2 Aula de Patologia Premen Sul Tecnico Saude Bucal

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    18-Dec-2014

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Distrbios do crescimento e da diferenciao celularCLASSIFICAO E NOMENCLATURA

Introduo Manter a populao celular dentro de limites fisiolgicos Alteraes no controle do ciclo celular (sistema regulatrio) Distrbios do crescimento Distrbios da diferenciao *os dois ao mesmo tempo

Alteraes do volume celular Hipertrofia Clula sofre estmulo excessivo, aumentando a sntese de seus constituintes bsicos e seu volume (o aumento do volume acompanhado por aumento das funes celulares)

Hipotrofia Clula com volume menor caso sofra agresso que resulta em diminuio da nutrio, do metabolismo e da sntese necessria para renovao de suas estruturas

Hipertrofia Clula sofre estmulo excessivo, aumentando a sntese de seus constituintes bsicos e seu volume (o aumento do volume acompanhado por aumento das funes celulares)

This is cardiac hypertrophy involving the left ventricle. The number of myocardial fibers does not increase, but their size can increase in response to an increased workload, leading to the marked thickening of the left ventricle in this patient with systemic hypertension.

Hipotrofia Clula com volume menor caso sofra agresso que resulta em diminuio da nutrio, do metabolismo e da sntese necessria para renovao de suas estruturas

There are some muscle fibers here that show atrophy. The number of cells is the same as before the atrophy occurred, but the size of some fibers is reduced. This is a response to injury by "downsizing" to conserve the cell. In this case, innervation of the small fibers in the center was lost. This is a trichrome stain.

The testis at the right has undergone atrophy and is much smaller than the normal testis at the left.

This is cerebral atrophy in a patient with Alzheimer's disease. The gyri are narrowed and the sulci widened toward to frontal pole.

Here is the centrilobular portion of liver next to a central vein. The cells have reduced in size or been lost from hypoxia. The pale brown-yellow pigment is lipochrome that has accumulated as the atrophic and dying cells undergo autophagocytosis.

Alteraes na taxa de diviso celular Hiperplasia Aumento da taxa de diviso celular acompanhado de diferenciao normal

Hipoplasia Diminuio da taxa de proliferao celular

Aplasia Ausncia de proliferao celular

Hiperplasia Aumento da taxa de diviso celular acompanhado de diferenciao normal

The prominent folds of endometrium in this uterus opened to reveal the endometrial cavity are an example of hyperplasia. Cells forming both the endometrial glands and the stroma have increased in number. As a result, the size of the endometrium has increased. This increase is physiologic with a normal menstrual cycle.

This is an example of prostatic hyperplasia. The normal prostate is about 3 to 4 cm in diameter. The number of prostatic glands, as well as the stroma, has increased. The pattern of increase here is not uniform, but nodular. This increase is in response to hormonal manipulation, but in this case is not a normal physiologic process

Here is one of the nodules of hyperplastic prostate. The cells making up the glands are normal in appearance, there are just too many of them

Alteraes da diferenciao celular Metaplasia Quando as clulas de um tecido modificam seu estado de diferenciao normal (do gr. meta = variao, mudana)

Metaplasia of laryngeal respiratory epithelium has occurred here in a smoker. The chronic irritation has led to an exchanging of one type of epithelium (the normal respiratory epithelium at the right) for another (the more resilient squamous epithelium at the left). Metaplasia is not a normal physiologic process and may be the first step toward neoplasia.

Metaplasia of esophageal squamous mucosa has occurred here, with gastric type columnar mucosa at the left.

Alteraes do crescimento e da diferenciao celular Displasia Proliferao celular e reduo ou ausncia de diferenciao (do gr. dys = imperfeito, irregular)

Neoplasia Proliferao celular autnoma, geralmente acompanhada de perda de diferenciao (do gr. neo = novo)

Displasia Proliferao celular e reduo ou ausncia de diferenciao (do gr. dys = imperfeito, irregular)

This is dysplasia. The normal squamous epithelium at the left transforms to a disorderly growth pattern at the right. This is farther down the road toward neoplasia.

Outros distrbios I Agenesia Significa uma anomalia congnita na qual um rgo ou uma parte dele no se forma

Distrofia Termo empregado para designar vrias doenas degenerativas sistmicas, genticas ou no

Outros distrbios II Ectopia ou hetrotopia Presena de um tecido normal em localizao anormal

Hamartias Crescimentos focais, excessivos, de um determinado tecido de um rgo; e quando formam tumores so chamados de hamartomas

Coristia Consiste em erros locais do desenvolvimento em que um tecido normal de um rgo cresce em stios onde normalmente no encontrado