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12/13/2015445_01 1 Computer Organization EEC-213 Computer Organization Electrical and Computer Engineering

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  • *445_01*Computer OrganizationEEC-213Computer Organization Electrical and Computer Engineering

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  • *445_01*GradingHomework10%Midterm Exam 10%Oral Exam 20%Final Exam60%

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  • *445_01*Honor CodeYou are encouraged to discuss homework problems with other students and/or obtain the assistance of the instructor. Nevertheless, homework submissions should be the work of you and your partner.Exams are closed book, closed notes, no use of calculators, and the normal honor code applies to all exams.

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  • *445_01*TextbooksComputer Organization, 5th ed.Carl Hamacher, et al.,ISBN 0-07-232086-9 2002

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  • *445_01*Questions?

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  • Basic structure of Computers *445_02*

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  • *445_01*Computer Functional UnitsMemoryArithmetic & LogicControlInputOutput

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  • *445_01*Course OrganizationComputer Structure (Ch 1)Instruction Sets & Addressing Modes (Ch 2)Example Computer: Motorola 68000 (Ch 3)Control Unit Design (Ch 7)

    Computer Arithmetic (Ch 6)Memory (Ch 5)Input/Output (Ch 4)Pipelining (Ch 8)

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  • *445_01*Computer Information (Binary)(Machine) Instructions(Machine Language) Programs

    Data2's complementBCDASCII

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  • *445_01*OutputDisplayPrinterSpeakersI/OInputKeyboardMouseMicrophoneCameraScanner

    Serial CommunicationsNetworkModem

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  • *445_01*MemoryPrimaryRandom Access Memory (RAM)Read Only Memory (ROM)

    OrganizationWordAddressRead/WriteSecondaryMagneticDisksTapeOptical Disks

    HierarchyCacheMainVirtual

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  • *445_01*ALUArithmeticAdditionSubtractionMultiplicationDivisionComparisonLogicANDORNOTXORRegistersStoreShift

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  • *445_01*Control UnitCoordinates/Directs other Units

    Computer OperationInputProgram/Data stored in MemoryProcessingInformation fetched into RegistersProcessed by ALUOutput

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  • *445_02*Computer InstructionsAssembly Language

    MOVE NUM1,R1

    MOVE #1,R2

    ADD #1,R1

    ADD R1,R2Register Transfer Notation

    R1 [NUM1]

    R2 1

    R1 1 + [R1]

    R2 [R1] + [R2]

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  • *445_02*Processor and MemoryALUIRMARMEMPCMDRR0R1. . .Rn-1ControlProcessorMAR - Memory Address RegisterMDR - Memory Data RegisterPC - Program CounterIR - Instruction Register

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  • *445_02*Example InstructionFetchMAR [PC]PC [PC] + 1MDR [MEM(MAR)]IR [MDR] ExecuteMAR NUM1MDR [MEM(MAR)]R1 [MDR]MOVE NUM1,R1

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  • *445_02*Another ExampleFetchMAR [PC]PC [PC] + 1MDR [MEM(MAR)]IR [MDR] ExecuteR1 1 + R1ADD #1,R1

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  • *445_02*Single-Bus StructureThe computer parts must be connected in some wayA group of lines that serves as a connecting path for several devices is called busOnly one transfer at a time can occurs between 2 unitsDevices includes a buffer register to hold information during transferMemoryProcessorInputOutput

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  • *445_02*Single-Bus Architecture (HW1)ABRALUMDRMARMEMBUS AYZ

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  • *445_02*System SoftwareCompilerHigh-level Language Machine LanguageAssemblerAssembly Language Machine LanguageText EditorKeyboard Input FileOperating SystemControl Sharing & InteractionAssign & Manage ResourcesMemoryDisk SpaceHandle I/O

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  • Memory PerformancePrograms and data are stored in memory Instruction are fetched one by one over the bus to the processor, and a copy is placed in the cache.When a data is executed by an instruction a copy is placed in the cacheLater if the same instruction or data item is needed a second time , its red directly from the cache.Execution of instruction and data from the cache is faster than the main memory

    *445_02*MainMemoryProcessorCacheMemory

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  • *445_02*Processor ClockPeriod (P)

    Rate (R)CLKR = 1/P

    1 GHz = 1/1ns

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  • *445_02*Performance EquationProcessor Execution Time (T)Number of Machine Language Instructions (N)Average Steps per Machine Instruction (S)Clock Rate (R)

    Performance of a processor of 2.4 GHz & a processor of 2.8 GHz of another type.

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  • *445_02*Pipelining

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  • *445_02*Parallel ProcessingParallel ExecutionSuperscalar (execution of several instructions in every clock cycle)MultiprocessorsShared-MemoryMulticomputersMessage-Passing

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  • *445_02*CISC vs RISCComplex Instruction Set Computers (CISC)Smaller NLarger SReduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC)Larger NSmaller SEasier to Pipeline

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  • *445_01*HistoryFirst Generation (miliseconds)von Neumann (stored program)Vacuum Tubes Magnetic Core MemoryTeletypes/Magnetic TapesSecond Generation (microseconds)TransistorHigh-level Languages (C++, Pascal, Fortran)Compilers (translate HHL to M/C instruction)I/O Processors

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  • *445_01*HistoryThird Generation Integrated CircuitsMicroprogrammingParallelism/PipeliningOperating Systems (sharing)Cache/VMFourth Generation (nanoseconds)VLSI (Single Chip Microprocessor)Personal ComputersNetworks

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  • Problem 1-3Load A,R0Load B,R1Add R0,R1Store R1,C

    (b) Yes;Move B,CAdd A,C

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  • *445_02*ReviewBinaryHex2's-complementOverflow

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