru(|a|orrdjerdjelrdopu(. djedjs|srldjalsc||savu|||l|||orl|ordersorelr|rd.curellerpe(alu(e|orders|r|l|lerpe(alu(e rdopjes). Avu||| djal srlvpjes s ca|lua( |a velr rj lerpe(alu( l |orders|r|l. Ajo srlvpje srl srlvpja e |orders|r|l|srlvpjaerdopjes).Avu||||rdopu(rl||||rsrl|lralepaslaj||adsrl.Edrepserxerls|a edrerlej|re((el|avu|||llorel).lerpe(alu(aru||rd(vsrorde(|sa|l(avu|||l|lrerelr|rd. Terpe(alu(ae|rdull|ordersua(srlerjjlrelerpe(alu(reavu|||lrdaec||asrl|(|jua(|rdu. Nxerls|a. l c||r durel ra(( c rda avu||| | lral l orel |rdu re srlvpje dre lerpe(alu( l rjjl curel- rxerls|a e |orders|r|l.p(|als|srl rxerls|a |alerle e |orders|r|l. Nxerls|a e |orders|r|l p( rda v|e(a rure(||esrleoa(aoa(lrerxerls|reavu|||r|l.Vera((jererelejrelerxerls|s.lerpe(alu(ae |rdul o|e rr lerpe(alu(r e |orders|r|l dre |rdu orel | llorl |pa|z | llorl).

P(oces| | |orders|r|l srl | |urd(l re p(oces|r e avu|||r|l. Klo p(ocese dre supoz|re l ||dru(a re |lo p(ocese jar sca(ua( r rrv(r r l lrjesrl. N red|l|r ru| jar p(purua( lja||l s| jar:erla|p|a. erl(op|a. v|||r. lerpe(alu(a |(|l||e. srlvpja |(|l||e elj.

1.8.VETIT E GAZIT 0|relseldj|lral(upalposedojrrjsas|lca|lua(lrxerls|s.d.r.lrere(dj|lo(erdsrrel ca|lua( |p(ve r p||r ze(o aoso|ule). 0o llrol c edre daz| | c||| djerdel r er l rov||u( posedor rj sas| l p(ca|lua( l rxerls|s. 0az| dre rjed|s| | ers s rov||u( jar r e|u|||o( lerpe(alu(||e. |a do l lrol r res lv(e ru| |a sr|ro|r l rxerls|s. Nse rjed|s| | ers orel | rxerl. p(|als|srl rse |a r|ve| r l |a(l l lerpe(alu(s. daz| do l l|||oj l rxerel. p( a(sver e l c||s do l ((|lel ere(dj|a e o(erdsrre dre srlvpja.Terpe(alu(aedaz|lrurdlrd(|leledrerrrv(ljel(.Nsedaz|djerdelrerrep|slordre p|slor|esrlvpal.daz|doll|||ojlrxerel.p(|als|srldolv|jde(|le((|ljaesrlvpjesdreere(dj|ss o(erdsrre.3|pas|sajdaz|rurdellrxerelrdvrrv(a:oseresje||jererxerls|soseresrlvpje. 3r||o l|d.1-5. Fig.-1.5. Nxehja e gazit 0az| rurdel edre l llorel r dv rrv(a: 0se l| re((el rxerls|a re ar l llorjes ose l (ea||zorel zdje(|r| | l|j |e|spars|or|r|). 3r||o l|du(r -1.. Nse rjed|s| | ers s rov||u( r l c||r djerdel daz| orel | llorl.p(|als|srlrse|ar|ve|rlu|lllerpe(alu(s.daz|doll|||ojlllor.pas|crxerls|a ralv(srr |a|or rda l(up| | rxerl r l llorl. P( sr|a| l llorjes do l zvod|orel ere(dj|a e o(erdsrre dre srlvpjaedaz|l.Nsedaz|djerdelrerrrep|slor.drep|slor|rd(|lel.daz|dolzdje(orel|dol e|spardoj).0.r.lr.daz|e|a|(ve(purreca|lua(.P(|(ve(jerepurs.daz||ara(xrua(ere(dj|re ca|lua(.Pas|c|lere(dj|ru|e|ara((rdajasrl.dollrolcdaz|velveles|a|ara((ere(dj|r. p(|als|srl rxerls|r dre r |l rrv( srl lloru(. P(a. zdje(|r| |e|spars|or|) | daz|l |(vrel r ||oda(| l ere(dj|s s o(erdsrre l daz|l. P(lurd|r|srl. |u( daz| srlvpel rxerel. po( |u( zdje(orel a| llor. 2

Fig. 1-6. Ftohja e gazit 1.9.NGUFATJA E LNGUT OSE GAZIT Ndulalja|sru(dr|r|-rovlja)srlp(ocesceu|srlvpjere|rdulosedaz|ldjalluljesrp(p(e(jer sle(||e l rdusrl|p.sr. luo| |ap||a(). P(oces| | rdulaljes zrv|||orel pa rd|||r|r e purs s jasrlre. po( pas| c vel p(oces| |(vrel srur srpejl rurdel l ros v(erel rd(vsr|r| | rxerls|s re ((elr|rr. Ve u|jer e srlvpjes djal rdulaljes o|e edre lerpe(alu(a e |rdul ose e daz|l. Kjo rdodr djal zvod||r|l l ere(dj|s s o(erdsrre l |rdul ose daz|l p( sr|a| l ((|ljes (ap|de l ((vr|r|l l |rdul ose daz|l rp( p(e(jer e rdusrl. 1.10.BARTJA E NXEHTSIS Esr e rjoru( se rxerls|a rda l(up| | rxerl |a|or r al l llorl. E|z|slojr l(| rrv(a l oa(ljes s rxerls|s dre alo jar: me re ven|r ne veor|m. me rransler|mone me rrezar|m a.) Bartja e nxehtsis me t vnit n veprim 8a(ljaerxerls|srelvr|lrvep(|r|(vrel|u(ere(dj|a|rxerls|a)oa(lelre|orla|ld|(e|lrres ro|e|u|ave l rj l(up| ose r res ro|e|u|ave l r srur l(upave l c||l jar r rj |orla|l l r|( le(r||. 3|r(asl|repa(asrluedrerldvl|rro|e|u|al|ado(zojrere(dj|relv(ero|e|u|avelc|rje.8a(ljae ere(dj|srdarj(aro|e|u|rljel(rsrlerjjls||u(serelopalrlusrreo||a(dos.|udod|ljaoa(lel rdarj(|loprljel(|r.P.sr..rserj(aaresrul(srela|||erxerelrel|a|ere(dj|aerxerls|sdol ((jedr rda ara e rxerl r al l llorl. |2)T(upal l c||l e p(ojr r|( rxerls|r jar p(ues |oa|(|. a|ur|r|. re|u(|). T(upal l c||l e p(ojr doolrxerls|rjar|zo|alo(|po||u(elar.sl|(opo(|.lapzdje(uese.|esr||xrar|l).Aj(|srldj|lrasrlurj(| rd( p(ues|l r l dool l rxerls|s. Va(( r l(s| l(upal e rdu(l jar p(ues r l r|( l rxerls|s se sa ala l |rdl. |u(se l |rdl r l r|( se sa ala l dazl. b.) Bartja e nxehtsis me transferim 8a(lja e rxerls|s re l(arsle(|r |(vrel rp(rjel d(|rcave. l l|u|d|l l dazl ose l |rdl. l c||al |v|z|r djal ((vr|r|l |((jedrjes). Te ca(|u|||r| | ralv(srr. sr|a|u | ((vr|r|l srl d|le(erca r pesr. l l|u|d|l llors |arl|u|d||rxerl.|u(seleca(|u|||r|a(l|l|c|a|((vr|r|rep(odrorp(z|e(s|oseverl||alo(|.Nldv(aslel d(|rcal e ra((|r rxerls|r p(ej ru(|l sr|roves l rxerls|s dre e oa(l|r r pjesr ljel( l |lr|rs. Pas| c 3

