3 Cleaning Disinfection

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    Cleaning compounds,

    disinfectantsand soil

    Quality and Safety Issues in Fish Handling

    -----

    A course in quality and safety management in

    fishery harbours in Sri Lanka

    NARA, DFAR, ICEIDA and UNU-FTP

    Icelandic InternationalDevelopment Agency (ICEIDA)

    Iceland

    United Nations University FisheriesTraining Programme (UNU-FTP)

    Iceland

    National Aquatic Resources Researchand Development Agency (NARA)

    Sri Lanka

    Department of Fisheries andAquatic Resources (DFAR)

    Sri Lanka

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    Content of the lecture

    Types of soil

    Types of chemicals and applicability

    Cleaning and disinfections

    Proper usage

    concentration, time

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    Learning objectives

    After this lecture participants will be able:

    To explain factors that affect the effectiveness of cleaning

    and disinfecting compounds

    To select and use disinfecting compounds properly basedon the characters of the disinfecting compounds

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    Soil

    Soil - any undesirable organic or inorganic

    material (including food) remaining on

    equipment

    Visible soile.g. fish waste, blood water, trash fish, oilleaks.

    Invisible soile.g. microorganisms (Salmonella, E.coli, Vibrio spp. ), chemicals

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    The aim of disinfecting:

    To destroy microbes that areleft on a washed surface

    To prevent growth of microbes

    which can spoil the food or

    make the consumer ill

    To ensure a microbiologically

    acceptable standard of hygiene

    Effective disinfections can only beobtained after an effective cleaning

    Cleaning and disinfection

    The aim of cleaning:

    To remove all visible dirt

    like protein, fat and minerals To wet, disperse

    and rinse

    To prevent build up of

    organic matter and

    biofilm formation

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    Function of a cleaning - anddisinfectant depends on:

    Exposure time

    Temperature (25-30C)

    Concentration

    pH

    Cleanliness presence of organic matter

    Water hardness

    Biofilm forming - bacterial attachment

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    General steps for cleaning

    Remove any product and/or packaging from the area being

    cleaned (dry clean)

    Hose all surfaces with water to remove most of the dirt.

    Apply a cleaning detergent

    Scrub surfaces to remove dirt

    Rinse off the cleaning detergent

    Apply a sanitizer

    Rinse off the sanitizer

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    pH Values

    acid alkalineNeutral

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

    hydrochloric acid water NaOH

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    Components in a cleaning solution

    Water

    Surfactants

    Inorganic alkalis

    Inorganic and organic acids

    Sequestering agents

    to improve wetting,dispersion and rinse

    ability

    to control

    hard

    water ions

    to remove

    protein and

    fat

    to remove

    milk stone,

    minerals

    etc.

    the base

    ingredients

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    Removing different types of soil

    soil solubleease of

    removaleffect of heat

    saltsin water

    in acideasy

    reacts with other

    types of soil

    sugar in water easy caramelizes

    fatin alkali

    difficultmolecules join

    together

    proteinin alkali

    very difficultmolecules

    change shape

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    Most common cleaning compounds used inthe fishery industry

    Foaming- alkaline cleaners with surfactants. Used to clean

    equipment, facilities, walls and floors.

    Strongly alkaline cleaners. Strong dissolving power and are

    very corrosive. Used to remove heavy soils such as those in

    ovens.

    Soaps used on things that are easily cleaned. Like trays,

    aprons, gloves etc.

    Solvent cleaners used on soils caused by petroleum products,

    such as lubricating oils and greases.

    Acid cleaners, minimum use in fish industry but useful to

    clean rusty floors and mineral deposits.

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    Disinfection

    effected by

    Physical treatment

    Heat

    UV irradiation

    Chemical compounds

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    Most common disinfectants

    Chlorine sanitizers: hypochlorites, chloramines and

    chlorine dioxide

    Iodine compounds: skin disinfectant

    Acid-sanitizer: Peroxyacetic acid

    Quaternary ammonium compounds

    Ozone

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    Chlorine and its compounds

    Most widely used in developing countries

    sodium or calcium hypochlorite solution

    Factors affecting antimicrobial properties

    pH

    Concentration

    Temperature

    Corrosion affected by pH, temperature and time

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    reaction in water NaOCl and Ca(OCl)2

    NaOCl + H2O NaOH + HOCl

    HOCl H+ + OCl-

    bioactivity

    http://www.edstrom.com/DocLib/MI4148.pdf

    Chlorine and its compounds

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    Comparison of commonly used

    disinfectantsinfluence

    onChlorine Ozone Iodophors QUATS

    Peracetic

    acid

    Gram+ very good very good very good good very good

    Gram- very good very good very good poor very good

    spores (good) (good) fairly none (good)

    viruses fairly fairly good bad fairly

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    Comparison of commonly useddisinfectants (cont)

    Characteristic Chlorine Ozone Iodophors QUATSPeracetic

    acid

    corrosivecoorodes mild

    steel, rubber

    coorodes mild

    steel,rubberliittle none

    corrodes mild

    steel

    effect oforganic soil

    high high moderately low low

    shelf stenght low lowvaries with

    temperatureexcellent excellent

    stability in hot

    water (>65C)none none very stable stable stable

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    Handling and storing

    Workers should know the hazards of each chemical and how

    chemicals react when mixed

    safety data sheet

    Be careful when using a chemical. If a cleaning compoundaccidentally splashes onto workers skin, eyes or clothes, the

    workers should immediately flush the area with plenty of

    water.

    Cleaning compounds should be stored away from normal

    traffic

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    Requirements for the use of chemicals

    Workers needs to understand the types of soil they need

    to remove and which chemicals will work best to

    remove them

    Equipment and surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned andfree of soil for a disinfectant to work properly

    Cleaning compounds help loosen soil and flush it away

    Disinfectant is used to reduce the number of

    microorganisms on equipment and surfaces

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    1. Chemical identification2. Physical characteristics

    3. Regulatory information

    4. Physical hazards

    5. Health hazard6. Emergency first aid

    7. Protective equipment

    8. Spills, leaks and disposal procedures

    9. Special precautions and additional information

    Information on safety data sheet

    Use only approved cleaning agents and disinfectants in food

    processing plants. They should comply with legal requirements

    concerning safety and health as well as biodegradability.

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    References

    Katsuyama and Strachan (1980) Principles of food processing sanitation.

    Chapter 4 p. 61-91. The Food Processors Institute Washington.

    Marriott, G. M.(1997). Essentials of food sanitation. Chapman and Hall.

    New York and London

    Training material from UNU-FTP and Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories