(1865 1900)Gilded covered in a thin layer of goldTrends of this time period:
Economic Depressions (Panic of 1873 & Panic of 1893)
Labor Strikes (Haymarket Affair, Homestead Strike, & Pullman Strike)
Big profits for business owners, while factory workers and farmers struggle
The Lollypop Guild
The Wizard of OZBook 1900Movie 1905 & 1939
Disputed Election of 1876 President Rutherford Hayes (R)
Vice President William Wheeler
The U.S. Governments Design Separation of Powers
Electoral Commission of 1876Why Formed: There were 20 disputed electoral votes from 4 states (Oregon, South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana).
Original Electoral Vote Count: Rep. Hayes (165) Dem. Tilden (184) * Difference in votes 19
Purpose: Determine which candidate gets the 20 disputed electoral votes.
Electoral Commission Members: 15 Job Breakdown 5 Senators, 5 House Reps., & 5 Supreme Courts Justices Pol. Party Allegiance Breakdown 7 Republicans, 7 Democrats, & 1 Independent
1 Independent Supreme Court Justice David Davis: Ran for the Senate and got elected He was removed from the electoral commission and another member of the Supreme Court was put on the commission in his place. Only members left on the Supreme Court to fill his position were republicans. New Pol. Party Allegiance Breakdown 8 Republicans & 7 Democrats
Electoral Commissions Decision Hayes gets the 20 disputed votes
Final Electoral Vote Count: Rep. Hayes (185) Dem. Tilden (184) * Difference in votes 1
Rutherford B. Hayes Nickname: Rutherfraud B. Hayes What compromise did he have to agree with in order for him to get the disputed votes from the Electoral Commission?
Compromise of 1877Terms:
The removal of all Federal Union troops from the former Confederate states that were in rebellion during the Civil War. * Troops only remained in LA, SC, and FL., but the compromise finalized the process. 2. Hayes would appoint one Southern Democrat to his cabinet. * David Key of TN. was appointed Postmaster General
The construction of another transcontinental railroad would be constructed through the south.
4. More laws to help industrialize the South. Purpose: End the Reconstruction system in the south that took place after the Civil War and called for a Union / Federal military occupation of the former statesthat were in rebellion during the Civil War. Special Note: Terms 1 & 2 were done, but 3 & 4 were not.
The Great Migration (1865 1900)Red states leaving from Blue states going to
The Great Migration (1865 1900)People on the moveWhy were they leaving the south?
#1 Better Job Opportunities
# 2 Mistreatment
The Great Migration (1865 1970)Southern Lynchings (1865 1970)
The Spoils System Developed By: President Andrew Jackson
What: Appointing people to a government job not for their qualifications, but for their loyalty and monetary contributions to you and your campaign.
Problem: Unqualified people with no political background are holding government jobs and are helping run the country.
Result: Corruption and scandal, which is one characteristic of the Gilded Age.
Hayes Stance: He wanted to end the spoils system.
Hayes Success: He had no success ending the spoils system.
Republican Party DivisionHalf-Breeds v. StalwartsStalwarts Republican group that wanted to see the spoils system remain in place.
Half-Breeds Republican group that wanted to see the spoils system ended.Importance: Because these 2 groups within his political party could not agree on this issue, nothing was done with the spoils system by President Hayes during his presidency. Chester Arthur (Stalwart) Roscoe Conkling(Stalwart)James Blaine(Half-Breed)
James Garfield Republican parties choice for the election of 1880. Stalwart or Half-Breed Republican?
Election of 1880 President James Garfield (R)
Vice President Chester Arthur
James Garfield AssassinationJuly 2, 1881
Where: Washington railroad station.
Wound: Two gunshots in the lower back.
Medical Care: Doctors checked the wounds without washing their hands or sterilizingtheir equipment which caused his wounds to get infected. These infections and not the bullets themselves are what killed him.
Agony: He suffered in pain for 11 weeks before he died.
