3M- VHB- Structural Glazing Tapes Technical Guide

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Technical Guide


  • 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape

    Technical Guide

  • Table of Contents

    Introduction 3Technical Support Center.... 3

    Product Portfolio.... 33M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes..... 3-4Adhesion Promoters........ 4Abrasion Materials.......... 4Cleaning Materials.......... 4

    Introduction and Background.. 53M VHB Structural Glazing Tape Properties and Performance.. 5Composition........ 5Durability........ 6Moisture and Solvent Resistance........ 7Structural Performance Tests........... 7-8

    Structural Glazing with 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape.. 9Introduction..... 9Structural Joint Design 9Design Considerations - Adhesion.. 9Design Considerations - Tape Width (Dynamic Loads).. 10-12Design Considerations - Tape Width (Static Loads)... 13Design Considerations - Differential Movement 13-14Materials Involved in Glazing - Glass......... 14Materials Involved in Glazing - Metal Frames....... 14-15Project Review and Warranty Obtainment.. 15Additional Testing Requirements 15-16

    Application Procedure for 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape.. 16Factory Glazing... 16Site Glazing.... 16Application Techniques.. 16The Work Environment.. 16-17The Workbench .............. 17Surface Preparation..... 17Surface Preparation of Glass... 17-18Surface Preparation of Metal Frames................... 18-193M VHB Structural Glazing Tape Application............ 20-23Weather Sealant Application....... 23Bond Build Rate..... 24

    Sloped Glazing. 24Protective Glazing... 24Glass Replacement and Remedial Glazing....... 24-25Equipment Suppliers................................................ 26Support Literature.................................................... 26Quality Assurance and Warranty Documentation....... 263M VHB Structural Glazing Tape Project Checklist.... 273M VHB Structural Glazing Tape ApplicationWarranty Request Form...... 29

    Global 3M Contact Information for 3M VHBStructural Glazing Tape..... 31


    3M VHB



  • IntroductionThis technical guide is intended to give guidance on theproper fabrication methods used in the assembly of a 3MVHB Tape structurally glazed curtain wall or commercialwindow system. This guide should be considered as areference document only and should not be considered as acomprehensive process guide or quality assurance programfor all applications due to the variability of design andperformance requirements associated with differentapplications. Therefore, it is recommended that the customercontact a 3M Sales Representative or the 3M TechnicalSupport Center when considering the 3M VHB StructuralGlazing Tape process for a structural glazing application.

    Technical Support CenterAll 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape projects requirea thorough application assessment by the 3M TechnicalSupport Center prior to the initiation of each project.3M requires the customer to work with a 3M SalesRepresentative and a Technical Service Representative toinitiate a 3M VHB Tape structural glazing application.Each project must be reviewed and approved by 3M beforethe 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape can be used on aproject. Use the appropriate regional telephone number listedbelow to initiate the 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapeprocess. Be sure to ask for 3MVHB Structural GlazingTape Sales, Technical or Marketing support.

    United States:Technical Service Steve Austin 651-736-1259Marketing Mark Jennings 651-736-6076Or for your local 3M Sales Representative 1-800-362-3550For a global 3M contact list please see page 31.


    Product Portfolio

    3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape G23F3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape G23F is a gray closedcell, double sided acrylic foam tape that has the capability todevelop very high bond strength and excellent long termholding power when bonded to glass and metal framework.It was developed to replace silicone structural sealants instructurally glazed curtain wall systems.

    Construction:Adhesive: Multi-Purpose Acrylic 2 sidedAdhesive Carrier: Conformable Acrylic Foam (closed cell)Thickness: 0.090 in. (2.3 mm)Density: 45 lb./ft3 (720 kg/m3)Liner: Red polyethylene filmTape Color: Gray

    Performance Properties: The following technicalinformation and data should be considered representative ortypical only and should not be used for specification purposes.

    1. Peel Adhesion: 25 lb./in width (440 N/100 mm)(stainless steel, ASTM D 3330)

    2. Normal Tensile: 70 lb./in2 (480 kPa)(aluminum T-block, ASTM D 897)

    3. Dynamic Overlap Shear: 65 lb./in2 (450 kPa)(stainless steel, ASTM D 1002)

    3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape B23F3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape B23F is a black closed cell,double sided acrylic foam tape developed to replace siliconestructural sealants in structurally glazed curtain wall systems.

