2017 IndigenousExpenditure Report
Produced by the Productivity Commission for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision
Commonwealth of Australia 2017
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Attribution This work should be attributed as follows, Source: Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, 2017 Indigenous Expenditure Report.
If you have adapted, modified or transformed this work in anyway, please use the following, Source: based on Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision data, 2017 Indigenous Expenditure Report.
An appropriate reference for this publication is: SCRGSP (Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision) 2017, 2017 Indigenous Expenditure Report, Productivity Commission, Canberra.
Publications enquiries The Productivity Commission acts as the Secretariat for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision. This report and previous editions are available from the Productivity Commission website at www.pc.gov.au.
This report generally uses the term Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to describe Australias first peoples and non-Indigenous Australians to refer to Australians of other backgrounds, except where quoting other sources. This Report uses the term Indigenous expenditure for government expenditure on services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Expenditure on services to non-Indigenous Australians is referred to as non-Indigenous expenditure.
TERMS OF REFERENCE iii
Terms of reference
The following terms of reference were endorsed by the Council of Australian Governments at its 2 July 2009 meeting in Darwin.
The Indigenous Expenditure Report aims to contribute to better policy making and improved outcomes for Indigenous Australians, by:
1. reporting on expenditure on services which support Indigenous Australians, including in a manner consistent with the COAG Working Group on Indigenous Reform statement of objectives, outcomes and measures and the COAG Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage report framework.
2. promoting the collection and reporting of robust Indigenous expenditure data through:
(a) determining and applying consistent methodology to the collection and reporting of data
(b) identifying necessary improvements to the collection and availability of relevant data
(c) developing and implementing strategies to address data deficiencies.
The Indigenous Expenditure Report will:
3. include expenditure by both Commonwealth and State/Territory governments (and local government if possible), and over time will:
(a) allow reporting on Indigenous and non-Indigenous social status and economic status
(b) include expenditure on Indigenous-specific and key mainstream programs
(c) be reconcilable with published government financial statistics.
4. focus on on-the-ground services in areas such as: education; justice; health; housing; community services; employment; and other significant expenditure.
5. report on a regular basis, including:
(a) completion of an initial stocktake report for the first COAG meeting in 2009, setting out the reporting framework, principles, methodology, and survey of available data and strategies for data development
(b) staged reporting against the framework (having regard to considerations such as data availability, implementation requirements and costs of reporting)
(c) report on both Indigenous and non-Indigenous expenditure.
iv 2017 INDIGENOUS EXPENDITURE REPORT
6. provide governments with a better understanding of the level and patterns of expenditure on services which support Indigenous Australians, and provide policy makers with an additional tool to target policies to Close the Gap in Indigenous Disadvantage.
The Indigenous Expenditure Report Steering Committee will:
7. provide regular updates to Heads of Treasuries on progress in developing the expenditure framework and to the Working Group on Indigenous Reform on progress on data issues
8. recommend to Heads of Treasuries appropriate institutional arrangements for annual reporting on Indigenous expenditure once the framework for reporting has been developed.
Terms of reference iii Steering Committee vii Working Group ix Key points xii 1 What is this report? 1 2 How is Indigenous expenditure estimated? 3 2.1 Total annual expenditure 4 2.2 Indigenous specific and mainstream expenditure 4 2.3 Service use measures 5 2.4 Expenditure estimates 5 3 What estimates are reported, how reliable are they and
where can I find them? 7 3.1 What estimates are reported? 7 3.2 How reliable are the estimates? 8 3.3 Where can I find the estimates I want? 10 4 What can the estimates tell me (or not)? 13 4.1 How do estimates compare to those published elsewhere? 13 4.2 Can the Report match expenditure to outcomes? 13 4.3 Why is expenditure higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians? 14 4.4 Why report expenditure per person in the population? 14 4.5 What do I need to consider when comparing estimates
across jurisdictions? 15 4.6 What do I need to consider when comparing expenditure
over time? 17
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5 Case study The NSW Regional Expenditure Estimate Model 19
5.1 Methodology 19 5.2 Use of the model 20 References 21 Appendix A 2017 IER published categories 23 Appendix B 2017 IER deflators 29
STEERING COMMITTEE vii
This report was produced under the direction of the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (SCRGSP). The Steering Committee comprises the following current members:
Mr Peter Harris Chairman Productivity Commission
Mr Nicholas Hunt Aust. Govt. Department of Finance Ms Joanne Evans Aust. Govt. The Treasury Ms Dominique Lowe Aust. Govt. Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet
Mr Rick Sondalini NSW NSW Treasury Ms Anita Truninger NSW Department of Premier and Cabinet
Ms Brigid Monagle Vic Department of Premier and Cabinet Mr Jeremy Nott Vic Department of Treasury and Finance
Ms Nicole Tabb Qld Department of the Premier and Cabinet Ms Janelle Thurlby Qld Queensland Treasury
Ms Melissa Rudez WA Department of the Premier and Cabinet Mr Kurt Sibma WA Department of Treasury
Ms Tammie Pribanic SA Department of Treasury and Finance Mr Chris McGowan SA Department of the Premier and Cabinet
Ms Ruth McArdle Tas Department of Premier and Cabinet
Mr Geoffrey Rutledge ACT Chief Minister, Treasury and Economic Development Directorate
Ms Jean Doherty NT Department of the Chief Minister Ms Linda Weatherhead NT Department of the Chief Minister Ms Nardia Harris NT Department of Treasury and Finance
Mr Barry Sandison Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Dr Paul Jelfs Australian Bureau of Statistics
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People who also served on the Steering Committee during the production of this report include:
Ms Josephine Laduzko Aust. Govt. Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet Ms Emily Martin Aust. Govt. The Treasury Ms Sam Reinhardt Aust. Govt. The Treasury Mr Marty Robinson Aust. Govt. The Treasury Mr Jonathan Rollings Aust. Govt. The Treasury Mr Mark Thomann Aust. Govt. Department of Finance
Ms Michelle Dumazel NSW Department of Premier and Cabinet
Ms Bronwen FitzGerald Vic Department of Premier and Cabinet
Ms Marion Burchell WA Department of the Premier and Cabinet Ms Lorissa Kelly WA Department of the Premier and Cabinet Mr Barry Thomas WA Department of Treasury
Ms Katrina Ball SA Department of Treasury and Finance Ms Nicole Hunter SA Department of the Premier and Cabinet
Ms Rebekah Burton Tas Department of Premier and Cabinet
Mr Sam Engele ACT Chief Minister, Treasury and Economic Development Directorate
Ms Kerry Flanagan Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Mr Andrew Kettle Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Mr Peter Harper Australian Bureau of Statistics
WORKING GROUP ix
The Indigenous Expenditure Report Working Group undertakes the development and production of the Indigenous Expenditure Report under the auspice of the Steering Committee. The Working Group comprises the following members:
Ms Nina Davidson Convenor Productivity Commission
Ms Jody Hughes Aust. Govt. Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet Ms Katie Rae Aust. Govt. Department of Finance Mr Timothy Goodland Aust. Govt. The Treasury
Mr Lawrence Freeman NSW NSW Treasury