d(|rcaldo(zojrrxerls|r.p(s(||lrererrl(uplrxerldre|srlup(oces|p(s(|lel.Nlrjjlr rrv( rxerls|a oa(lel edre r |arer e |urd(l. |2) 8a(lja e rxerls|s re l(arsle(|r rurd l |orl(o||orel. p.sr.. rse srl r pvelje ca(|u|||r| a(l|l|c|a| re ((|ljer dre zvod||r|r e rur(|l le ((olu|||reve l verl||alo(|l. .) Bartja e nxehtsis me rrezatim R(ezal|r|srloa(ls|rxerls|srerd|rrreva|velrxerla.0jalsc||srxerls|aoa(lelrda rj(| l(up r ljel(|r pa rd(rjels|r. p(ardaj rxerls|a r |l rrv( rurd l oa(lel edre rp( va|ur. dol(uprurdlp(arojoseld(dojere(dj||rxerls|)rp(rjelva|versee|z|slord|le(ercalerpe(alu(||e. Ku(rresldvl(upaveru|e|z|slord|le(ercalerpe(alu(||e.alre(sr|ro|r||ere(dj|s|rxerls|s) srl r e|u|||o(. |2)Nda p(d|lsrr(|a srl | rjoru( srerou||| | oa(ljes s rxerls|s re ((ezal|r: rda d|e||| |ar p|arel| vr. 3as|aerxerls|slc||erep(arordre|jeprdorjl(up|rearl((ezal|r|l.va(elrdadjerdjae s|p(laces.T(upalc|arrdjv(alrd(|lu(adres|p(lacel|ruesrrerdoollr|lr|rdre((ezalojr rxerls|r se sa alo c |ar s|p(lace l v(azrd dre rdjv(a l e((la. |2) Np(a|l||jar(aslel((a||arlc||ale|z|slorvelrrjrrv(p(oa(ljererxerls|s.3rur srpesrrurdlras|rrjl(arsle(|rl|oro|rua(lrxerls|srp(rjellvep(ua(|l|lver|lrvep(|r). oa(ljes |l(arsle(|r|l) ose ((ezal|r|l. |2) Noa(ljererxerls|srurdlrd||orelred|le(ercalerpe(alu(||e.3araeradreljeld|le(erca lerpe(alu(||e ac ra e radre srl edre oa(lja e rxerls|s. 1.11. TEMPERATURA DHE MATJA E TEMPERATURS Terpe(alu(asrl|rd||alo(|||rlers|lel|llrxerls|soser|ve|||rxerls|ssrale(|es.\el lerpe(alu(aru|el(edorsas|rerxerls|srrale(|e.Ajol(edorsr|a||rerxerls|s.osesasrle rd(orl apo e llorl rale(|a ose l(up|. Njs|ap(raljerelerpe(alu(ssrl|e|v|r||K).Np(do(|rjaredresr|a||lece|s|us|l|6)dre sr|a||a e Fa(errajl|l |F). Rapo(l| | |lv(e rjs|ve srl srrua( r srr|rel e 3rlojcs. N leo(|r ro|e|u|a(e ro| rxerls|r. lerpe(alu(a l(edor srpejls|r e |v|zjes s aloreve |ro|e|u|ave). 3as|aerxerls|srrale(|erlv(lelsrlrasaerale(|esesrurzua(rlerpe(alu(resaj|re srpejls|r e |v|zjes s aloreve). P.sr.. rj p||a| e vod| oa|(| e (rd d|sa d(ar.e rxeru( r Z2ZC.ru| p(roar ac srur rxerls| s||u(se pes |||od(ar oa|( e rxeru( r 110C. Vedj|lral r|ve|| | rxerls|s r p||a|r e vod| l oa|(|l srl r | |a(l p(|als|srl |rlers|lel| | rxerls|s s saj srl r | radr. Terpe(alu(a srl vel| p( sr|a| l s c||s l(up| srl ose s'srl r rd(orje e|u|||o(uese re rdorjl(up ljel(. |2) Vo|e|u|alerale(|esdj|lrrj|v|z|r.3araerd(orlsrlrale(|a.acraeradredojel|v|zjae ro|e|u|ave.0jallerpe(alu(sT=0K[t=-273,156}.p(|als|srlze(osaoso|ule.l(s|srlrda|el|v|zjae ro|e|u|ave. djedjs|srl rale(|a srl pa rxerls|. P(ardaj. |jo srl lerpe(alu(a r e u|l e rurdsrre e c||a rurd l a((|rel. Terpe(alu(a ralel re le(rorel(. E|z|slojr le(rorel(: l |rdl |zr|v: a||oo|: elaro|: perlar) le(ro (ez|slues. o|rela|||. p|(orel(|||(ad|jac|or||. opl||. loloe|e|l(||). elj. 4

1.12. SHTYPJA DHE MATJA E SHTYPJES 3rlvpja srl luc|a s|pas rjs|s s s|p(laces. Njs|a p( raljer e srlvpjes srl Pas|a|| |Pa). Pas|a|| srl Njulor| |N) p( rel( |al(o( |Pa=N/r). Esrl e rjoru( se lo|a srl e psrlje||u( re srl(es aj(| |alrosle(||) re rj l(asrs| p(ej 120 |r. Kjo srl(es re pesrr e vel rd||or r s|p(lace l lo|s. p(|als|srl or srlvpje r l. Kjo srlvpje curel srlvpja alrosle(||e.3rlvpjaro(ra|ealrosle(||err|ve|ldel|lsrl101.3|Pa.P(eja(svevep(a|l||esrpesrre( |rsl(urerlel jar l |a||o(ua(a r 100 |Pa p( srlvpje alrosle(||e. 3rlvpja.revod|rdasrlvpjaalrosle(||ecurelva|ur|pjes(|srr.Ze(ojarsr|a||resrlvpjes aoso|ule srl v|e(a e c||a r srur ru| rurd l zo(|lel. \a|ur|r| pe(le|l a((|rel r0 Pa. N s|sler|r Are(||ar l raljeve. rjs|a p( raljer e srlvpjes srl lunr p( |n ne |al(o( |ps|). 3rlvpja ro(ra|eealrosle(srr|ve|dela(srl11.Zps|.N|ls|slerrals.srlvpjaro|srlvpjeralrosle(||eralel re ps|. |u(se srlvpja rr srlvpjer alrosle(||e ralel re |r r srlv||r e zr|vs ||r.ld). Njs|lp(raljeresrlvpjeslc||alrp(a|l||erdep(do(erjar:8a(|oa().Alrosle(a|ro(ra|e)l|z||e |alr). Alrosle(a le|r||e |al). lo( |lo().Rapo(l| | rjs|ve p( srlvpje srl drr r |(vel|lu|||r e 'srlojcs'. P( srlvpje p(do(er edre le(r|rel: aoso|ule dre (e|al|ve. 3rlvpje aoso|ule ose ''(ea|e'' l|||or rda ajo p|| |u s|a la(e srlvpje. p(|als|srlp= 0 Pa. 3rlvpja(e|al|vel|||orrdasrlvpjaalrosle(||ep=101.3|PA|rp(a|l||100|Pa)drer|rsl(urerl srrorel re ze(o. 3r||o lolor 1-Z. 3rlvpja ralel re rarorel(. N llorje r s srurl| p(do(er rarorel(al l c||l purojr r p(|rc|p|r e luoavel8u(durov|lose((sr|c|l.Ndasr|acelp(a|l||e.pas|crrrr|jeralersrlvpjelro|drerr alrosle(||e.p(do(elrarova|urel(|.Aloojrraljeresrlvpjes(e|al|ve.Nsesrlerevojsrre.srlvpja aoso|ule |erl ||oda(|lel: P.sr..rarova|urel(|l(edor200|Pa.Nsero||drell(edues|rrarova|urel(resrlvpjer alrosle(||e l|lorel srlvpja aoso|ule.200 |Pa 101.3 |Pa = 301.3 |Pa. P(raljeresrlvpjesrlvod|seajoalrosle(||e.p(|als|srlva|ur|llpjes(|srrp(do(el vakumerr| P||r|sja p( raljer e va|ur|l srl srlvpja alrosle(||e. 5

Fig.1.7Matja e shtypjes relative dhe absolute 6

1.13.PUNA DHE FUQIA P( l sje|| rj djserd rda djerdja celsuese r al l |v|zsrre. c l rd((orel poz|la e l|j. elj. srl e revojsrre l rposrlel lo(ca e l|j r ((ud l p(ca|lua(. djedjs|srl l |(vrel rdorj pur. E |urd(la. rdorj l(up rurdel p( sr|a| l poz|ls se vel. |v|zjes ose srlvpjes. l jel r djerdje la |(vej rdorj pur .|2) Njs|a p( pur srl Xru|| |J). Xru|| srl | oa(aoa(l re purr c e |(ver lo(ca p(ej rj Njulor| |N) p( l |v|zu( p||r e vel l vep(|r|l. r d(ejl|r dre |are l lo(cs. p( rj rel( |1J = 1N x 1r). Ere(dj|asrlalls|aoserurds|aerjl(up|p(l|(ve(rjpur.P(|la(sve.puradreere(dj|a rurderl|derl|l||orers|lrjjla.Ere(dj|asrlepasr|al((ua(.Nu|rurdellzrdu|el.po(joedrel |(|jorel rda asdjja. Ajo velr rurd l |a|oj rda rj lo(r r ljel(r.Noazlvel|vel|z||erdaec||a((jedralls|ael(up|lcl|(vejrjpur.da||orerd|sa||ojel ere(dj|s:E. le(r||e: E. e|e|l(||e: E. re|ar||e: E. ||r||e elj. Noazle|spe(|rerlevedrelesl|revesrurvjea(erl|z||.srla(dru(de(|l((edu||aerjoru( p( e|u|va|ercr e purs dre rxerls|s e c||a lrol: Nxerls|a srl rj ||oj ere(dj|e rda e c||a rurd l l|lorel pura. ose rda pura rurd l l|lorel rxerls|a. |a do l lrol r lurd se rxerls|a dre ere(dj|a e pursrurd l |a|ojr rda rj(a lo(r re ljel(r.|2) Fuc|asrlpurarrjs|re|ors.Njs|aeluc|ssrlval||w).\al|srlluc|arelc||r|(vrel pura p(ej rj Xru| |J) r rj se|ord |1w = 1J / 1s). 1.14. KAPACITETI I FTOHJES Nxerls|a c | re((el l(up|l l lloru( curel rxerls|a e llorjes dre ralel re rjs|l p( raljer e ere(dj|s- rexru||J).Ku(l||oda(|lelsarxerls|re((elrrjs|re|ors|J/s).l|lorel|apac|lel|l|llorjes.Rezu|lal| l|lorel r rjs|r e luc|s - re val |w). 7

