1946 to 1961: Three Main Themes COLD WAR COLD WAR CONSUMERISM CONSUMERISM CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT COLD WAR COLD WAR CONSUMERISM CONSUMERISM

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Text of 1946 to 1961: Three Main Themes COLD WAR COLD WAR CONSUMERISM CONSUMERISM CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT...

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  • 1946 to 1961: Three Main Themes COLD WAR COLD WAR CONSUMERISM CONSUMERISM CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT COLD WAR COLD WAR CONSUMERISM CONSUMERISM CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Was it a time of happy days or anxiety, alienation and social unrest?
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  • Post War Agenda 1. Deal with Germany: divided into four zones of occupation 2. Creation of the United Nations 3. Deal with the Holocaust: Nuremberg Trials (1945-46) Punishment of Nazi war criminals Creation of the Nation of Israel- 1948 3. Onset of The Cold War Most determines fate of post war Europe
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  • Yalta DECISIONS MADE AT YALTA United Nations Created a United Nations to promote world peace. Germany and Berlin US, British, France and Soviet Union Germany and Berlin would be divided into 4 zones controlled by the US, British, France and Soviet Union free elections Eastern European countries under Soviet control would have free elections Cold War Stalin agreed but kept Eastern Europe under Soviet control after WWII leading to the Cold War.. You cannot trust the words of a dictator. The decisions at the Yalta Conference shaped the post WWII world. Many agreements were made but the lasting effect was: You cannot trust the words of a dictator.
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  • United Nations United Nations United Nations Allied Powers became the United Nations International peace- keeping body with teeth Sanctions Troops Member nations agree to more stringent requiremnts Germans surrender to the United Nations to end the war in Europe United Nations United Nations United Nations Allied Powers became the United Nations International peace- keeping body with teeth Sanctions Troops Member nations agree to more stringent requiremnts Germans surrender to the United Nations to end the war in Europe
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  • UN Democracy Communism Limited Democracy 1 Party State Military Dictatorship Dictatorship Monarchy No Self Government No Government Chin a U.S.AU.S.A *Great Britain **France * ** Soviet Union Founders of the United Nations in 1945 Permanent seats on the Security Council. Replaced the League of Nations to promote world peace
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  • Division of Germany
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  • Post War Agenda 1. Deal with Germany: divided into four zones of occupation 2. Creation of the United Nations 3. Deal with the Holocaust: Nuremberg Trials (1945-46) Punishment of Nazi war criminals Creation of the Nation of Israel- 1948 3. Onset of The Cold War Most determines fate of post war Europe
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  • trial Several Nazi leaders would be found guilty for crimes against humanity. Punishments ranged from prison sentences up to life and execution by hanging...
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  • Can justice ever be done? The Nuremburg Trials- It was in this context that the trials was created, a trial of judgment for war crimes. But it was not a court convened to mete out punishment for the Holocaust alone. The tribunal was designed to document and redress crimes committed in the course of the most massive conflict the world has ever known. In October 1945, the IMT formally indicted the Nuremberg defendants on four counts: crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and conspiracy to commit these crimes. The Holocaust was, in the legal language of the IMT, a crime against humanity. Convened within months of the end of the war, from the trials first public session on November 20, 1945, until the verdicts were delivered on October 1, 1946 U.S. Army staffers organize stacks of German documents collected by war crimes investigators as evidence for the International Military Tribunal. Nuremberg, Germany, between November 20, 1945, and October 1, 1946. USHMM #03549/National Archives
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  • The Creation of Israel 1948 Based on the UN Partition Plan, Israel proclaimed itself an independent state on May 14. Arab states (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Palestinian guerrillas) attacked Israel on May 15. War ended in December 1948, with Israel controlling 77% of the territory of Palestine. Egypt controlled the Gaza Strip and Jordan controlled the West Bank, including East-Jerusalem. BeforeAfter
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  • Palestinian Refugees About half (700,000) of the Palestinians fled their homes or were expelled. Most settled in Jordan, Gaza, West Bank, Lebanon, Syria, and Kuwait. This refugee flow had a big impact on neighboring countries. During 1948 the population of Jordan doubled with the influx of refugees.
