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3GPP Long Term EvolutionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the latest standard in the mobile network technology tree that produced the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA network technologies.[1][2] It is a project of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), operating under a name trademarked by one of the associations within the partnership, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. The current generation of mobile telecommunication networks are collectively known as 3G (for "third generation"). Although LTE is often marketed as 4G, first-release LTE does not fully comply with the IMT Advanced 4G requirements. The pre-4G standard is a step toward LTE Advanced, a 4th generation (4G)[3] standard of radio technologies designed to increase the capacity and speed of mobile telephone networks. LTE Advanced is backwards compatible with LTE and uses the same frequency bands, while LTE is not backwards compatible with 3G systems. MetroPCS and Verizon Wireless in the United States and several worldwide carriers announced plans, beginning in 2009, to convert their networks to LTE. The world's first publicly available LTE-service was opened by TeliaSonera in the two Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo on the 14th of December 2009. LTE is a set of enhancements to the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) which was introduced in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 8. Much of 3GPP Release 8 focuses on adopting 4G mobile communication technology, including an all-IP flat networking architecture. On August 18, 2009, the European Commission announced it will invest a total of 18 million into researching the deployment of LTE and the certified 4G system LTE Advanced.[4] While it is commonly seen as a cell phone or common carrier development, LTE is also endorsed by public safety agencies in the US[5] as the preferred technology for the new 700 MHz public-safety radio band. Agencies in some areas have filed for waivers[6] hoping to use the 700 MHz[7] spectrum with other technologies in advance of the adoption of a nationwide standard.


1 Overview 2 Current state 3 Timelines 4 An "All IP Network" (AIPN) 5 E-UTRAN Air Interface 6 Technology demonstrations 7 Carrier adoption 8 Frequency bands 9 Lower Cost per Bit 10 Energy Consumption 11 Comparison 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

16.1 Industry reaction 16.2 White papers and other information

[edit]Overview The LTE specification provides downlink peak rates of at least 100 Mbps, an uplink of at least 50 Mbps and RAN round-trip times of less than 10 ms. LTE supports scalable carrier bandwidths, from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz and supports both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time division duplexing (TDD). Part of the LTE standard is the System Architecture Evolution, a flat IP-based network architecture designed to replace the GPRS Core Network and ensure support for, and mobility between, some legacy or non-3GPP systems, for example GPRS and WiMAX respectively.[8] The main advantages with LTE are high throughput, low latency, plug and play, FDD and TDD in the same platform, an improved end-user experience and a simple

architecture resulting in low operating costs. LTE will also support seamless passing to cell towers with older network technology such as GSM, cdmaOne, UMTS, and CDMA2000. The next step for LTE evolution is LTE Advanced and is currently being standardized in 3GPP Release 10.[9] [edit]Current


Much of the standard addresses upgrading 3G UMTS to 4G mobile communications technology, which is essentially a mobile broadband system with enhanced multimedia services built on top. The standard includes: Peak download rates of 326.4 Mbit/s for 4x4 antennas, and 172.8 Mbit/s for 2x2 antennas (using 20 MHz of spectrum).[10] Peak upload rates of 86.4 Mbit/s for every 20 MHz of spectrum using a single antenna.[10] Five different terminal classes have been defined from a voice centric class up to a high end terminal that supports the peak data rates. All terminals will be able to process 20 MHz bandwidth. At least 200 active users in every 5 MHz cell. (Specifically, 200 active data clients) Sub-5 ms latency for small IP packets Increased spectrum flexibility, with supported spectrum slices as small as 1.4 MHz and as large as 20 MHz (WCDMA requires 5 MHz slices, leading to some problems with roll-outs of the technology in countries where 5 MHz is a commonly allocated amount of spectrum, and is frequently already in use with legacy standards such as 2G GSM and cdmaOne.) Limiting sizes to 5 MHz also limited the amount of bandwidth per handset In the 900 MHz frequency band to be used in rural areas, supporting an optimal cell size of 5 km, 30 km sizes with reasonable performance, and up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance. In city and urban areas, higher frequency bands (such as 2.6 GHz in EU) are used to support high speed mobile broadband. In this case, cell sizes may be 1 km or even less.