2.PRINCIPIIFTOHJES 2.1. N PRGJITHSI Paj|sjelllorse|arp(delv(cl(upalosedjserdell'|roajrrrjlerpe(alu(rlu|lse lerpe(alu(a e ((elr|rs. 0 rdorj rale(|e l llorel ajo durel l sje||l r |orla|l re rale(|er r l llorl. r l c||r durel l l(arsrelorel rxerls|a rda rale(|a e c||a durel l llorel. Vurds|ap(a|l||ep(a((|ljerelerpe(alu(srlu|lselerpe(alu(ae((elr|rs.srl(|relr rurds|r c sec||| p(oces ralv(o( | c||| |(vrel p(ar p(cje||jes dre aoso(o|r|l l rxerls|s. l jel e srl(vlzua( p( llorje. P(a|l|||srl p(do(er |lo p(|rc|pe: -rd(vsr|r| | djerdjes ad(edale. djedjs|srl rd(vsr|r| | lazs s rale(|es |sr|(|(ja. avu|||r|. suo||r|r|): -e|spars|or| | daz|l l |orp(|r|rua( |aj(|l) p(ar l|l|r|l l purs s doo|srre: -rdulalja |ele|l| | Jou|-|l - Trorsor-|l): -ele|l| slur|-ro(: -ele|l| le(roe|e|l(||: -deso(oc|r| | daz(ave: -ele|l| radrel||-|a|o(|e. |1) Florjapa(l||u|a(eep(ocesevelrda(a|sr|(|(jaea|u|||l.v||r|dreavu|||r||rdorj|rdu|erlavu||ues. suo||r|r| | a|u|||l l lral. rdulalja e daz(ave elj.) rurd l zdjal ac djal de(|sa l |el l(upa purues. 0 llorja l jel e pard(p(e(. l(upal purues llors durel l jer r sas|(a l rdra l pa|ul|srre. Florja e pard(p(e( rurdll|loreledreasrlurecdjl|u|d|llors.pasasajpas|cs|du(|srlsas|ael|u|d|l|a|(ve(ele|l|re pa(aca|lu( l llorjes. do l |lrerel r rrv( e vo||lsrre r djerdjer e rpa(srre |p(oces| ca(|o(). djal s c||s rxerls|a e llorjes dre sas|a e srlua( e ere(dj|s durel l'| do(zorer rdorj l(up| r l rxerl r rjed|s. 3as|a e srlua( e ere(dj|s rurd l l|lorel rda pura re|ar||e. r lo(r l ere(dj|s s rxerls|s ose r c||r do lo(r ljel( l ere(dj|s. |1) 3as|a e srlua( e ere(dj|s r p(oces|r e llorjes srl e revojsrre c l s|du(oj c rxerls|a l |a|oj rda l(up| | llorl r al l rxerl. Ndap(|rc|pelellorjesl|a(lp(rerdu(a.rd(vsr|r||djerdjesad(edaledrerdulaljael|u|d|l|ar p(do(|r|r r l dje(. 2.2. LLOJET E PAJISJEVE FTOHSE Paj|sjel llorse l c||al r s srurl| p(do(er: 1.Paj|sjel aj(o(e p( llorje 2.Paj|sjel llorse Eje|lo(||e 3.Paj|sjel llorse Aoso(ouese 1.Paj|sjel llorse Korp(eso(||e5.Paj|sjel llorse Te(roe|e|l(||e Npaj|sjelllorsere|orp(eso(rxerls|aesrlua(srlrlo(rlpursre|ar||e.Npaj|sjel llorseaoso(osuesedrepaj|sjeleje|lo(||ep(llorjerxerls|aesrlua(srlrlo(rlere(dj|ss rxerls|s. |u(se r paj|sjer llorse le(roe|e|l(||e srl r lo(r l ere(dj|s e|e|l(||e. Paj|sjel llorse re |orp(eso(. aoso(ouese dre eje|lo(||e dre ra||ral aj(o(e p( llorje. p( e|ze|ul|r|r ec||||llllorjessrl(vlzojrp(oces|re|orp(es|r|lr|upl|r|redje(llja|sdre|lopaj|sjep(llorje |ar edre v|e(r p(a|l||e r l radre.8

Paj|sjel llorse eje|lo(||e dre re |orp(eso( s|du(ojr rj rd(vsr|r |orl|rua| ose pe(|od|| l rd(vsr|r|l l djerdjesad(edalelrale(|esec||asr(oers|rjelllors.p(de(|sara||raaj(o(ep(llorjeru|eojr rd(vsr|r|r e djerdjes ad(edale. Paj|sjelllorsere|orp(es|orre|ar||.p(|als|srlpaj|sjelre|orp(eso(lc||lra(xrojrere(dj| re|ar||e.|arrjdorerrldje(srl(vlzues.N(apo(lrevel|l|orsl(u|l|ve|s|e|(verp(oces|re lr|lrjes dre srlvpjes) |(ves|srl p(do(er |la ||oj l |orp(eso(ve: -re p|slor: -s|(u|| |sc(o||): -re (olac|or: -v|jo( |r lo(r v|de): -lu(oo |orp(eso(. 2.3.CIKLI I FTOHJES I PAJISJES KOMPRESORIKE 2.3.1. FITIMI I PANDRPRER I FTOHJESN PROCESIN QARKOR Nsel|u|d|lllors|rd|rjel|lllors)|s|||elrxerls|ap(ej((elr|rs a|doll|||ojlavu||orel.rse |usrleljarrr|ve|l|racsrr:srlvpjadrelerpe(alu(a.N(asl|redvl.rsel|u|d|llorss|||elral djerdje c lerpe(alu(a el|j l jel r e u|l selerpe(alu(a e ((elr|rs. a| dj|lrasrlu do ll|||ojl avu||orel. Terpe(alu(a r e u|l e l|u|d|l llors rda lerpe(alu(a e ((elr|rs sr|a|lor c l|u|d| llors l re(( rxerls|r p(ej rjed|s|l. p(|als|srl rxerls|a sporlar|srl rda rjed|s| do l |a|oj r l|u|d|r llors. N l dv (aslel rjed|s| orelr|llorl.Vjed|s|rurdlllorelpard(p(e(velrrsel|u|d|llorssrlrsas|(alrdral pa|ul|zuesrre. Nse |a |l|u|d llors) r sas| l |ul|zua( dre e |a lerpe(alu(r r l u|l se sa ((elr|ra dre srlrrsrlvpjereca|lua(.l|u|d|llorsdolllor((elr|rrvelrde(|alre(|u(dol|ell|u|dllors. d.r.lr de(| sa | l(| ru| avu||orel. Nse rjed|s| srl rj raps|( e rov||u( dre e |ul|zua(. p.sr. |oro(e e c||a durel l llorel. edre pse l|u|d| llors s| rj |rd ||erl avu||ues djerdel r paj|sje r l c||r do l avu||orel. djedjs|srl avu||ues| edre pse l|u|d| llors |a rj lerpe(alu( r l u|l se sa raps|(a r |oro(.do l v|e de(| leavu|||r| | l|j. F|u|d| llorsravu||uesdolavu||orelde(|salerpe(alu(ar|oro(eru|zo(elde(|rlerpe(alu(reavu|||r|l. Alre(vjerde(|lerd(p(e(jaeavu|||r|l.pas|cru||ad|le(ercrlerpe(alu(alrresavu||ues|ldre |oro(s.Nseru||ad|le(erclerpe(alu(||e.ru||a|a||rlrxerls|s.0.r.lr..avu||ues|.(espe|l|v|srl l|u|d| llors. r ru| rurdel l re(( rxerls|r rda |oro(e-ja. 0 l|u|d| llors. | c||| lar| srl r djerdje l avu||l.p(s(|ljel|allcle|ze|ulojele|l|rllorslca|lua(.durelrrdorjrrv(l|lrerelr djerdjer e rpa(srre. 0jedjs|srl. durel l ||(orel rda rxerls|a l c||r e |a ra(( r |oro(e.Esrl e d|lu( se avu||| rurd l ||(orel rda rxerls|a r p(oces|r e |orders|r|l. Paj|sja r l c|||r l|u|d| llorsrdjerdjereavu||ldol|ordersorel.p(a|ordersalo(|.durellverdoseljasrl|oro(sec||a llorel.Avu||ues| dre |ordersalo(| durel l jer l ||dru(a re ar l luoave. Tar| ra |ajr(orer dv p(oo|ere.E pa(a. s| rurd l v|j l|u|d| llors rda avu||ues| r |ordersalo(? 0re e dvla. s| l |ordersorel l|u|d| llors |c l||(orelrdarxerls|a)|u(e|alerpe(alu(rrlu|lsesalerpe(alu(aerjed|s|l?Tdvp(oo|erel zdj|drer re |orp(eso(. Korp(eso(|verdoselrresavu||ues|ldre|ordersalo(|ldreralrrv(rdaavu||ues|llr|lr avu|||r e l|u|d|l llors. dre c r |ordersalo( l srlvj avu|||r e l|u|d|l llors. V lulje. |orp(eso(| do la zdj|dr edrep(oo|er|redvl.asrlucresrlvpje||orp(es|or|r)avu|||rel|u|d|lllorslasje||rsrlvpjerrl |a(l. djedjs|srl r lerpe(alu( r l |a(l. P( l purua( |orp(eso(| durel l ra(xroj ere(dj|. Nj pjes e |saj ere(dj|e rp(rjel purs re|ar||e. d.r.lr.re|orp(es|r|do(zorell|u|d|lllors.P(a.l|u|d|llorsdolare((sas|resrlua(lere(dj|s. (espe|l|v|srl sas|r e srlua( l rxerls|s. Pas| c lasr avu||| | l|u|d|l llors srl r |ordersalo(. |u djerdel 9

r rj lerpe(alu( r l |a(l rda lerpe(alu(a e rjed|s|l. vjer de(| le |a||r| sporlar | rxerls|s. Avu||| | l|u|d|l llors |a do(zor rxerls|r rjed|s|l dre r rj lerpe(alu( l ca|lua( |ordersorel r l|u|d llors l |rdl. F|u|d| llors | |rdl r |ordersalo( |a srlvpjer e rjjl s| avu||| | srlvpu( r da|je l |orp(eso(|l. F|u|d| llors | |ordersua( p( sr|a| l djerdjes s srlvpjes s |a(l dre lerpe(alu(s s |a(l rr l c||al djerdel. ru| srl | p(srlalsrr p( avu|||r. N srlvpjel r l |a(la durer sas| r l vod|a l rxerls|s p( avu|||r. N p(a|l|| redj|lraldurelcrdaraps|(aelloru(l|a(dorelsas|sareradreerxerls|s.0.r.lr.l|u|d|llors durel l jel r srlvpje r l u|l. 0j|lrasrlu. p(oo|er pa(acel edre ajo c lerpe(alu(a e l|u|d|l llors r da|je rda |ordersalo(| srl r e radre se lerpe(alu(a r |oro( e c||| llorel. 3rlvpjadrelerpe(alu(ael|u|d|lrurdlu|erdjalp(oces|llrdulaljes.P(ala(sverres |ordersalo(|l dre avu||ues|l verdosel luo| |ap||a( s| rj e|ererl rdulals. F(eor| | |rdl llors r da|je l luo|l |ap||a(drerrv(jelavu||ues|l.|asrlvpjerdrelerpe(alu(rrlu|l.P(a.lar|l|u|d|llorsravu||ues djerdel r rj lerpe(alu( r l u|l se lerpe(alu(a e |oro(s dre p(ap srl | all l e|ze|uloj ele|l|r e p(ca|lua( l llorjes. (espe|l|v|srl c la re(( sas|r e ca|lua( l rxerls|s rda '|oro(a dre r |l rrv( la llor al.Esrl e ca(l se r |l rrv( p(oces| srl (||lrve( r l||||r. Ksrlu srl l|lua( llorja e pard(p(e( r p(oces|r ca(|o(.