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  • Israeli Jews were concerned about new boundaries 80% of Jewish population lives on coastal plain -- felt vulnerable because population centers were only a few miles from hostile populations in Jordanian-controlled West Bank and Egyptian-controlled Gaza Strip. And Jerusalem was divided. Cause for tension and eventual war http://www.zionism-israel.com/map_of_israel_security_problem_distances.htm
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  • Post War Agenda 1. Deal with Germany: divided into four zones of occupation 2. Creation of the United Nations 3. Deal with the Holocaust: Nuremberg Trials (1945-46) Punishment of Nazi war criminals Creation of the Nation of Israel- 1948 3. Onset of The Cold War Most determines fate of post war Europe
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  • Conclusion: the stage is set for the Cold War The conferences held at Yalta and Potsdam can be argued to have laid the foundations for the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the Cold War.
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  • Cold War 19451991
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  • Uneasy peace between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Competition for world dominance and global power. Fought on political and economic fronts rather than on military battlefields---------Even though the threat of war was always present. Defined Americas foreign policy from 1946 to 1989. It affected domestic politics and how Americans viewed the world and themselves. Constant state of military preparedness and arms race Propaganda war----Democracy vs Communism US policy: Support nations threatened by Communism coldwar
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  • 18 Potsdam Conference July 1945 Final wartime conference Big Three England = Attlee USA = Truman USSR = Stalin Stalin promised to allow free elections in Eastern Europe
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  • 19 Satellite Nations Stalin never allowed truly free elections. Instead, communist governments were installed in many Eastern European nations. Main Purpose? Protect USSR from invasion from the West
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  • 20 Churchills Warning Churchill felt that behind the Iron Curtain, the USSR was planning to attack and conquer Western Europe.
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  • Roots of Cold War 1.Key: Ideological differences between US and USSR (Communism vs. democracy) 2. 1917 Russian Revolution ushers in Communist Government 3. WWI- First Red Scare in US, aid to White Russians 4. Post WWI- US refused to recognize USSR 5. WWII- Hitler/Stalin Pact- invasion of Poland 6. One reason US is involved in WWII is to stop spread of totalitarian governments
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  • Roots of the Cold War 7. USSR resentment over fighting on Eastern Front with little military aid 8. US shared nuclear secrets with UK not USSR US developed & used nuclear bomb during war USSR developed atomic bomb in 1949 9. Key: USSR desires a buffer zone in Post War 10. Key: Conflict over Poland: free elections promised but Stalin does not honor agreement 11. Key Conflict over Germany: East vs. West, Communism vs. Democracy Divided into four zones American, French & British zones merged in 1947 free West Germany East Germany (& Berlin) under Communist rule
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  • Rise of the Military Industrial Complex World War II was influential in the change of the United States' previous historical pattern of a small peacetime military. During the Second World War, the United States underwent total mobilization of all available national resources to fight and win, alongside its allies, a total war against Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. This mobilization of resources exceeded the combined history of all conflicts the nation had previously encountered. By the war's end, East Asia was gravely damaged, and Europe was devastated. The United States and the Soviet Union stood as the two remaining great powers. Still faced with a potential threat immediately following the Second World War, the U.S. never demobilized. The two remaining powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, grew suspicious and hostile toward one another in a period known as the Cold War. This 45-year period of low-intensity, unconventional conflict between the two superpowers, overshadowed by the constant threat of a potential nuclear conflict reinforced the need for constant procurement of military goods and services including large naval, air, and land forces. Thus birthed the military industrial complex in the United States.
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  • 25 US Response to Communism George Kennan, career Foreign Service Officer and Truman advisor Formulated the policy of containment: US would not get rid of communism, but would not allow it to spread. US would contain communism where is already existed through peace if possible and force if necessary.
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  • map/cold war Soviet Union/China and Allies.. Containment: Stop the expansion of Communism in Asia and Europe US