Died: September 19, 1881
Charles Guiteau Garfields Assassin Why: He was angry that he was not given a job by Garfield under the spoils system.
I am Stalwart and Arthur is now President.- Charles Guiteau after he shot Garfield
Insanity?: This case was the first case in U.S. history in which an insanity plea was considered. He randomly recited poetry and asked for advice from members of the courtroom crowd.
Fate: Put on trial and sentenced to death by hanging.
Execution Date: June 30, 1882 Charles Guiteau (Stalwart)
New President Chester Arthur(Stalwart)* Garfields Vice President
Pendelton Civil Service Act (1883) Terms:
15 % of all government jobs are classified
Classified You must pass a thorough examination before being appointed to any government office
Goal Help end the spoils system Special Note Chester Arthur chose not to represent the Republican Party in the presidential election of 1884. James Blaine was selected to represent the RepublicanParty.
Election of 1884President Grover Cleveland (D)
Vice President Thomas Hendricks
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)Gov. Agency Created By This Act: Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC).
ICCs Purpose: To regulate railroad shipping rates throughout the country.
* Shipping rebates were outlawed
ICCs Targets: Rockefeller and Carnegie
ICCs Success: 16 cases were brought before the U.S. Supreme Court by the ICC and they lost 15.Who were the makers of this law trying to help?
Because farmers were not frequent customers. Railroad companies were less willing to give them deals on shipping rates.
Shipping rates were not published by railroad companies, therefore farmers had no way of knowing what shipping rate they were getting in comparison to others.
Puck Magazine Illustration (1896)
Wizard of Oz Book Illustration (1900)
Election of 1888President Benjamin Harrison (R)
Vice President Levi Morton
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)Terms: Monopolies are outlawed!Problem with the Sherman Anti-Trust Act: Too vague John D. RockefellerStandard Oil Andrew Carnegie Carnegie Steel Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)
Tariff?Imports products coming into the country.
Export products leaving the country.
Tariff a tax on an imported good.
Price Tariff = Higher Price Why does a tariff raise the price of a product?
McKinley Tariff Bill (1890) Terms: It placed a higher tariff (48%) on all imported goods that are also produced in the U.S. Imports that were not subject to this tariff: Not made in the U.S.
1. Make U.S. made goods cheaper in comparison to foreign goods.2. Stimulate the U.S. economy because money is being spent in the country. What type of people were severely hurt by the passage of this law?
Why were farmers hurt by the McKinley Tariff Bill (1890)? What did other countries do with their tariff when the U.S. raised their tariff? Why was it passed by state representatives in Congress from states with a high population of farmers (western and southern states)?:
Northern states agreed to pass the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.How does this hurt American farmers?
U.S. farmers shipped their crops worldwide and now no one is wanting to buy the U.S. crops because they are more expensive due to a raised tariff.
Farmers lost a lot of customers.
Paper Money(Greenbacks or Dollars) Why is one more valuable than the other?
What determines the value of American paper money? GNPGDP
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Definition The total (gross) value of all goods and services produced within a country (domestic) in given time period (usually 1 year)
Measuring Stick It measures how good a countries economy is doing inside of its own country. GDP
Gross National Product (GNP)Definition The total (gross) value of all goods and services produced by a country, or businesses affiliated with that country, world wide in a given time period (usually 1 year)
Measuring Stick It measures how good a countries economy is doing world wide. How much economic activity that country is responsible for throughout the world. GNP
Which one determines the value of American money?
What used to determine the value of American money? The more gold a country had, the more valuable its paper money was.
Coinage Act of 1873 Crime of 1873 Terms: Gold is the only metal that can be turned into coins in U.S. federalcoining mints.Prior to law: Anyone could bring gold or silver into any federal mint to have the gold or silver turned into coins for a fee. They could take the coins and leave or they could choose to take a piece of paper (gold or silver certificate) which is based on the value of the metal they brought in to be coined.
1873 Federal Mint Silver Exchange Price: $1.29 per o