**Cold War tensions heightened when
Spies? The RosenbergsJulius and Ethel Rosenberg were American communists who were executed in 1953 for conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges related to passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. This was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history
*The Cold War in the 1950sBoth the U.S. and U.S.S.R. had a change in leadership in the early 1950s:Dwight D. Eisenhower won the 1952 Presidential election (recall that Ike was a war heroSupreme Commander who oversaw D-Day invasion)Nikita Khrushchev (Kroosh- joff ) became the Soviet Premier upon Stalins death in 1953
*Communism in AsiaRecall: China falls (1949) and quickly signs treaties with the SovietsRecall: The Korean Conflict (1950-1953)
Yet another problem: Vietnam
*Early VietnamHad been a French colonyVietnamese communists (the Viet Minh) tried to seize controlwent to war with the FrenchFrench outpost at Dien Ben Phu under brutal attack by Viet Minheventually surrenderedHostilities ended with Vietnam being divided (much like Korea)
*Vietnam (cont.)North Vietnam=communistSouth Vietnam = free
Q: With the French withdrawal, what would keep the South from falling to the communists?
*Vietnam (cont.)A: military aid fromthe U.S.
So, America became involved by sending military advisers to help train the South Vietnamese military
*Vietnam (cont.)Vietnam was important because American leadership believed in the Domino Theory
If one nation fell to communism, others would follow like so many dominos falling
*The Foreign Policy of Dwight Eisenhower:BrinksmanshipIke believed we needed to present a tougher line than containmentEisenhowers Secretary of State: John Foster Dulles
*BrinksmanshipBrinkmanship is the practice of pushing a dangerous situation to the verge of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome.To pursue this new foreign policy, the U.S. chose a strategy of massive retaliation that would end in mutually assured destructionthis required that we have MORE (in number) and MORE ( in destructive power) weapons than the Soviets
*Massive RetaliationOn January 12, 1955 U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles first announces the doctrine of Massive Retaliation. It threatens full-scale nuclear attack on the Soviet Union in response to communist aggression anywhere in the world. John Foster Dulles and MacArthur in Korea, 1950
*BrinksmanshipThe shift in policy from merely containing Communism to a willingness to take the world to the brink of nuclear war fueled the arms race
*Was this insanity on both sides?The theory is that:
the fear of total annihilationthe end of the human raceis exactly what will keep it from happening
*Tensions continue around the globe:The Suez Crisis (1956):When Egypt seized control of the Suez Canal, war nearly broke out (the Soviets were strong supporters of Egypt)The Eisenhower Doctrine:Ike issued a warning: The U.S. would defend the Middle East against any attack by a Communist country
The Hungarian Uprising: 1956Denounced the Warsaw Pact & promised free elections.This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.The Soviets sent in the tanks and crushed the revolt
*Another shock for Americans: Sputnik I (1957)The Russians have beaten America in spacethey have the technological edge!
*1959 - Castro takes power in CubaJanuary 1, 1959 rebel forces under Fidel Castro overthrow dictator Fulgencio Batista Castro nationalizes the sugar industry and signs trade agreements with the Soviet Union. The next year, Castro seizes U.S. assets on the island.
*U-2 Spy Incident (1960)Col. Francis Gary Powers plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
**Summary Concept: What were the six major strategies of the Cold War?
The six major strategies were: 1. Brinkmanship,2. Espionage,3. Foreign aid,4.Alliances,5. Propaganda,6. Surrogate wars.