    Construction:Adhesive: Multi-Purpose Acrylic - 2 sidedAdhesive Carrier: Conformable Acrylic Foam (closed cell)Thickness: 0.090 in. (2.3 mm)Density: 45 lb./ft3 (720 kg/m3)Liner: Red polyethylene filmTape Color: Black

    Performance Properties: Comparable to the typical resultsfor the 3M VHB Tape G23F. This technical information anddata should be considered representative or typical only andshould not be used for specification purposes.

    1. Peel Adhesion: 25 lb./in width (440 N/100 mm)(stainless steel, ASTM D 3330)

    2. Normal Tensile: 70 lb./in2 (480 kPa)(aluminum T-block, ASTM D 897)

    3. Dynamic Overlap Shear: 65 lb./in2 (450 kPa)(stainless steel, ASTM D 1002)

    3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape Technical Guide

  • 43M VHB Structural Glazing Tape 4972(Brazil)3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape 4972 is used exclusively inBrazil and other parts of South America for structural glazing.This product is very similar to the 3M VHB StructuralGlazing Tape G23F with the primary difference being thicknessof the acrylic foam tape. This tape has been successfully usedfor this application in South America since 1990 which demon-strates the capability and long term durability of 3M VHBStructural Glazing Tape for this application.

    Construction:Adhesive: Multi-Purpose Acrylic - 2 sidedAdhesive Carrier: Conformable Acrylic Foam (closed cell)Thickness: 0.080 in. (2.0 mm)Density: 45 lb./ft3 (720 kg/m3)Liner: Green polyethylene filmTape Color: Gray

    Performance Properties: Comparable to the typical resultsfor the 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape G23F listed.This technical information and data should be consideredrepresentative or typical only and should not be used forspecification purposes.

    Adhesion Promoters Glass Adhesion Promoter:3M Silane Glass Treatment AP115Silane coupling agents are required when bonding 3M VHBStructural Glazing Tape to a bare glass surface. Glass is knownto be a hydrophilic (water loving) surface and this characteristicmakes the acrylic adhesive bond susceptible to change underhigh humidity conditions or when exposed to moisture. Simplesurface treatment with a silane coupling agent diluted in amixture of alcohol and water can help to reduce the waterloving nature of the glass and enhance the tape bond in highmoisture environments. 3M has tested silane coupling agentsand has found 3-Glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane resin (DowCorning Z-6040 Silane) to provide the best performance for thisapplication. This silane coupling agent is available premixedand ready to use in various quantities from 3M.

    Adhesion Promoters forMetal Glazing Profiles:3M Primer 943M Primer 94 is a one-part solvent based primer. It can be usedto promote adhesion of 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape tometal frames especially when the frame has been overcoatedwith paint. This primer may also be required on glass when areflective or opacifying coating is present on the interior side of

    a glass panel. A 3M Technical Service Representative will helpyou determine if a primer is needed to achieve high bondstrength of the tape to a metal frame or reflective coated glass.

    3MAdhesion Promoter 1113M Adhesion Promoter 111 (AP 111) is an isopropylalcohol based solution used to promote adhesion of 3M VHBStructural Glazing Tapes to metal frames especially when theframe has been overcoated with PVDF based paints. A 3MTechnical Service Representative will help you determine if anadhesion promoter is needed to achieve high bond strength ofthe tape to a metal frame.

    Abrasion Pads Scotch-Brite General PurposeHand Pad 7447These abrasive pads may be used to lightly abrade the metalframe bonding surface to increase bond strength of the tape tothe metal frame. They are available in maroon or green colorsand can be used by hand or attached to a power palm sander.Testing by a 3M Technical Service Representative will determineif abrasion is required to achieve high bond strength to a specificmetal frame finish.

    Cleaning Materials 3MAdhesive Remover (Citrus Base)This product can be effectively used to clean greasy or oilymetals as well as adhesive residue. It is also effective inremoving silicone contamination off of glass surfaces. Cleaningwith this product should always be followed by cleaning with anisopropyl alcohol and water mixture prior to tape bonding.