2.3.2. PROCESI I FTOHJES DHE ELEMENTET E PAJISJES KOMPRESORIKE Paj|sja |orp(eso(||e p( llorje puror r p(|rc|p|r e c||||l llors |orp(eso(|| re avu||. Kv c||| r lrere|p(orel rda rd(vsr|rel e djerdjes ad(edale l l|u|d|l llors. |orp(es|r|l dre rdulaljes s l|u|d|l llors. E|ererlel |(veso(e l paj|sjes llorse |orp(eso(||e jar: -Kompre8or|-|(verlr|lrjerel|u|d|lllorslsrlvpjessu|ldresrlvpjer||orp(es|r|r)elrjjl|ll|u|d llors r rj srlvpje r l|a(l: -Konden8ator|-rd(vsror djerdjer ad(edale l l|u|d|l llors. rda avu||| r |rd. du|e |a l(arsle(ua( djal |sajrxerls|r ((elr|rs. -Tub| kap||ar-re rdulalje e u| srlvpjer e l|u|d|l llors. rda srlvpja |ordersuese r srlvpje l avu|||r|l. -Avu||ue8|-rd((ordjerdjerad(edalell|u|d|lllors.p(ej|rdulravu||.du|e|ara((djal|sajrxerls|r ((elr|rs ||oro(s p( llorje). Klo e|ererle oaz r res vele jar l ||dru(a r ca(| l rov||u( re luoa. rp( l c||l ca(|u||or rjel| llors.3|rjelellorsep(do(er|rdjel|erlavu||uese.p(a.c||||puruesrlv(lelsrlc||||llorsre avu||. Korp(eso(|p(ejavu||ues|lelr|lrl|u|d|rllorsrdjerdjeldazlrrsrlvpjelca|lua(.esrlvprrj srlvpjerl|a(ldreed(dorr|ordersalo(.F|u|d|llorsr|ordersalo(djerdelrlo(rlavu|||l.|a do(zor rxerls|r aj(|l p((elr dre e rd((or djerdjer e l|j ad(edale. do l lrol |ordersorel r |rd. Edre r luljel|u|d|llors|asrlvpjel|a(l(espe|l|v|srl|asrlvpjerdjesrse||orp(esuese)l|orp(eso(|l. p(|als|srl|asrlvpje|ordersuese.Vluljerda|ordersalo(|l|u|d|llorsrdjerdjel|rdl|a|orrp( luo|r |ap||a(. Tuo| |ap||a( re rdulalje e u| srlvpjer e |rdul l l|u|d|l llors. Lrdu | l|u|d| llors lar| |a srlvpje rlu|l.(espe|l|v|srl|asrlvpjeravu||uese.(espe|l|v|srl|asrlvpjerlr|lrsel|orp(eso(|l.Lrdu|l|u|d| llorsrralsrlvpjervrravu||uese.Navu||ues|rdu|l|u|d|llors|are((rxerls|raj(|lp(((elr ||oro(s p( llorje) dre e rd(vsror djerdjer e l|j ad(edale. d.r.lr avu||orel. F|u|d| llors srl lasr r djerdje ad(edaleldazl.(espe|l|v|srlrdjerdjelavu||l.edrerluljerrlrjjlrsrlvpje.Ndaavu||ues| |orp(eso(|lr|lravu|||resrlvpjessu|l.esrlvrrrjsrlvpjerl|a(ldreed(dorr|ordersalo(. 3r||o l|d. 3-1. 2

Fig. 3-1. Pajisja kryesore ftohse kompresorike 3| po v(erel. l|u|d| llors. pas| c |a |(ve( ele|l|r llors l p(ca|lua( ||oro(a p( llorje srl e llorl). srl |lrve( r djerdjer e l|j l r pa(srre. re c p(oces| ca(|o( srl rov||u(. P(a. srpjed|r| | c||||l llors srl rj p(oces purues ca(|o(. 2.4.CIKLI I FTOHJES I PAJISJES KOMPRESORIKE Npi-DIAGRAM N l|d. 3-2 srl l(edua( leo(|||srl c|||| llors | paj|sje |orp(eso(||e r o|-d|ad(ar|r s|pas Vo||e(|l.'No(d|ralsrldrrsrlvpja5.|u(serapsr|serla|p|aspec|l||e|.Edresrlvpjaedreerla|p|a jar radrs| l djerdjeve. p(ardaj djerdja e rdorj l(up| r |l d|ad(ar pa(ac|lel re p||. |u(se rd(vsr|r| | djerdjeve re ||rj |d(ejlz). 0 d|ad(ar| l jel sa r | pascv(ua( r o(d|ral r s srpesrl| p(sr|(urel re |odor 5 e jo re p. P( ||oda(|ljer p(a|l||e l paj|sjeve |orp(eso(||e p( llorje o|-d|ad(ar| srl | p(srlalsrr sepser|lopaj|sjesr|roerersas|lerxerls|s.po(edrepuraera(xrua(.|ajr(orers|da|||rel erla|p|s.l c||r r aosr|se srl |erl p( la |exua(. |1) Fig. 3-2 Cikli teorik i ftohjes s pajisjes kompresorike 2

F|u|d| llors | |ordersua( r da|je l |ordersalo(|l srl r djerdjer A e c||a srl(|rel r ||rjr e |rdul l rdopu(. Lrdu | l|u|d|l llors p( |l a(sve r p||r A |a lerpe(alu( T |lerpe(alu(a e |orders|r|l). srlvpje o |srlvpja e |orders|r|l) dre erla|p|a r |o. Ku( |rdu |l|u|d|l llors |a|or rp(luo|r |ap||a( djerdja el|j p( sr|a| l rdulaljes rd((orel p(ej p||s A de(| le p||a 8. Kv rd(vsr|r | djerdjes srl | revojsrr c l|u|d| llors | |rdl l o|e r srlvpjer p0 |srlvpja e avu|||r|l) e c||a rlrjjlr|or|usrlzorlerpe(alu(rTo|lerpe(alu(aeavu|||r|l).Erla|p|aedjerdjessl|u|dvellors srl erde |0. sepse rxerls|a djal p(oces|l l rdulaljes as ru| srlorel e as ru| re((el. Nrv(jelavu||ues|l.p||a8.l|u|d|llorssrlp(z|e(jee|rduldreeavu|||l.p(de(|sarda|jerda avu||ues|. p||a C. l|u|d| llors srl r djerdjel avu|||ll rdopu(.3rlvpja drelerpe(alu(a e l|u|d|lllors r p||r C srl e rjjl s||u(se r p||r 8. po( pas| c avu||ues|. djedjs|srl l|u|d| llors |a aoso(oua( rxerls|r rda raps|(a llorse. erla|p|ja |a rd(vsrua( r|1. Ku( l|u|d| llors |a|or rp( |orp(eso( djerdja e l|j rd(vsror p(ej p||s C de(| le p||a 0. 3rlvpja e l(eor|l llors ((|lel de(| le srlvpja |ordersuese o. Terpe(alu(a ((|lel de(| Tp( |lerpe(alu(a e avu|||l l lejrxeru() e c||a srlre|a(lselerpe(alu(ae|orders|r|lT.sepseavu||||l|u|d|lllorsrda|jel|orp(eso(|lsrlr djerdje l lejrxerl. Pas| c l|u|d| llors |a p(arua( rj ere(dj| srles r lo(r l rxerls|s dre p( sr|a| l |saj erla|p|ja srlrd(vsrua( r |2. N rv(je l |ordersalo(|l. p||a 0. l|u|d| llors srl r djerdje avu||| l lejrxeru( r srlvpjer o. Nxerls|a p(ej|ordersalo(|l|a|orr((elr|r.p(ejp||s0de(|lep||aA.drep(lc|||rsr|a|erla|p|ap(aprd(vsror dje( r radrs|r e djerdjes s l|u|d|l llors|0 |p||a A). Npjesrepa(l|ordersalo(|l.p(ejp||s0de(|lep||aE.vjerde(|lerd(vsr|r||djerdjessl|u|d|l llorsrdaavu||||lejrxeru(ravu||lrdopu(|p||aE).P(ejp||sEde(|lep||aAl|u|d|llors||(orelrda rxerls|a djal srlvpjes |orslarle p dre lerpe(alu(s |orslarle T. N p(a|l|| c|||| llors du|el pa|sa rd(vsre rda p|-d|ad(ar|. 3r||or| l|d.3-3 Fig. 3-3. Cikli ftohs i pajisjes kompresorike n praktik P(ej |ordersalo(|l l|u|d| llors de| s| |rd pa|z |lloru(. N d|ad(ar |jo srl l(edua( rda p||a A de(|le p||a A1. P( sr|a| l pot|ad|vanja l|u|d| llors srl ||(ua( edre p(ej rj pjes l rxerls|s p( |a |a alls| l aoso(ooj r srur rxerls| rda raps|(a e lloru( djal p(oces|l l avu|||r|l.Nlv(lel.p(oces||avu|||r|lll|u|d|lllorsl|||orrerjre(rvelrv(jelavu||ues|lr||oda(|l rxerls|ssvel|rdul.paslajr||oda(|lrxerls|srdaraps|(aelloru(.ec||a|a|orrp(ru(ele 22

