38627633 Motivation Ppt

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    MOTIVATION

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    MEANING OF MOTIVATION

    Motivation refers to way in which urges,

    desires, aspirations, needs of individuals

    direct, control or explain his behaviour.Motivation tries to find to something inside

    or outside a person which propels him to do

    or not to something. Motivation is getting

    people do what you want them to dobecause they want to do it.

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    Definition of Motivation

    Motivation - the process of arousing and

    sustaining goal-directed behavior

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    NATURE OF MOTIVATION

    Motivation

    The set of forces that cause people to behave incertain ways.

    The goal of managers is to maximize desiredbehaviors and minimize undesirable behaviors.

    The Importance of Motivation in the Workplace

    Determinants of Individual Performance

    Motivationthe desire to do the job. Abilitythe capability to do the job.

    Work environmentthe resources needed to do thejob.

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    TYPES OF MOTIVATION

    Positive Motivation: It is based on rewards.

    The workers are offered incentives for

    achieving the desired goals. The incentives

    can be in the shape of more pay, promotion,recognition of work etc.

    Negative Motivation: It is based on force or

    fear. Fear causes employees to act in a

    certain way. In case, they do not act

    accordingly they may be punished with

    demotions or layoffs.

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    TECHNIQUES TO INCREASE

    MOTIVATION Financial Motivators:

    Financial motivators may be in the form of:

    More wages and salaries

    Bonuses

    Profit sharing

    Leave with pay

    Medical reimbursements

    Company paid insurance or

    Any of the other thing that may be given to employees for

    performance.

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    Non Financial Motivators:

    Non financial motivators may be in the form of:

    Recognition Participation

    Status

    Competition

    Job Enrichment

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    THEORIES OFMOTIVATION

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    Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

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    McGregors Assumptions

    About People Based on Theory X

    Naturally indolent (lazy)

    Lack ambition, dislike

    responsibility, and prefer to be

    led Inherently self-centered and

    indifferent to organizational

    needs

    Naturally resistant to change

    Gullible, not bright, ready dupes

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    McGregors Assumptions

    About People Based on Theory Y

    Experiences in organizations result in passiveand resistant behaviors; they are not inherent

    Motivation, development potential, capacity

    for assuming responsibility, readiness todirect behavior toward organizational goalsare present in people

    Managements taskarrange conditions and

    operational methods so people can achievetheir own goals by directing efforts toorganizational goals

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    ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer)

    Core Needs

    Existence: provisionofbasic materialrequirements.

    Relatedness:desireforrelationships.

    Growth:desireforpersonal development.

    Core Needs

    Existence: provisionofbasic materialrequirements.

    Relatedness:desireforrelationships.

    Growth:desireforpersonal development.

    Concepts:

    Morethanoneneedcan

    beoperative atthesametime.

    Ifa higher-level needcannot befulfilled,thedesiretosatisfy a lower-level need increases.

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    McClellands Need Theory:

    Need for Affiliation

    NeedforAffiliation- a

    manifest (easily

    perceived) need that

    concerns an

    individuals need to

    establish and maintain

    warm, close, intimaterelationships with

    other people

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    McClellands Need Theory:

    Need for Power

    NeedforPower- amanifest (easilyperceived) need that

    concerns anindividuals need tomake an impact onothers, influenceothers, change peopleor events, and make adifference in life

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    McClellands Need Theory:

    Need for Achievement

    NeedforAchievement

    - a manifest (easily

    perceived) need that

    concerns individualsissues of excellence,

    competition, challenging

    goals, persistence, and

    overcoming difficulties

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    Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory

    Hygiene Factor- work condition related to

    dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain

    maintenance factor

    contributes to employees feeling not dissatisfied contributes to absence of complaints

    Motivation Factor- work condition related to the

    satisfaction of the need for psychological growth

    job enrichment

    leads to superior performance & effort

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    Motivation-Hygiene Theory of

    Motivation

    Hygiene factors avoid

    job dissatisfaction

    Company policy &

    administration

    Supervision

    Interpersonal relations Working conditions

    Salary

    Status

    Security

    Motivation-Hygiene Theory of

    Motivation

    Achievement

    Achievement recognition

    Work itself

    Responsibility Advancement

    Growth

    Salary?

    Motivation factorsincrease job satisfaction

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    Equity Theory

    People are motivated to seek social equity in the

    rewards they receive for performance.

    Equity is an individuals belief that the treatment

    he or she receives is fair relative to the treatment

    received by others.

    Individuals view the value of rewards (outcomes)

    and inputs of effort as ratios and make subjective

    comparisons of themselves to other people:

    Outcomes (self)

    Inputs (self)=

    Outcomes (other)

    Inputs (other)

    Outcomes (self)

    Inputs (self)=

    Outcomes (other)

    Inputs (other)

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    Motivational Theory of Social

    Exchange

    Negative Outcomes < Outcomes

    Inequity Inputs Inputs

    Positive Outcomes > Outcomes

    Inequity Inputs Inputs

    Person Comparison

    other

    Equity Outcomes = Outcomes

    Inputs Inputs

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    Strategies for Resolution of Inequity

    Alter the persons outcomes

    Alter the persons inputs

    Alter the comparison others outputs

    Alter the comparison others inputs

    Change who is used as a comparison other

    Rationalize the inequity

    Leave the organizational situation

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    Expectancy Theory of Motivation:

    Key Constructs

    Valence- value or importance placed on a

    particular reward

    Expectancy- belief that effort leads toperformance

    Instrumentality- belief that performance is

    related to rewards

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    Expectancy Model of Motivation

    Effort Performance Reward

    Perceived

    performance -

    reward probability

    Perceived effort -

    performance

    probability

    Perceived

    value of reward

    If I work hard,

    will I get the job

    done?

    What rewards

    will I get when

    the job is well

    done?

    What rewards

    do I value?

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    Porter-Lawler Extension of

    Expectancy Theory

    Assumptions:

    If performance in an organization results in equitable

    and fair rewards, people will be more satisfied.

    High performance can lead to rewards and highsatisfaction.

    Types of rewards:

    Extrinsic rewardsoutcomes set and awarded by

    external parties (e.g., pay and promotions). Intrinsic rewardsoutcomes that are internal to the

    individual (e.g., self-esteem and feelings of

    accomplishment).

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    Porter-Lawler Extension of

    Expectancy Theory

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    Assumptions

    Behavior is a result of conscious goals and intentions.

    Setting goals influences the behavior of people in

    organizations. Characteristics of Goals

    Goal difficulty

    Extent to which a goal is challenging and requires

    effort.

    People work harder to achieve more difficult goals.

    Goals should be difficult but attainable.

    Goal-Setting Theory

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    Characteristics of Goals (contd)

    Goal specificity

    Clarity and precision of thegoal.

    Goals vary in their ability to

    be

    stated specifically.

    Acceptance The extent to which persons

    accept a goal as their own.

    Commitment

    The extent to which an

    individual is

    personally interested in

    reaching a goal.

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    Reinforcement Theory

    Reinforcement Theory

    The r