20 Pronouns y Note the difference between Possessive Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives. A possessive

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    Read

    Note how many times the word ‘Veena’ has been used. We can write the above sentences differently without using the word Veena.

    Now read the sentences below.

    Veena is twelve years old. She studies in Union Park High School. She travels to school in a school van. Her father takes her for badminton classes in the evening.

    Let’s Learn

    A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or noun-equivalent.

    y The use of pronouns helps us to avoid repetition of nouns.

    y The noun for which a pronoun stands is called its antecedent.

    Example: ○ Veena (noun) is the antecedent of the pronoun ‘she’.

    Kinds of Pronouns A. Personal Pronoun

    Person Singular Plural Subjective Objective Subjective Objective

    First I me we us Second you you you you Third Masculine he him

    they them Feminine she her Neuter it it

    B. Demonstrative Pronoun: y It is used to point to the object/objects to which it refers.

    y Demonstrative pronouns are ‘this’, ‘that’ (singular) and ‘these’, ‘those’ (plural).

    Pronouns 20

    Veena is twelve years old. Veena studies in Union Park High School. Veena travels to school in a school van. Veena’s father takes Veena for badminton classes in the evening.

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    Examples:

    ○ This is a wonderful book.

    ○ That is a card which was given to me.

    ○ These are colourful pictures.

    ○ Those are the locations which I wanted to visit.

    To indicate person(s)/thing(s) that is(are) near the speaker Use this and these

    To indicate person(s)/thing(s) is(are) far away from the speaker. Use that and those

    y Difference Between Demonstrative Pronouns and Demonstrative Adjectives

    A demonstrative pronoun replaces a noun. Example:

    ○ This is the classroom. ○ That is my bag.

    A demonstrative adjective qualifies a noun and answers the question ‘which’. Example:

    ○ I was looking for this classroom. ○ That bag is mine.

    C. Interrogative Pronoun y It asks a question and is usually used at the beginning of a sentence.

    ‘Who’ is used for a person ○ Who came to deliver the parcel?

    ‘Whom’ is used for a person ○ Whom did you ask?

    ‘Which’ is used for both persons and things ○ Which is my parcel?

    ‘What’ is used for things ○ What was found inside the cardboard

    box?

    ‘Whose’ is used to ask questions about people or objects, related to possession

    ○ Whose is this parcel?

    y Difference between interrogative pronouns and interrogative adjectives.

    An interrogative pronoun replaces a noun. Example:

    ○ Which is your seat? ○ What are you cooking tonight?

    An interrogative adjective qualifies a noun. Example:

    ○ Which seat have you reserved? ○ What dish are you cooking tonight?

    D. Possessive Pronoun y It shows possession, i.e. belongingness, and indicates that something belongs to

    someone.

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    Personal Pronoun Possessive Pronoun Person Subject Object

    First person (person speaking)

    I me mine we us ours

    Second person (person spoken to)

    you you yours

    Third person (person spoken about)

    he him his she her hers it it its

    they them theirs

    Example: ○ This necklace is hers.

    ○ Ask if the letters are theirs.

    ○ The next chance to play is mine.

    y Note the difference between Possessive Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives.

    A possessive pronoun replaces a noun. Example:

    ○ This paint box is mine.

    A possessive adjective qualifies a noun. Example:

    ○ This is my paint box.

    E. Reflexive Pronoun y When the subject and the object of the verb refer to the same person, a reflexive pronoun

    is used for the object. Here, the action of the subject reflects/goes back to the doer (antecedent).

    y If the reflexive pronoun is removed from the sentence, the meaning of the sentence is unclear.

    y The words itself, myself, yourself, ourselves are the objects of the verb in the sentence. But they refer to the same person as the subject does.

    Example: ○ Radhika is looking at herself in the mirror.

    (Radhika is looking at in the mirror.) Here, the meaning of the sentence is unclear when the reflexive pronoun is removed.

    F. Emphatic Pronoun y It is used to add emphasis to a noun or pronoun.

    y If the emphatic pronoun is removed from the sentence, the meaning of the sentence is retained.

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    Example: ○ I myself am performing the puja.