avu||ues|l. Nda |jo ((jedr c l|u|d| llors re rj sas| l vod| l rxerls|s r vele durel l| re(( rj sas| r l radre l rxerls|s raps|(s s lloru(. Nda avu||ues| l|u|d| llors de| pa|z s| avu|| | lejrxeru(. N d|ad(ar |jo srl l(edu rda p||a 6 de(| le p||a 61.Tejrxerja e avu|||l srl e dorosdosrre p( a(sve cl ev|lorel ((ez||ul c |orp(eso(| l oj lr|lrjer e avu|||ll|adsrlrdaavu||ues|.sepseral(aslrurdlv|jede(|le4o|r|ae|enerdredrl|r|| |orp(eso(|l. 2.5.PROCESI I CIKLIT FTOHS N PAJISJEN KOMPRESORIKE 0ldj|lrap(oceselrc||||rllorsca(|o(lara||zorerdre|uplorerl(s|srl.dureld|lu(r|( le(rod|rar||rdrere|ar||rel|u|d|l.Nle|sl|rerlejrdolsrpjedorerd|sap(oceserl (rds|srre. po( sa l jel e rurdu( do l| lrjesrlsojr alo. Avu||| | c||| avu||orel ro| l|u|d|r llors r avu||ues srl avu|| | |rdl | rdopu(. Ku( l avu||orel edre p||a e lurd|l e |rdul alre( a| srl avu|| | lra( | rdopu(.Korp(eso(| e lr|lr |l avu|| rda avu||ues| dre e srlvp |ar |ordersalo(|. Po ce se |orp(eso(| lr|lr avu|||r e |adl rda avu||ues| |v(erel vesa r luo|r lr|lrs de(| le |orp(eso(| dre luo| srlvps | llorl) do l v|rle de(|le rurojel e rdra r c|||rd(|r e |orp(eso(|l. dre do l e|z|slorle ((ez||u rda 'dod|lja e |rdl. P(oces||lr|lrjess|adsrl|s:'Nl||||rllr|lrjesru(elec|||rd(|l.p(|als|srlru(eleraps|(s puruese jar l rd(orla rda srlvpja e rpa(srre. ardaj avu||| | llorl dre | |rdl | lr|lru( p(aror rxerls|r rdaru(elec|||rd(|l.p(sr|a|lsc|||ldolavu||orelpjesae|rdleavu|||ll|adsrl.Kjo|as|((jedroj |pasoj) zvod||r|r e rousrjes s c|||rd(|l. |a do l lrol c c|||rd(| durel l jel ou|u( srur r | radr. 0jal p(oces|l l rluljesrr l rdjesrjes. avu||| orel r |rd(orl rda ru(el e c|||rd(|l ardaj rxerls|a |a|or rda avu||| r ru(el e c|||rd(|l. 0jal |saj rurd l v|je de(| le |orders|r| | pjes(|srr | avu|||l r ru(el e c|||rd(|l recdjrurdlrasje||de(|ledod|ljae|rdl.P(sr|a|lrxerjessavu|||ldjallr|lrjes((|leledre v|||r| spec|l|| | saj. ardaj edre pura e rdjesrjes s l|u|d|l llors ((|lel. 3r|ro|r| | rxerls|s rd(rjel avu|||l dre ru(|l l c|||rd(|l jar p(ocese l pa|lrvesrre dre zvod|ojr |oel|c|erl|r e llorjes. |1) P(sr|a|lrards|velp(rerdu(allr|lrjevel|adsrla.p(oces||avu|||r|lll|u|d|lllorsr avu||ues v|jor asrlu c |orp(eso(| lr|lr avu|||r e lejrxeru(. N avu||ues|l e lral |avu||ues|l re e|sparzues d(ejlp(sd(ejl|) p(orel ac sas| e l|u|d|l sa r l edre avu||orel de(| r djerdjer e avu|||l l rdopu( l lral ose radje pa|z avu|| | lejrxeru(. Tr|lrja l|||or ve alre( |u( p|slor| |srorel ac u|l sa c srlvpja r c|||rd( l jel r e u|l rda srlvpja e avu|||r|l.3asrlsrlvpjaeavu|||r|leu|l.rjasrluedrep|slor|durelldjerdelrpoz|lreu|l.Pas|c v|||r| | doo|srr | avu|||l l lr|lru( ralel rda poz|la l|||esla(e lr|lrse de(| r p||r e vde|u( r l u|l. srl e a(l c do l lr|lrel r pa| l|u|d llors. rse poz|la e p|slor|l c rda l||||r| | lr|lrjes srl e u|l. Pas| c l|u|d| llorssrloa(ls|rxerls|ssl(recu(.|jodollrolcedresas|aeasajrxerls|edoljelre vod|. d.r.lr. do l jel r | vod| edre |apac|lel llors | |orp(eso(|l. R(|lja e srlvpjes s |orders|r|l dj|lrasrlu ra sje|| de(| le zvod||r| | |apac|lel|l llors. Ku( p|slor| l|||or l |v|z|a(l.v|||r|zvod|orel.|u(sesrlvpja((|lel.Ku(srlvpjarc|||rd(orelreradrerdasrlvpjae |orders|r|l.alre(avu||||a|orr|ordersalo(.Nsesrlvpjae|orders|r|lsrlreradresesrlvpjaopl|ra|e.p|slor|durellsr|ojedrer|a(lp(l((|lu(srlvpjer.po(re|ldolzvod|orelv|||r|. Zvod||r| | v|||r|l sr|a|lor srlvljer e edre r pa| l|u|d llors. re |l do l oa(lel rj sas| edre r e vod| e rxerls|s s l(recu(. djedjs|srl do l |er| r pa| |apac|lel |orp(eso(|| llors.0ollrol.|orp(eso(|lr|lravu|||relejrxeru(drel|||orlardjesr.Verdjesrje((|lelere(dj|ae o(erdsrreeavu|||lr||oda(|lpursre|ar||elra(xrua(p(rdjesrje.re|arar|leslorelre((|ljere lerpe(alu(s dre srlvpjes s avu|||l l l|u|d|l llors. Pura re|ar||e e ra(xrua( |) srl re l v(lel rxerls|a e srlua( " e c||a rurdsor c rxerls|a rda l(up||llorl|raps|(acllorel)l|a|orrl(up|rrlrxerl|rjed|s|r).Rapo(l||sas|ssrxerls|sl l(recu(rdal(up||llorlrlrxerldrelrxerls|sssrlua(curel|oel|c|erl||llorjest.P(|als|srl.23

|oel|c|erl||llorjessrl(apo(l||(ea||zua(|rxerls|ssllorjesedrep(alpurlra(xrua(.Koel|c|erl|| llorjes |) r ro||s|srl srl srpjedua( r le|sl|r e rlejr. Avu||| | c||| de| rda |orp(eso(| djerdel r djerdje l lejrxeru(.Pas|csrlvpjaerdjesrjessrl|derl||eresrlvpjer|ordersuese.dollrolcajod(ejlp(sd(ejl| va(el rda lerpe(alu(a e ((elr|rs l c||s l|u|d| llors |a do(zor rxerls|r. Terpe(alu(a e avu|||l l rdjesru( ll|u|d|lllorsrda|jerda|orp(eso(|va(eledrerdavel|orsl(u|s|or|||orp(eso(|l.p(ardaj|vsrlrj rd(vsr|r | za|orsrr p( ||oje l rd(vsrre. pa ra(( pa(asvsr c |usrlel e lje(al purs jar |derl||e. Kjo lerpe(alu( srl l(eduese e r|( e |ua||lel|l l |orp(eso(|l. pas| c le (ea||z|rel e doola l |orsl(u|s|oreve d|le(erca e |ua||lel|l srl r e |a(l. |3) P(a. avu||| | l|u|d|l llors r djerdjer e lejrxeru( rvr r |ordersalo(. Kl|j avu||| p( sr|a| l |orp(es|r|l | srl ((|lu( ere(dj|a e o(erdsrre. F|u|d| llors rp( |ordersalo( durel l'|a do(zoj lerpe(alu(r rjed|s|l. Kjo rxerls| ". e c||a rdarelrda l|u|d| llors. p(orel rda rxerls|a e llorjes "0. e c||a re (asl|r e avu|||r|l r avu||ues e l(recu( rda l(up| | lloru(drerdarxerls|aec||a|p(dj|djelpursre|ar||ele|ze|ulua(rdaarae|orp(eso(|l!||luc|a |rd||uese e |orp(eso(|l) do l lrol:"= " !| 3|roo|elep(do(u(arr|uplojrclja|asrlp(sas|lerxerls|srrjs|re|ors.|u(se sr|ro|rel e rxerls|s re rjed|s|r r pjesl lje(a l |rsla||r|l srl arasr|a|ua(. |1) 3rp(erja e s|p(re rurd l srrorel edre rd(vsre: " = " "ose " = " Avu||| | lejrxeru( r |ordersalo( s pa(| llorel || do(zorel rxerls|a rjed|s|l) de(| r djerdjer e rdopjes. 0jal |saj llorje lerpe(alu(a e avu|||l srpejl o|e. djedjs|srl | re((el rxerls|a. Ku( avu||| a((|r lerpe(alu(r e rdopjes. djedjs|srl lerpe(alu(r e |orders|r|l. l|||or |orders|r| | avu|||l. Avu|||l | l(r|cel rxerls|a e |orders|r|l. djal lerpe(alu(s |orslarle. de(|sa edre sas|a e lurd|l e avu|||l l l|u|d|l llors ru| |a|or r djerdje l |rdl. Edre pa(a da|jes p(ej |ordersalo(|l l|u|d| llors srl r djerdje l |rdl. Pas| c rxerls|a edre r lulje |u l(r|cel. lerpe(alu(a e l|j o|e rr lerpe(alu(r e |orders|r|l dre l|u|d| llors do l orel pjes(|srl | tej ftour. Nda l lre|sua(|l e rpa(srr. |ordersalo(| rurd l rdarel r l(| (edj|ore: - r zorr e pa( avu||| | lejrxeru( llorel de(| r rdopje. | l(r|cel rxerls|a e rdjesrre. dre lerpe(alu(a |a rj u|je l radre. - r zorr e dvl avu||| |ordersorel. l(r|cel rxerls|a |alerle e |orders|r|l. lerpe(alu(a srl |orslarle. - r zorr e l(el |rdu ||ordersal|) | lej llorl. | l(r|cel rxerls|a e rdjesrre. lerpe(alu(a |a u|je l vod| 0ollrol.lejllorja(ea||zorelralrrv(c|rdu||ordersua(.djalsrlvpjes|orslarlel |orders|r|l.rrjrrv(llorelrdalerpe(alu(ae|orders|r|lrrdorjlerpe(alu(rlu|l.Vetej ftojen ((|lel rxerls|a e llorjes - " re '(asl p(r|(sorel edre |oel|c|erl| | llorjes t. Koel|c|erl||llorjestsrl(apo(l||sas|ssrxerls|s"|l(recu(rdal(up||llorlrl(up|rrlrxerl |ar rxerls|a e srlua(" : = " / " = " / Pas| c rxerls|r e llorjes "l c||r e re(( avu||ues| va(el rda lerpe(alu(a e avu|||r|l T. |u(se sas|a e rxerls|s " l c||r e do(zor |ordersalo(| va(el rda lerpe(alu(a e |orders|r|l T| pas| c srl A" = " - ".|oel|c|erl| | llorjes rurd l del|rorel s|: = T / T - T Ndasrp(erjasr|relcp(oa(ljeresas|ssrjjllrxerls|s"durell|rveslorelrpa|pur. rse d|le(erca e lerpe(alu(ave T| - Tsrl r e vod|. 24

