2. the World Buddhism

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Makalah Mukerda II 2010 / Majelis Buddhayana Indonesia / Medan Ville, 6-7 Maret 2010 / Oleh budiman


<p>SESSION 2</p> <p>2. The World Buddhism2.1 Brief Timeline 2.2 Buddhayana in the west 2.3 The new wave of buddhism 2.4 Agama Buddha Indonesia</p> <p>Theravada timelinesMajor Events in Theravada Buddhism The Second Council convenes in Vesali to discuss controversial points of Vinaya. The first schism of the Sangha occurs, in which the Mahasanghika school parts ways with the traditionalist 383 B.C.E. Sthaviravadins. At issue is the Mahasanghika's reluctance to accept the Suttas and the Vinaya as the final authority on the Buddha's teachings. This schism marks the first beginnings of what would later evolve into Mahayana Buddhism. Third Council is convened by King Asoka at Pataliputra (India). Disputes on points of doctrine lead to further schisms, spawning the Sarvastivadin and Vibhajjavadin sects. The Abhidhamma Pitaka is 250 B.C.E. recited at the Council, along with additional sections of the Khuddaka Nikaya. The modern Pali Tipitaka is now essentially completed. King Asoka sends his son, Ven. Mahinda, on a mission to bring Buddhism to Sri Lanka. King 247 B.C.E. Devanampiya Tissa of Sri Lanka is converted. Ven. Mahinda establishes the Mahavihara (Great Monastery) of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. The Vibhajjavadin community living there becomes known as the Theravadins. Mahinda's sister, Ven. 240 B.C.E. Sanghamitta, arrives in Sri Lanka with a cutting from the original Bodhi tree, and establishes the bhikkhuni-sangha (nuns) in Sri Lanka. Famine and schisms in Sri Lanka point out the need for a written record of the Tipitaka to preserve the Buddhist religion. King Vattagamani convenes a Fourth Council, in which 500 reciters and 100 C.E. scribes from the Mahavihara write down the Pali Tipitaka for the first time, on palm leaves. Theravada Buddhism first appears in Burma and Central Thailand. Buddhist monastic university at Nalanda, India flourishes; remains a world centre of Buddhist 200 C.E. study for over 1,000 years. Year</p> <p> Ven. Buddhaghosa collates the various Sinhalese commentaries on the Canon - drawing primarily on the Maha Atthakatha (Great Commentary) preserved at the Mahavihara, and translates his work into Pali. This makes Sinhalese Buddhist scholarship available to the entire Theravadin world. As a cornerstone to his work, Buddhaghosa composes the Visuddhimagga (The Path of Purity) which 425 C.E. eventually becomes the classic Sri Lankan textbook on the Buddha's teachings. Dhammapala composes commentaries on parts of the Canon missed by Buddhaghosa (such as the Udana, Itivuttaka, Theragatha, and Therigatha), along with extensive sub-commentaries on Buddhaghosa's work. The bhikkhu and bhikkhuni communities at Anuradhapura die out following invasions from South 1050 India. Bhikkhus from Pagan arrive in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka to reinstate the Theravada ordination line in 1070 Sri Lanka. Polonnaruwa destroyed by foreign invasion. With the guidance of two monks from a forest branch 1164 of the Mahavihara sect - Ven. Mahakassapa and Ven. Sariputta. King Parakramabahu reunites all bhikkhus in Sri Lanka into the Mahavihara sect. 1236 Bhikkhus from Kacipuram, India, arrive in Sri Lanka to revive the Theravada ordination line. 1279 Last inscriptional evidence of a Theravada Bhikkhuni nunnery (in Burma). 