    (I am performing the puja.) Here, the meaning of the sentence is retained although the emphatic pronoun is removed.

    ○ You yourself could ask him and clarify your doubts.

    (You could ask him and clarify your doubts.) Here, the meaning of the sentence is retained although the emphatic pronoun is removed.

    y Note the difference between Reflexive Pronouns and Emphatic pronouns.

    Reflexive pronoun: action reflects back to the doer Example:

    ○ I cut myself while shaving this morning.

    Emphatic pronoun: emphasizes the noun.

    Example:

    ○ It’s quicker if you yourself do it.

    G. Relative Pronoun y It links a phrase or clause in a sentence.

    y It relates to the noun that comes before it. The words who, which, that, whom, whose and what are Relative Pronouns.

    y Compound words such as whoever, whomsoever, whatever and whichever are also Relative Pronouns.

    Example:

    ○ I know the man who made this furniture.

    ○ This is the engineer whom I was talking about.

    ○ Please recheck whatever he wrote.

    Remember that ‘who, which, whom, whose and what’ are used as Interrogative pronouns to ask questions. The same words, when used as relative pronouns, link a noun to the rest of the sentence.

    y Difference between Interrogative Pronouns and Relative Pronouns.

    Interrogative Pronoun: only asks questions.

    Example ○ Who is ringing the bell?.

    Relative Pronoun:- links noun to the rest of the sentence. Example

    ○ He is the boy who was ringing the bell.

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    Let’s Exercise

    1. Identify the Demonstrative Adjectives (DA) and Demonstrative Pronouns (DP) in the following sentences.

    a) This was made by Sahil and gifted to those boys from the local Rotary Club.

    b) These are old flowers. It is better to replace them with those flowers.

    c) This bag was gifted to me by my sister.

    d) That calendar is old. Take it off the wall and replace it with this.

    e) This is the game that my father had brought.

    2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate interrogative pronouns.

    a) answered the phone?

    b) do you think about the new school?

    c) railway station is nearest to the office?

    d) With will you attend the drama auditions?

    3. Fill in the blanks with appropriate reflexive or emphatic pronouns.

    a) My mother made this handbag .

    b) They started arguing among .

    c) We made this cake .

    d) John hurt while climbing a tree.

    e) I had to finish the project .

    f) I need to get some new shoes.

    4. Read the following sentences. Use suitable pronouns to replace the underlined words.

    a) Ravi has a farm. The farm that you see opposite the petrol pump is Ravi’s.

    b) His wife is an expert musician. The DVDs and CDs you saw in their hall are his wife’s.

    c) The Patel family is our neighbour. The car in the parking lot is the Patel family’s.

    d) I’m gifting you two sets of necklaces. Henceforth, it will be your jewellery.

    e) I purchased these two Italian sofas. They are my sofas.

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    5. Fill in the blanks with appropriate relative pronouns.

    a) The camera you wanted is on sale at Leena Electronics.

    b) you journey to, eat food from a good and hygienic hotel.

    c) he asks will tell him the way to our building.

    d) The man wondered they were talking about.

    e) This is the postman delivers post to us regularly.

    6. In the following passage one word has been omitted in each line. Write the missing word in the sentences of the paragraph, along with the word that comes before and after in the space provided.

    Before Missing word After

    Ms Ria and a friend of came to the classroom. e.g. of hers came Ms Ria spoke first. congratulated the a. students won the elocution competition. b. Her friend asked to bring a list of things for c. for tomorrows’ craft competition. were excited d.

    At a Glance Kinds of Pronouns

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    Read

    Clara was a sea nymph who wore a gorgeous yellow gown woven from seaweed and few seashells. One day a mermaid sang her a melodious song about a lot of golden light above the water. Clara wanted to witness it! She swam to the surface with much force and climbed onto the shore. She saw the golden light described in the song. It was the bright burning sun!

    In the above paragraph the highlighted words are adjectives.

    Let’s Learn

    An adjective qualifies, describes or tells us more about the noun or pronoun.

    Example: ○ One day a mermaid sang her a melodious song about a lot of golden light above

    the water.

    Here ‘melodious’ describes the kind of song, ‘a lot’ and ‘golden