Ve tej ftojen r zorr e lurd|l l |ordersalo(|l. |rdu srl r lerpe(alu( r l u|l Ton rda lerpe(alu(a e |orders|r|l T| dre r al lerpe(alu( Ton rvr r luo|r |ap||a(. Pas| c srl: Ton - T < T - Tl|lorel rj ((|lje e vod| e |oel|c|erl|l l llorjes.Vlejrda|ordersalo(|l|u|d|llors||rdlrvrrluo|r|ap||a(.Tuo||ap||a(rep(oces|rerdulaljes|a rd(vsror ere(dj|r e o(erdsrre l|u|d|l llors. dre re |l edre lerpe(alu(r e l|j. N rv(je l luo|l |ap||a( l|u|d| llorssrlrsrlvpjer|ordersuese.|u(serda|jelluo|l|ap||a(e|asrlvpjereavu|||r|l.P(sr|a|l rd((|r|l l srlvpjes dre lerpe(alu(s ||(orel rxerls|a"o e c||a ra(xrorel r avu|||r|r e rj pjese l |rdul l l|u|d|l llors. Nse p(roajlja e avu|||l r |l |rd srl e vod|. do l jel r e vod| edre ruroja e rxerls|s s llorjes. dre dj|lrasrlu do l jel r e vod| edre ((|lja e purs s revojsrre p( |l ruroje l rxerls|s s llorjes.Nxerls|r "o durel la |orpersoj pura e lep(l e revojsrre. Nse |jo rxerls| "osrl r e vod|. do l jel r e vod| edre ruroja e rxerls|s s llorjes. djedjs|srl l|u|d| llors do l jel r al djerdje c do l rurdll(rec rj sas| r l radre l rxerls|s rda raps|(a e lloru(. 0j|lrasrlu. rse |jo rxerls| 0o srlr e vod|. do l jel r e vod| edre ((|lja e purs s revojsrre. E l( |jo rd||or r |oel|c|erl|r e llorjes. luroja r e radre e rxerls|s s llorjes. |oel|c|erl| | llorjes do l jel r | vod|: r srur pur e |(|ua(. dj|lrasrlu edre |oel|c|erl| r | vod| | llorjes. Nxerls|a"o do l jel r e vod|.rse srl r e vod| d|le(erca e lerpe(alu(aveT| dre T0o l lrol. |oel|c|erl| | llorjes va(el p(ej T| dre T. Nse d|le(erca e |lv(e lerpe(alu(ave srl r e radre. ac edre |oel|c|erl| | llorjes do l jel r | dool.P(do(aslrluo|r|ap||a(dolv|ede(|lezvod||r|||oel|c|erl|lllorsp(sr|a|lrd|||r|ll drsrr l p(oces|l jo |lrves l rdulaljes. Edre pse |ordersal| r rv(je l luo|l |ap||a( srl r lerpe(alu(r lej llorse Ton. |oel|c|erl| | llorjes p( sr|a| l rdulaljes do l jel | zvod|ua(. po( jo edre ac sa do l |srle | zvod|ua( |u( |ordersal| l rvj r luo|r |ap||a( r lerpe(alu( l |orders|r|l T. R|ftojaesrlua(a((|relasrlucluo||ap||a(rpjesrrlradreldjals|ssl|jp(c|||elrp(ose p((elr luo|l lr|lrs. rp( l c|||r |orp(eso(| or lr|lrjer e avu|||l l llorl rda avu||ues|. Ksrlu luo| |ap||a( dre luo| lr|lrs rd||ojr s| sr|roves l rxerls|s |r|ftoja e |rdul). N l r|ftoja e |rdul l l|u|d|l llors re avu|| lllorlrdaavu||ues|.|(vrelrlrjjlr|orrerdulaljere|rdulll|u|d|lllors.Kvavu|||llorlrda avu||ues|rlv(lelsrlavu|||rdopu(|lral|pa|z|(|rd(oru().Ajoreluljerrsr|roveslrxerls|s edrerlejlejrxereldu|elloru(djal|saj|ordersal|rel|u|d|lllors.Ve|lrrv(dolp(r|(sorel |oel|c|erl||llorjes.po(joedreac.sepse((|ljaerxerls|ssllorjesl|lorelroazl((|ljesspurssrdjesrjes.Te paj|sjel llorse l c||al s| |rd llorse p(do(|r l(eor|r. rj sr|roves | |l||| | rxerls|s srl revoj p(a|l||e:F(eorlp(z|rerr|(revaj(alp(|ve(jer|orp(eso(.F(eorlrp(|rsla||rreveleoa(l|redre p||za l |l|j vaj|. N sr|roves|r e rxerls|s v|je de(| le avu|||r| | l(eor|l p(ej vel alv(e p||ave l vaj|l. Ve |l ev|lorel l v|je de(| le avu|||r| | l(eor|l |rd r c|||rd(|r e |orp(eso(|l.Ndaluo||ap||a(l|u|d|llors.|c|||srlr srlvpjerlavu|||r|l.p(c|||elde(|r avu||ues.N avu||uesl|u|d| llors |rd r lerpe(alu(r e avu|||r|l |lerpe(alu(a e rdopjes). l|||or l v|oj dre avu||orel. P( avu|||r u srl | revojsrrrxerls|aavu||uese|alerle.lc||rere((rdarjed|s||avu||ues|l|rdaraps|(aec||allorel). djedjs|srl rda s|p(lacja e avu||ues|l. P(ocesellc||alrdodr|rdjalsje||jessrxerls|sl|u|d|lllorsravu||ues|l(arsrel|r||rxerls|sr resl|u|d|ldreru(evelo(erdsrrelavu||ues|l.p(oces||v||r|lll|u|d|lrluoa.l(arsrel|r||rxerls|s r res red|ur|l l lloru( dre avu||ues|l. rd|||r| | vaj|l l l(elu( r l|u|d djal l(arsrel|r|l l rxerls|s. pa(ac|lja e vess r s|p(lacer e avu||ues|l elj.) jar srur l rd(|||ua(a dre ara||za e lv(e do l rurdoj p( sr|a| lers l c||r |v ||o( pa(a se dj|lrasr e srcv(lor. F|u|d| llors do l avu||oj de(|sa l avu||orel | l(|. djedjs|srl l rd((oj djerdjer e l|j ad(edale dre l |a|oj r lazr avu||uese. A| r l v(lel srl r djerdje l avu|||l l lral l rdopu(. Kjo djerdje s|du(orel re rousrjer djedjse.ec||asrlerevojsrres|rjsas|e|rdlel|u|d|lllorsec||adolavu||orelpa(ada|jesrda avu||ues|. N zorr da|se l avu||ues|l avu||| | rdopu( | lral r rj sas| l duru( edre (|rxerel. Pas|crxerls|aellorjes|l(r|cell(up|lllloru(djald|le(ercavep(lurd|rla(elerpe(alu(||ell|u|d|l llors | c||| avu||orel r avu||ues dre l(up| | c||| llorel.|oel|c|erl| | llorjes do l zvod|orel. Kv zvod||r rurd l 25

((edu||orel re r|ftojen e |rdul l l|u|d|l llors dre re rd(orjer e avu|||l l rdopu( l lral. Ve s|du(| r|ngroja r p(a|l|| (e|orardorel. sepse re |l s|du(orel avu|||r | l(s|srr | |rdul pa(a rv(jes r |orp(eso(. |1) Korp(eso(| re lr|lrjer e avu|||l l lejrxeru( e rov|| c||||r e llorjes. T dj|lra p(ocesel r |l c||| r (ea||lel jar p(ocese l pa|lrvesrre. 0paj|sjallorse|orp(eso(||elpurojrrrv(opl|ra|edurelcrrrv(lp(srlalsrrel ra(ror|zorer|a(a|le(|sl||alee|ererlevepa(l||u|a(els|sler|l.Vera(ror|z|r|re|a(a|le(|sl||avelalv(e e|ererlevel|lorer|a(a|le(|sl||alslal||elpursspaj|sjesllorse|orp(eso(||erp(dj|lrs|.Ve ra(ror|z|r|re|a(a|le(|sl||avedurellzdj|drersrurp(oo|ererpurr|orp|elelpaj|sjes.sepsepura pa(l||u|a(e e e|ererleve ru| srl e pava(u( rda pura e e|ererleve l lje(a.Terpe(alu(a e avu|||r|l rd(vsrorel r pe(|udral e purs s |orp(eso(|l r |ul|j rjall l dj(. Pas| c edre lerpe(alu(a e |orders|r|l r pe(|udrr e purs |orp(eso(||e rd((orel re lerpe(alu(r e avu|||r|l. |u(se djal e|sp|oal|r|l|usrlelellorjess|ordersalo(|ldj|lrasrlurd(vsrorer r|ul|jrjallldj(.luo||ap||a(durell jel|d|rers|orua(asrluc((jedrjae|rdulll(eor|lllorsrrrd|||r|red|le(ercavelsrlvpjevel |orders|r|l dre avu|||r|l dj|lrror r rrv( l |racsrre | p(dj|djel |apac|lel|l llors. Nse luo| |ap||a( ru| do l |srorle |rd l rjalluesrr. el||as|lel| | avu||ues|l do l p(|ecsorej p( sr|a| l |adsrl|s jo ade|uale l s|p(laces s l|j. |u(se el||as|lel| | |ordersalo(|l do l zvod|orej p( sr|a| l d(urou|||r|l l |rdul r l. Nse luo| |ap||a( do l |srle r | radr - | dj(. r avu||ues do l dep(loj edre avu||| rda |ordersalo(|. re |a do l ((|lej srlvpja r avu||ues dre do la zvod|orle |apac|lel|r llors. |1) Np(luo|r|ap||a(((jedrjard(vsrordjalpe(|udrsspurss|orp(eso(|ldre((|lelasrlus|((|lel d|le(erca e srlvpjeve l |orders|r|l dre avu|||r|l. P( |l sr|a| p(re( rd(vsror edre p(roajlja e lazs s |rdledreravu||uesedrer|ordersalo(.re|ard(vsroredreel||as|lel|rd(ors|lv(e.Vousrja opl|ra|eeavu||ues|lre|rd(e|al|v|srla((|relvelrrrjraps|(lrdusrll|usrlevelerpe(alu(||el purs. |1) Edre pse |a(a|le(|sl||al puruese l l( e|ererleve l paj|sjes durel l jer l ra(ror|zua(a rda sr|||r| le(role|r||. durel edre sas|a e l|u|d|l llors. re l c|||r |rsla||r| rousrel. c l jel e ra(ror|zua( re v|||r|r e |ordersalo(|l dre l avu||ues|l c l ros v|je de(|le d(urou|||r| | lep(l ||rdul r |ordersalo( ose de(| le ((jedrja e |rdul rda avu||ues| r luo|r p(cje||s lr|lrs. |1) 'Ku(|orp(eso(|rda|orspurua(|.|rdu|l|u|d|lllorsedrerlulje((jedrrp(luo|r|ap||a(rda|ordersalo(|ravu||ues.p(lc|||rsr|a|srlvpjar|ordersalo(zo(el|u(seravu||ues((|lel.R(jedrjae |rdulsrlrerdada|sua(acsasrld|le(ercae|lv(esrlvpjeverevod|.drersepe(|udrae pusr|reve|pauzs)l|orp(eso(|lsrlreradre.srlvpjeldoloa(azorer.\|||r||avu||ues|ldurell jelrjall|radrclp(aroj|rdur.|c|||djal|sajpurero||drelravu||ues.pa((jedrjere|rdulr p(ues|r lr|lrs. |1) Jarlce|u(avelrd|sardap(oo|erellc||alrurdlrdodr|rrpurr|orp|elelpaj|sjes.rda a(svejacl|uplorel(rds|aera(ror|z|r|ll|a(a|le(|sl||avele|ererlevepa(l||u|a(eroasr|s|r puruese l paj|sjes |orp(eso(||e |orp|ele r paj|sjer llorse. 26

