2safety in Nuclear Power Plants

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  • 8/2/2019 2safety in Nuclear Power Plants


    Safety in Nuclear Power Plants

    Safety in Nuclear Power Plants

    The safety of any large scale industry is of great concern and the nuclear power plant is no

    exception. Safety in nuclear power plants is the foremost aspect to be taken intoconsideration for any worker. Here is a noteworthy perspective on the significance of vigilant

    safety culture of a nuclear power plant.

    The main reason for the concern of safety in nuclear power plants is the release of uncontrolled

    emissions into the surroundings, which may pose severe risks to humans at the reactor site as

    well as off-site.

    Nuclear Power Reactor: Safety Mechanisms

    Every design of a nuclear power reactor must and should incorporate provisions for human

    errors as well as equipment failures. They should have several backup elements and design torule out errors made by the operator. When the first atomic reactor was in a critical condition in

    1942, Enrico Fermi has already incorporated the necessary safety measures to combat the


    Some of the main safety measures to be followed in a nuclear power plant are dealt with

    individually in the following sections.

    Control of Radioactivity

    The control of radioactivity requires the ability to control neutron flux. A decrease in the neutron

    flux will also decrease the radioactivity. The best way out to decrease neutron flux is to integrateneutron-absorbing control rods by partially inserting them into the reactor core. In most of the

    modern power plants, all the control rods are inserted into the reactor core within a few

    seconds, thus stopping the nuclear reaction as quickly as possible.

    Additionally, most of the nuclear power reactors are designed in such a way that the efficiency

    of the reaction comes down as the temperature increases above the normal level. Thus, lesser

    neutrons can only cause fission, thereby slowing down the reactor automatically.

    Maintenance of barriers

    It is very important to maintain the series of physical barriers between the environment andradiator core to prevent the discharge of radiations.

    Maintenance of Core Cooling

    Every nuclear reactor requires some type of cooling. Normally, water is used as a coolant.

    However, few reactors cannot use water, in which case sodium salts are used.

    Safety of Workers

    Radiation dosage for the workers can be reduced by following the procedures given below so

    as to reduce the health risks for them:

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  • 8/2/2019 2safety in Nuclear Power Plants


    Safety in Nuclear Power Plants

    Remote is used to handle the equipment in the reactor core

    Physical shielding

    Setting time limitations for a worker to work in an area with considerable radiation levels

    Supervising the wok environment and keeping an eye on the individual doses

    All the above mentioned safety steps have to be considered seriously to ensure safety of

    nuclear power plants. However, according to regulations, situations of unexpected melt-downs

    must be strictly confined within the plant only without the requirement to vacate close-by

    residential areas.

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