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  • Chinese Proverb

    “Tell me, I forget. Show me, I remember”

  • ENGAGING FARMERS THROUGH

    PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH -FARMER

    INNOVATIONS ON THE USE OF

    PREDATORY ANTS FOR PEST

    MANAGEMENT IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA

    Sim.A.Sar, Christine King, Elske van de Fliert, Redley Opasa, Michael Atoai, Anna Appa &Triya Papaya

  • Outline

    � Introduction � Research Problem and objectives � Methodology � Results and discussion � Conclusion � References

  • Fig. 1: Research sites

  • Fig. 2: A highlands community

  • Fig. 3: Intensive sweet potato cultivation

  • How has R&D responded to

    complexity?

    � Top down approach � Conventional R&D systems with limited impact � We want to explore other options, � The way to do this is Social Learning (SL) � Limited research in SL in PNG

  • Personal reflections

    � Participatory research is poorly defined and articulated

    � Current research paradigm led to Q’s � Do I and/or institution understand participatory

    research & can it be mainstreamed?

  • Research Objectives

    � To understand how learning processes affect farmers’ ability to assess and integrate innovations into farming practices

    � To identify and analyse strategies in facilitating learning between farmers, research & extension agencies on pest

    � To develop a framework to facilitate learning across disciplinary, institutional and cultural boundaries

  • Fig. 4: Collective identification of constraints and

    opportunities

    • Resistant cultivars • Fungicides • Successful natural enemies

    • Fungicides • Resistant cultivars • Live with the

    problem • Insecticide/Bio-

    control • Live with the

    problem

    • Fungicides • Live with the

    problem • Insecticide/Bio-

    control • Live with the

    problem

    • Coffee rust • Green scale

    3.Coffee

    • Insecticides/biopesticides • Improved NARI taro lines • Predatory ant

    • Makum system- predatory ants (Kainantu)

    • Insecticides (Kainantu)

    • Fallow/Crop rotation • None & Live with

    the problem • Pest avoidance

    • Makum system- predatory ants

    • Fallow/Crop rotation • Pest avoidance • None & live with the

    problem

    • Taro beetle2.Taro

    • Integrated crop management • Pheromone • Biotechnology(PT) • Insecticides • Predatory ant • Agri-chemicals • Improved NARI sweetpotato lines

    • None & live with the problem

    • Pest avoidance • Varietal tolerance • Predatory ants

    (Metiufa) • Fallow/crop rotation

    • None & live with the problem

    • Pest avoidance • Varietal tolerance • Fallow/crop rotation • Was not a problem

    • Sweetpotato weevil

    • Poor yield

    1.Sweetpotato

    Technology optionsCurrentlyIn the past

    Solution's)Constraint's)Enterprise

  • Fig. 5: Farmer innovation on s/potato & ant association

  • Fig. 6: The ‘Makum' system-farmer innovation of taro

    cultivation on ant hill

  • Complex challenges

    � Conflicting interests � Dual role of ants � Risks to predatory ants � Systems approach to understand linkages and

    develop interventions

  • LESSIONS AND WAY FORWARD

    � Recognition & embracing other knowledge systems to develop pro-poor technologies

    � Shift in research paradigms � Mainstream farmer innovations

  • References

    � Castineiras,A., S.Caballero,G.Rego & M.Gonzalez (1982). Efectivided tecnico econmica de empeode la hormiga Leona, Pheidole megacephala, en el control del tetuan del boniata, Cylas formicarius elegantulus, Cienc.tec.Agric., Prot.Plantes, Supl.5:103-109.

    � Röling and Wagemakers, 1998 In: N. Röling and A. Wagemakers, Editors, Facilitating Sustainable Agriculture. Participatory Learning and Adaptive Management in Times of Environmental Uncertainty, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1998).

    � Van de Fliert, E. and Braun, A.R. 2002. Conceptualizing integrative, farmer participatory research for sustainable agriculture: From opportunities and impact. Agriculture and Human Values, 19, 25-38.

    � Wilson, E.O (1958). Patchy distribution of ant species in New Guinea rain forests. PSYCHE, Vol 65 March, 1958 N0.1.26-38

  • The outcome

    � Improved livelihood and sustainability in PNG communities