3.FRIGORIFERT DHE FRIZAT SHTPIAK

3.1.N PRGJITHSI F(|do(|le(|srlrjpaj|sjellorseeded||ua(p((uajljeredj(avell(es|lausrc|ro(elc||alrl llorerdre(urerrrjlerpe(alu(p(ej0-8C.Nalv(|srlrl(|do(|le(rurdl verdoseredreusrc|relc ve jar l rd(|(a. Kora e (uajljes s usrc|reve r l(|do(|le(. re c va(el rda ||oj| dre vel|l e usrc|reve. rurd l zdjal r s srurl| 2-3 jav. F(|z| srl rj paj|sje llorse e ded||ua( p( (uajljer e usrc|r|l l rd(|( dre/ose rd(|(jer e usrc|reve l l(es|la. Terpe(alu(a r l(|z srl r e u|l se -18 C. Kora e (uajljes s usrc|reve r l(|z. |a va(el rda ||oj| dre l|p| | usrc|reve. rurd l crd(oj d|sa ruaj. N pjesl e p(pa(re l l(|do(|le(|l dre l(|z|l rdodrer srerjal re rj apo r srur vje ||a edre l(|do(|le( pa el||ela). Alo srerja jar d|sa rda srerjal |rle(rac|ora|e. l c||al | |ar p(velsua( p(odrues|l e l(|do(|le(ve dre l(|zave. l c||al r sr|||r|r e pa( l(edojr se p( la( ||oj| l l(|do(|le(|l orellja| ose la( lerpe(alu(e p(roajr. 0orelrr|a e el||elave r pjesr e pa(re l l(|do(|le(ve dre l(|zave: Pa el||el paj|sja ru| e |a raps|(r lerpe(alu(||e- l u|l -laps|(a re lerpe(alu( l u|l e srrua( re rj v||. ded||orel p( (uajljer alalsr|u(l(e l usrc|reve l rd(|( r lerpe(alu( de(| - C ** - laps|(a re lerpe(alu( l u|l. e srrua( re dv vje. ded||orel p( (uajljer alalsr|u(l(e l usrc|reve l rd(|(a r lerpe(alu( de(| r -12 C. - laps|(a re lerpe(alu( l u|l. e srrua( re l(e vje. ded||orel p( (uajljer alaldjale l usrc|reve l rd(|(a rlerpe(alu( -18 C.**** - laps|(a re lerpe(alu( l u|l. e srrua( re |al( vje. ded||orel p( rd(|(jer e usrc|r|l l l(es|l dre p( (uajljer alaldjale l usrc|r|l l rd(|( r rj lerpe(alu( r l u|l se -18 C. dol(|do(|le(drel(|z|ael||elallc||aldj|rderrsrlp|zalepaj|sjesrpjesrejasrlreapol o(erdsrrelsaj.Nlrurdldj|rderldrralepaj|sjesllorservazrd|r:||oj|:rode||:lers|or|dre l(e|uerca:luc|arv(se:o(ulo-relov|||r|:|apac|lel|rd(|(s:||asa|||ral|zuese:ra(xr|r||((vrsrr|ve||r vjelo(:r|ve|||zru(rs:s|roo||||rsl|luc|or|l|c|||e|aleslua(apo|ejua(p(do(|r|repaj|sjesllorseelj.N el||elrurdldjerderldrralesas|ssl|u|d|lllorsrelc|||rsrlrousru(s|sler|drepaljel( s|roo|| | l|u|d|l llors | c||| dj|rdel r s|sler. Klo dv l drra rjre(az| jar edre l drral r l (rds|srre c dj|rder r el||ela l c||al | revoj|ler rjesrl(|l. se(v|se(ve. 0jalo|e(jessl(|do(|le(verldj|rderedreudrzues|lp(p(do(|r|rel|j.udrzues|p(roar (e|orard|re l rd(vsrre l p(odrues|l l l(|do(|le(|l ded||ua( p(do(uesve p( lur|s|or|r l d(ejl dre sa r l djal l paj|sjes llorse. F(|dorjesrl(|l l c||l | (|pa(ojr paj|sjel llorse srl r|( c l d|r (e|orard|rel e * *** 27

p(odrues|l rda udrzues| p( p(do(|r. Klo srpesr rurd l rd|rrojr djalara||zs s p(|srjes. F(|do(|le(l dre l(|zal srlp|a| rd(lorer re ||asa l rd(vsrre |||ral|zuese: - 3N- p( lerpe(alu( l rjed|s|l p(ej 10-32 C. - N- p( lerpe(alu( l rjed|s|l p(ej 1-32 C. - 3T- p( lerpe(alu( l rjed|s|l p(ej 18-38 C. - T- p( lerpe(alu( l rjed|s|l p(ej 18-13 C. N ool e|z|slojr l(|do(|le( dre l(|zal r rrv(a l rd(vsrre: re |orsl(u|s|ore dre zdjedrje l rd(vsrre le|r||e. Vedj|lral. r |l ||o( jar p(sr|(ua( velr l(|do(|le(l dre l(|zal l c||l r s srpesrl| p(do(r r arv|s(|.

3.2.FRIGORIFERT E|z|slojr l(|do(|le( re raps|( l u|l lerpe(alu(||e |s|roo|| re 1 ose 2 vje) ose pa aro|erl lerpe(alu(|| l u|l |ru| |a s|roo|e re vje). F(|do(|le(lreraps|(lu|llerpe(alu(||erurdl|eravu||uesrlo(rlsr|(orjave&,0, L.Nda ara e p(pa(re avu||ues| srl | rov||u( re |apa| | c||| rurd le rapel. Nr avu||ues dj|rdel era p( ro|edrjer e uj|l djal sr|(|(jes s avu||ues|l. 3r|(|(jaeavu||ues|lorelrrrv(rarua|eosedjvsrauloral||e.laps|(alerpe(alu(||eeu|l. p(|als|srl avu||ues|. xrerdel dj|lrror r pjesr e ep(re l raps|(s llorse. Fig. 4-1. Frigoriferi F(|do(|le(lparaps|(lu|llerpe(alu(||ee|aravu||ues|rrlo(rlp||a|ss((alsrl.Avu||ues| srl|rorlua(rpjesrelurd|llsrlp|zssl(|do(|le(|ldjalrajsspjesssep(relraps|(s llorse.Vurdljel|du|srrosesrl|psrlje||u(|rres|zo|ues|ldres|p(lacesso(erdsrrel srlp|zs). 3r|(|(jaeavu||ues|l|(vrelauloral|||srl-reaj(rdaraps|(allorsosererxerse|e|l(||.uj|rda avu||ues| |u||orel dre ro||drel r |ara||r e d|zajrua( posa(|srl p( al pur e c||a e oa(l al jasrl aro|erl|l 28