1287 Pagan (Burma) looted by Mongol invaders; its decline begins. A forest-based Sri Lankan ordination line arrives in Burma and Thailand. Theravada spreads to Laos. 13th cen. Thai Theravada monasteries first appear in Cambodia shortly before the Thais win their independence from the Khmers. King Kirti Sri Rajasinha obtains bhikkhus from the Thai court to reinstate the bhikkhu ordination 1753 line, which had died out in Sri Lanka. This is the origin of the Siam Nikaya. King Rama I, founder of the current dynasty in Thailand, obtains copies of the Tipitaka from Sri 1777 Lanka and sponsors a Council to standardize the Thai version of the Tipitaka, copies of which are then donated to temples throughout the country.</p> <p>1803 1828 1862 1868 1873 1879</p> <p> Sri Lankans ordained in the Burmese city of Amarapura found the Amarapura Nikaya in Sri Lanka to supplement the Siam Nikaya, which admitted only brahmins from the Up Country highlands around Kandy. Thailand's Prince Mongkut (later King Rama IV) founds the Dhammayut Sect. Forest monks headed by Ven. Paananda go to Burma for reordination, returning to Sri Lanka the following year to found the Ramaa Nikaya. First translation of the Dhammapada into a Western language (German). Fifth Council is held at Mandalay, Burma; Pali Canon is inscribed on 729 marble slabs. Ven. Mohottivatte Gunananda defeats Christian missionaries in a public debate, sparking a nationwide revival of Sri Lankan pride in its Buddhist traditions. Sir Edwin Arnold publishes his epic narrative poem Light of Asia, stimulating popular Western interest in Buddhism. Helena Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott, founders of the Theosophical Society, arrive in Sri Lanka from the USA, embrace Buddhism, and begin a campaign to restore Buddhism on the island by encouraging the establishment of Buddhist schools. Pali Text Society is founded in England by T.W. Rhys Davids; most of the Tipitaka is published in roman script and, over the next 100 years, in English translation. Maha Bodhi Society founded in India by the Sri Lankan lay follower Anagarika Dharmapala, in an effort to reintroduce Buddhism to India. First Western Theravada monk (Gordon Douglas) ordains, in Burma. Ven. Ajahn Mun and Ven. Ajahn Sao revive the forest meditation tradition in Thailand.</p> <p>1880</p> <p>1881</p> <p>18911899 1900 1902</p> <p> King Rama V of Thailand institutes a Sangha Act that formally marks the beginnings of the Mahanikaya and Dhammayut sects. Sangha government, which up to that time had been in the hands of a lay official appointed by the king, is handed over to the bhikkhus themselves.</p> <p>1949 1954 1956</p> <p> Mahasi Sayadaw becomes head teacher at a government sponsored Vipassana meditation centre in Rangoon, Burma. Burmese government sponsors a Sixth Council in Rangoon. Buddha Jayanti Year, commemorating 2,500 years of Buddhism. Ven. Nyanaponika Thera establishes the Buddhist Publication Society in Sri Lanka to publish English-language books on Theravada Buddhism. Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement is founded in Sri Lanka to bring Buddhist ideals to bear in solving pressing social problems. Two Germans ordain at the Royal Thai Embassy in London, becoming the first to take full Theravada ordination in the West. Refugees from war in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos settle in North America, Australia and Europe, establishing many Buddhist communities in the West. Ven. Taungpulu Sayadaw and Dr. Rina Sircar, from Burma, establish the Taungpulu Kaba-Aye Monastery in Northern California, USA. Ven. Ajahn Chah establishes Wat Pah Nanachat, a forest monastery in Thailand for training Western monks. Insight Meditation Society, a lay meditation center, is founded in Massachusetts, USA. Ven. Ajahn Chah travels to England to establish a small community of monks at the Hamsptead Vihara, which later moves to Sussex, England, now known as Chithurst Forest Monastery. Lay meditation centers grow in popularity in North America, Australia and Europe. First Theravada forest monastery in the USA (Bhavana Society) is established in West Virginia. Amaravati Buddhist Monastery established in England by Ven. Ajahn Sumedho. Continued western expansion of the Theravada Sangha: monasteries from the Thai forest traditions established in California, USA (Metta Forest Monastery, founded by Ven. Ajaan Suwat; Abhayagiri Monastery, founded by Ven. Ajahns Amaro and Pasanno). Buddhism meets cyberspace: Buddhist computer networks (BuddhaNet) emerge. Several editions of the Pali Tipitaka become available online.