Good support for mobility. High performance mobile data is possible at speeds of up to 350 km/h, or even up to 500 km/h, depending on the frequency band used.[11]

Co-existence with legacy standards (users can transparently start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and, should coverage be unavailable, continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMAbased UMTS or even 3GPP2 networks such as cdmaOne or CDMA2000)

Support for MBSFN (Multicast Broadcast Single Frequency Network). This feature can deliver services such as Mobile TV using the LTE infrastructure, and is a competitor for DVB-Hbased TV broadcast.

A large amount of the work is aimed at simplifying the architecture of the system, as it transits from the existing UMTS circuit + packet switching combined network, to an all-IP flat architecture system. [edit]Timelines In 2004 NTT DoCoMo of Japan proposes LTE as the international standard.[12] In early 2008, LTE test equipment began shipping from several vendors, and at the Mobile World Congress 2008 in Barcelona Ericsson demonstrated the worlds first end-to-end mobile call enabled by LTE on a small handheld device.[13]

Motorola demonstrated an LTE RAN standard

compliant eNodeB and LTE chipset at the same event. In December 2008, The Rel-8 specification was frozen for new features, meaning only essential clarifications and corrections were permitted. In January 2009, The ASN.1 code was frozen. The Rel-8 standard was complete enough that hardware designers had been designing chipsets, test equipment, and base stations for some time. LTE standards development continues with 3GPP Release 9, which was frozen in December 2009. Updates to all 3GPP specifications are made every quarter and can be found at the 3GPP web site.

On December 14, 2009, The world's first publicly available LTE service was opened by TeliaSonera in the two Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo.

On February 10, 2010, AT&T U.S. announced its rollout of LTE service in 2011.

On May 11, 2010, TeliaSonera, Telenor, and TDC Network announced an LTE network expected to be online in Denmark in 1Q 2011.

On May 28, 2010, Russian operator Scartel announced the launch of an LTE network in Kazan by the end of the 2010.[14]

On June 1, 2010, Thailand's National Telecommunications Commission announced it will hold an auction for LTE license to 3 mobile service providers in September 2010. LTE service will be online by 4Q 2010.

On June 1, 2010, Colombian Ministry of Information Technology assigned to UNE EPM Telecomunicaciones in the 2.500Mhz spectrum, the company expects to launch LTE services in September 2011.

On August 30, 2010, Scartel launched an LTE network in Kazan, but the LTE network was closed (shut down) on the next day because of license absence.

On August 31, 2010, Kenya's Safaricom announced plans to roll out LTE technology within two months.

In August 2010, Alcatel-Lucent and Texas Energy Network, LLC (TEN), a new startup founded by Gregory M. Casey, former Executive Vice President at Qwest Communications, successfully tested an LTE base station working over a range of 12 km by simulating energy industry video and field operation activity. The tests were conducted within the Permian Basin, in the Artesian area of southeastern New Mexico.

On September 2010, Nepal's first privately owned GSM mobile operator, Ncell-part of TeliaSonera , announced plans to rollout 4G service nationwide.

On September 15, 2010, Bernie McMonagle, a Verizon Wireless Senior federal sales executive, announced that

Verizon plans to have their entire 3G footprint switched over to 4G, so all of their customers can take advantage of the faster speeds, by the end of 2013.[15] On September 16, 2010, Verizon Wireless announced that its LTE network would roll out in 30 "National Football League Cities" in the United States before the end of 2010.[16] On September 21, 2010, MetroPCS began to roll out its LTE network in Las Vegas, Nevada.[17] On September 29, 2010, MetroPCS rolled out LTE services in Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.[18] On October 26, 2010, Ericsson Nikola Tesla in cooperation with T-Mobile Croatia started testing the LTE network in Croatia. On December 1, 2010, Vodafone Germany started the commercial Sale of LTE