llors r err e ded||ua( p( ro|edrjer e uj|l. Era p( ro|edrjere uj|l rurdl jel e rorlua( r pjesr e ep(re l srlp|zs s |orp(eso(|l ose r lurd l |ordersalo(|l. F(|do(|le(l|ardve(lp(srlalsrrelc||alza|or|srl|arrurds|rlraperrajlas-djalrlas.0ve(l |ar dor pulr|lse rov||se |dor|r) re radrel. F(|do(|le(l. p( sr|a| l r|ve||z|r|l |ar |ro |v|zse l verdosu(a r lurd l srlp|zs. N pjesr e pasre l l(|do(|le(|l srl | rorlua( |ordersalo(|. 0j|lrasrlu. r pjesr e pasre l l(|do(|le(|l djerdel verd| purues |u verdosel |orp(eso(|. \erd| | lloru( rd(|orel re ||aror l c||r e a|l|v|zor rd(p(e(s| pas| c l rapel de(a. L|aroa re po(l ||ar. rd(p(e(s| dre le(roslal| za|or|srl djerder r rj srlp|z l p(oasr|l p|asl||e. F(|do(|le(l rurd l |er ||asa l rd(vsrre |||ral|zuese. p(|als|srl p(odr|re: 3N. N. 3T ose T.E|z|slojredrel(|do(|le(lasrlucuajlu(rorlues.p(|als|srll(|do(|le(llc||ljarlpa(apa(p( rorl|re s| pjes p(o(se l |uzr|rs. Te| |la l(|do(|le( posa(|srl srl e (rds|srre l |er ca(|u|||r l r|( l aj(|l p( ((elr. Purr auloral||e l l(|do(|le(|l e ((edu||or le(roslal|. 3.3. FRIGORIFERT E KOMBINUAR F(|do(|le(l e |oro|rua( dj|lrror |ar el||elal re |al( vje. F(|do(|le(le|oro|rua(jarpaj|sjellorseredvraps|(alerpe(alu(||e.Nj(araps|(.l(|do(|le(||e.re lerpe(alu(p(ej0-8Csrleded||ua(p((uajljer eusrc|r|lll(es|l.|u(seraps|(aedvl.el(|z|l.r lerpe(alu( r l u|l. dje( r -18 C srl e ded||ua( p( rd(|(jer e usrc|reve l l(es|la. dre p( (uajljer alaldjale l usrc|r|l l rd(|(.3ec||araps|(lerpe(alu(||e|adve(lelv(elp(srlalsrrelc||alza|or|srl|arrurds|rclraper rajlas-djalrlas. N pjesr l(|do(|le(||e l l(|do(|le(|l l |oro|rua( srl verdosu( avu||ues| p||a| r lurd l srlp|zs pa(a pjessss|p(relaro|erl|lllors.Avu||ues|rurdljel|lsreru(ose|du|srr.3r|(|(jaeavu||ues|l |(vrel r rrv( auloral||e - aj(o(e rda aro|erl| llors ose re rxers e|e|l(||. Fig. 4-2. Frigoriferi i kombinuar N pjesr p( rd(|(je l l(|do(|le(|l l |oro|rua( srl | verdosu( avu||ues| | c||| r pjes rl radre e rou|ors|p(lacerelusrsrd(|(se.Avu||ues|rurdljel|pasrrrdaaraep(pa(re.p(de(|sapjesa e 29

pasresrlepsrlje||u(re|zo|ues.0j|lrasrlue|z|slojredrerrv(a|uavu||ues|la(eru|sr|rel. djedjs|srl |u avu||ues| srl | verdosu( r res |zo||r|l dre s|p(laces s o(erdsrre rd(|(se l srlp|zs. P(((elrraps|(ssde(sspjessrd(|(ser|zo||r|resrlp|zsza|or|srlsrleverdosu( 'psrlje||sja|urd(vessoserxers|e|e|l(|||srur((a||).lzo||r||pjessrd(|(sell(|do(|le(|ll |oro|rua(. dj|lrror srl r e l(asr se sa |zo||r| | pjess l(|do(|le(||e l paj|sjes.3|p(lacjaeavu||ues|lr pjesrel(|do(|le(|lsrlsrurrevod|sesas|p(lacjaeavu||ues|lrpjesrrd(|(se.re|a rurdsorel lerpe(alu(a e duru( r do verd. 3orda e le(roslal|l le| l(|do(|le(l e |oro|rua( dj|lrror srl e rorlua( r avu||ues|r e l(|do(|le(|l. |u(se vel le(roslal| srl | verdosu( r o(erds|r e raps|(s l(|do(|le(||e. \a(s|srl rda p(odrues| | l(|do(|le(ve l |oro|rua(. pjesa rd(|(se rurd l jel ro| pjesr l(|do(|le(||e apo e |urd(la. \|||r| | raps|(s rd(|(se asrjre( ru| srl r e radre se v|||r| | raps|(s s l(|do(|le(|l. Tel(|do(|le(le|oro|rua('e|spars|or||l|u|d|lllorsrurdll|||orravu||ues|rerd(|(s|loser avu||ues|r e l(|do(|le(|l. |a va(el rda zdjedrja |orsl(u|l|ve. F(|do(|le(le|oro|rua(rurdljerlrd(lua(re||asaN.3ToseT|||ral|zuese.rsejarvel sr|(|(s. po( rse avu||ues| r raps|(r e l(|do(|le(|l sr|(|rel re arr e rxers|l e|e|l(|| alre( rurd l jer re||asa 3N. N. 3T ose T |||ral|zuese.P(r|ve||z|r|repoz|lsspaj|sjes.l(|do(|le(le|oro|rua(|ar|rozalrorlua(ap(pjesre posrlre l srlp|zs l c||al rurd l r|ve||zorer-p(srlaler. N arr e pasre l paj|sjes djerdel |ordersalo(| dre raps|(a puruese e |orp(eso(|l.E|z|slojrl(|do(|le(l|oro|rua(rorluesdrep(la r|(veso(esrl l |er ca(|u|||r l r|( l aj(|l p((elr |ordersalo(|l dre |orp(eso(|l. Purr auloral||e l l(|do(|le(|l l |oro|rua( e d(ejlor le(roslal|. 3.4. FRIZAT VERTIKAL Nl(|zave(l||a|e|z|slojrel||elalre3ose1vje.F(|zallsrrua(re3vjerlv(leljar k4nservues. Kla jar le ded||ua( l'| (uajr usrc|rel r rj lerpe(alu( p(ej -18 C l c||al ve jar l rd(|(a r rrv(r |rdusl(|a|e. N la ru| srl e p(ele(ua( rd(|(ja e usrc|reve. sepse ru| jar l p(oje|lua( p( al c|||r.Te|rerarv|s(|((a||p(do(er.Nd(|(s|lve(l||a|lsrrua(re1vjejarldesl|rua(edrep( rd(|(jereusrc|r|lll(es|ldrep(|lc|||r|ararlposarerpjesres|p(rels|p(laces llorse. Fig. 4-3 Frizi vertikal 3

N ||drje re avu||ues|r e|z|slojr p(odr|re l rd(vsrre l l(|zave ve(l||a|. Nda(ja e oazs s l(|z|l ve(l||a| srl re avu||ues l psrlje||u( ose c sr|rel. N (apo(l re avu||ues|r e|z|slojr p(odr|re l rd(vsrre l l(|zave ve(l||a|. Nda(ja |(veso(e e l(|z|l ve(l||a| srl re avu||ues c sr|rel ose l psrlje||u(. Avu||ues|l l c||l sr|rer r raps|(r llorse rurd l jer l p(purua( s| avu||ues p||a| a|ur|r| r lo(r l|(er(|l|rse sr||orelrda arasr).Nresldvp||a|avee|z|slorl|o|urlo(rluo|l srlvpu(.N(apo(l re v|||r|r e o(erdsrr. l(|z| srl p(dal|lu( re rur(a l|o|asr c da||orer. L|ojel elje(a l avu||ueseve l c||l sr|rer r raps|(r llorse jar avu||ues luo l p(purua( rda luoal r||e| e|||. |u(se jar l p(odrua( r al rrv( |u rurder l sr(oejr s| (all. Nlo.p(|als|srlr(alle.rurderd(ejlp(d(ejllverdoserusrc|rel.Te|la||ojeavu||ues|sr(all|| ep(r srl delv(|r|srl | rov||u( dre |a po(l ||apa|). |u(se sr(oer p( 'rd(|(je l srpejl l usrc|r|l l l(es|l. Avu||ues|llc||lru|sr|rer.avu||ues|le'psrlje||u(.rurdljerl||oj|l'luorp||a|oseavu||ues|l a|ur|r r lo(r p||a|e. Klo jar l rd(lua(a o(erda srlp|zs r res |zo||r|l dre s|p(laces s o(erdsrre l raps|(s llorse. Edre |lo paj|sje llorse |ar |ro l p(srlalsrre p( r|ve||z|r|. dre |ordersalo(|r r arr e pasre l srlp|zs s paj|sjes llorse. F(|z| ve(l||a| |ar laslalu(r |orarduese r pjesr e p(pa(re l ep(r l paj|sjes. E|z|slojr laslalu(a lp(odr|revelrd(vsrredrelur|s|orel||oj||ojsrre.R(elrraps|(ssde(sr|zo||r|resrlp|zs za|or|srl verdosel'psrlje||s| |urd( vess |((a|| re( rxers e|e|l(||). 3r|(|(ja e avu||ues|l le| l(|zal ve(l||a| orel r rrv( rarua|e. p(|als|srl sr|vjes s paj|sjes rda ((jel| e|e|l(||. P(pa(s|a e l(|z|l ve(l||a| r (apo(l re al ro(|zorla| srl ajo c r |lr|r |apo |o|a|) zr r pa| verd dre se usrc|rel du|er l l(al dre re |erl le |apsrre p( a(sve l verdosjes s usrc|r|l rp( srpo(la apo (alle. Vards| e lv(e srl c djal rda|jes s purs p( la(do a(sve r raps|(r llorse lerpe(alu(a srpejl ((|lel r (apo(l re l(|zal ro(|zorla|. 3| sr|a|. pas d|sa |ore. vjer de(| le ((jedrja e uj|l rda paj|sja.

3.5.FRIZAT HORIZONTAL F(|zalro(|zorla|roajrel||elalre3apo1vje.F(|zallsrerjzua(re3apo1vjerlv(leljar |orse(valo(. Kla jar l desl|rua( p( (uajljer e usrc|r|l r rj lerpe(alu( p(ej -18 C l c||l ve jar l rd(|(arrrv(|rdusl(|a|e.Nlaru|srlep(ele(ua(lrd(|relusrc|r||l(es|l.sepseru|jarl p(oje|lua( p( al c|||r. F(|zal ro(|zorla| l c||l jarl srerjzua( re 1 vje dre jarl desl|rua(edre p( rd(|(jer e usrc|r|l l l(es|l dre p( |l c|||r |ar pjes l posare l rda( p( rd(|(je l 'srpejl Nrd(|(s|rro(|zorla|rd(loreravu||ues|ll||oj|l'luorp||a|apo'luor||ara(|r.Tuoal|luo dja(p(o() ru| sr|rer s