</p> <p>1958</p> <p>1970's</p> <p>1980's</p> <p>1990's</p> <p>Tibetan BuddhismYearc200 C.E.</p> <p>Major Events in Tibetan Buddhism Buddhism begins to percolate into Tibetan region and teachings affect Bon religion in kingdom of Shang-Shung (South Tibet). Buddhist scriptures begin to reach early Tibetan Kingdoms (North Tibet) during reign of King Lhatotori Nyentsen. King Songtsen Gampo unifies Tibet and marries Chinese princess Wen Cheng and Nepalese Princess Bhrkuti who bring Buddha images. Construction of Potala Palace, and Jokang and Ramoche temples to house Buddha images. King Trisong Detsen (r.755-797) invites Shantarakshita to Tibet. King Trisong Detsen invites Padmasambhava, yogin of Swat, to Tibet, and construction of Samye begins (775). Samye, Tibet's first monastery, built by Trisong Detsen and Padmasambhava. Great Convocation, 3000 monks ordained. Translating begins. Padmasambhava founds Nyingma order. Exponents of Indian Buddhism prevail in debate with Chinese at Samye. Persecution of Tibetan Buddhism under King Lang Darma, period of conflict and civil strife begins. Destruction of Tibetan Dynasties. Buddhism almost completely wiped out in Tibet. Commencement of second Buddhist period in Tibet. Atisha (982-1054).</p> <p>3rd century</p> <p>641 641-650 773? 774</p> <p>C785792 840 877 978</p> <p>1038</p> <p> Atisha comes to Tibet and founds the Kadampa school (which later becomes the Gelugpa order). Marpa the translator (1012-1099) founder of the Kargyu school, travels to India, studies under Naropa. Gampopa (1079-1153) is responsible for the actual founding of the Kagyu school on the basis of Kadampa, later to be known as Gelugpa. Monastic practice and education system, with the Tantric practices of Naropa, Marpa and Milarepa. Birth of Milarepa, 2nd hierarch of Kagyu order and a renowned poet. Birth of Marchik Labdron (1055-1153) founder of the Chod lineage, the main lineage founded by a woman. Founding of the Sakya Lineage by Brogmi (992-1072). Gonchok Guelpo (1034-1102) establishes the first monastery of the Sakya monastic order. Sakya Pandita submits to Godan Khan; beginning of the first priest/patron relationship between a Tibetan Lama and a Mongol Khan. Tibet is reunited with Sakya Pandita, Grand Lama of Sakya, as king. King Changchub Gyaltsen defeats Sakya and founds a secular dynasty. Ganden, first Gelug monastery, built by monastic reformer Tsongkhapa (1357-1419). In prolonged warfare, Karmapa supporters gain control of royal court. Gelug-pa leader gets the title of Dalai ("Ocean") from Altan Khan. Gushri Khan enthrones the 5th Dalai Lama as temporal ruler of Tibet. "Great Fifth" Dalai Lama meets Qing Emperor Shunzhi near Beijing. Fifth Dalai Lama dies; regent conceals death for the next 14 years. Italian Jesuit priest, Ippolito Desideri studies and teaches in Lhasa. Dzungar Mongols invade Tibet and sack Lhasa. Fifth DL's tomb looted. Dzungars driven out, Qing (Chinese) forces install Kesang Gyatso as the 7th Dalai Lama.</p> <p>C1039</p> <p>1040 1055 1060 1247 1261 1350 1409 1435-81 1578 1642 1653 1682 1716-21 1717 1720 1721</p> <p> The position of Amban is created by a 13-point Qing decree on Tibet. 29-point Qing decree prescribes "golden urn" lottery for picking DL and PL, bans visits by non-Chinese, and increases Amban's powers.</p> <p>1904 1910-12 1911 1913 1924-25 1933 1934 1940</p> <p> British troops under Colonel Younghusband enter Tibet and occupy Lhasa. Chinese troops occupy Tibet, shoot at unarmed crowds on entering Lhasa. Bogh Haan, the Urga "Living Buddha," proclaims Mongolia independent. 13th Dalai Lama proclaims Tibet a "religious and independent nation". Pressure from monks causes Dalai Lama to dismiss his British-trained officers. Truce ends. China and Tibet fighting; the 13th Dalai Lama dies at age 58. Reting Rimpoche named regent. China permitted to open Lhasa mission. The five-year-old Tenzin Gyatso is enthroned as the 14th Dalai Lama.</p> <p>19411945 1950 1951 1956 1959</p> <p> Unable to keep celibacy vow, Reting is replaced as regent by Taktra. Newly opened English-language school is closed after monks protest. Red China invades Tibet; Tibetan army destroyed in battle at Chamdo. 17-point agreement between China and Tibet; Chinese occupy Lhasa. Tibetans in Kham and Amdo (Qinghai) begin revolt against Chinese ruler. Dalai Lama visits India for 2,500th anniversary of the Buddha's birth. Dalai Lama flees to India. 87,000 Tibetans die in anti-Chinese revolt. International Commission of Jurists: "acts of genocide *have+ been committed... to destroy the Tibetans as a religious group." Dalai Lama approves a democratic constitution for the Tibetan exile community. The Panchen Lama is arrested after calling for Tibetan independence. Visitors find only 8 temples left in TAR, down from 2,700 in 1959. China allows a series of three delegations from Dalai Lama to visit Tibet. Dalai Lama receives the Nobel Peace Prize. Dalai Lama recognizes six-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as 11th Panchen Lama. China denounces the Dalai Lama's choice. The Karmapa (Urgyen Trinley Dorje) flees Tibet to join the Dalai Lama in exile.</p> <p>19601963 1964 1978 1979-80 1989 1995 1999</p> <p>Chinese buddhismYear Major Events in Chinese Buddhism Historical record has it that two Buddhist monks, Kasyapa and Dharmaraksha, from India in 68 AD, arrived at the court of Emperor Ming (58-75) of the Han Dynasty (25-220 AD). They enjoyed imperial favour and stayed on to translate various Buddhist Texts, one of which, The 'Sutra of Forty-two Sections' continues to be popular even today. 1st century CE</p> <p> First translations of Indian Buddhist texts into Chinese by An Shih-Kao in 148. A Mahayana monk, Lokaksema translates Small Perfections of Wisdom Sutra and A Land of Bliss Sutra (168). First Buddhist monastery constructed. 2nd century CE This early work of translating texts continues into 3rd century. Dhamaraksa (born 230) translates a large number of sutras, including the Lotus Sutra and Large Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, and founded monasteries, ordained Sangha, and expounded the Dharma Fo-T'u-Teng founds Buddhist order of nuns (317). Translation of Buddhist texts into Chinese by Kumarajiva (344-413) and Huiyan (344-416).</p> <p>4th century CE</p> <p> Chinese pilgrim scholar Fa-hsien visits India (399-414). Amitabha (Amida) the Pure Land School (Ching t'u) emerges in China (402). First Patriarch of Pure Land was T'an-Luan (476-542) 5th century CE Persecution of Buddhism under Emperor Wu or Shih-tusu (424-451). Restoration under the new Emperor, Wen-ch'eng-ti (454). T'ien Tai school founded by Hui-Wen (470-?) in South China. Bodhidharma, first Patriarch of the Ch'an School arrives in China from India in 520 (variant 526). 6th century CE The T'ang dynasty (618-907) was the Golden Age of Chinese Buddhism. The T'ien-tai School was established by Chih-i (538-597) Hua-yen School establish by Fashun (557-640) Dhyana School (Ch'an; Jap.Zen) Schools of Chinese Buddhism.</p> <p> The Southern School of Ch'an or new Ch'an begins in earnest with Hui-neng (638-713) the Sixth Patriarch. The Persecution in 845, during the reign of Emperor Wu-tsung (841-7) an order came to the 7th century CE effec...</p>