    Glass Adhesion PromoterAP115 Silane Glass Treatment 4 oz. spray bottle

    Silane Glass Treatment 1 gallon bottleMetal and Painted Metal Adhesion Promoters

    0.66mi single use ampule1/2 pint can

    Primer 94 Solvent based primer 1 quart can1 gallon can5 gallon can52 gallon drum

    AP111 Alcohol based adhesion promoter 250 ml bottle1 gallon can

  • 5Introduction and Background

    3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape is a high performancebonding material used to attach glass to structural glazingframes replacing commonly used mechanical fasteners, gasketsor structural silicone sealants. 3M VHB Acrylic Foam Tapeshave been demonstrated to be very capable bonding productssince 1980, providing an often ideal combination ofperformance, durability, and ease of use. They have beensuccessfully used in a wide variety of demanding industrialapplications in areas such as commercial building constructionand transportation markets. More specifically, they have beenused in thousands of international applications as the mainbonding agent for structural glazing of glass curtain walls since1990. This along with independent, third party test resultsdemonstrates the capability of 3M VHB Structural GlazingTape for this application.

    Conventional methods of bonding the structural glazing glasspanels to a metal frame employ either one-part or two-partstructural silicone sealants. In these systems, a double-sidedopen cell foam tape (spacer tape) is typically used to givetemporary holding of the glass and for creating the necessaryopen space (face clearance) for the structural sealant. Thedimension of the spacer tape is determined based on thedesired sealant bite and bead thickness. The bond should notbe disturbed during the curing of silicone sealant, and it maytake days to weeks to achieve handling strength and full cure.3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape provides an alternativebonding method that can provide the performance needed forthe application, yet with some significant benefits.

    Potential advantages include:

    3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape replaces both spacer tapeand structural sealant and there is no curing reaction involvedin bond strength development.

    3M VHB Structural Glazing TapeProperties and PerformanceStructural glazing requires joining systems that meet thehighest requirements for adhesive and cohesive strength,weathering resistance and durability. In addition to theperformance, the long-term durability of 3M VHB StructuralGlazing Tape is also critical for these applications. The typicalphysical properties and performance characteristics such asnormal tensile strength, dynamic and static shear strength etc.are well known resulting in the establishment of simple, useful,and conservative design guidelines for tape performance thatcan be used in design calculations. These design criteriaprovide sufficient performance for this application, whileincorporating safety factors typical of the industry.

    Composition3M has been a technological leader in acrylate pressuresensitive adhesive (PSA) technology for over 40 years. 3MAcrylic Foam Tapes and Adhesive Transfer Tapes representexamples of 3Ms proprietary state-of-the-art durablechemistry. The long-term aging resistance lies in the polymercomprising these tapes. The chemical bonds that make upthe polymer chains consist of carbon-carbon single bonds thatare highly resistant to energy in the form of heat or ultravioletlight, as well as chemical attack. In less durable foams oradhesives, such conditions could lead to cleaving of thepolymer backbone and thus a weakening of mechanicalproperties. In the case of acrylic adhesives and foams, however,additional crosslinking is chemically favored over chainscission (cleavage). This means that, rather than undergoinga process of decomposition, the acrylate materials will tendto build modulus very slightly over extended exposures. Thistranslates to a stronger, long lasting bond.

    Improved Appearance No color mismatch between structural silicone andspacer tape/gasket, no streaking or voids

    Consistent thickness & width improved quality control

    Reliable Quality Proven technology 25 years of history in constructionapplications

    In process non-destructive testing ability to test alltaped panels without deglazing

    Faster, more efficient process Immediate handling strength no cure time, fasterthrough-put and delivery

    Simplified process no mixing or curing in customerfacility, no tooling of structural sealant - increasedsecurity

    Less than 5% waste - more accurate forecasting ofmaterials and reduced overall costs compared tostructural silicone process

    Reduced Labor Costs no silicone testing, fewerprocess steps, no major 2-part equipment maintenance

  • DurabilityThe ability of acrylic adhesives to withstand cold and hottemperatures, UV light exposure, humidity, and otherenvironmental conditions has been documented through bothreal-life and accelerated aging studies. Accelerated aging testsare conducted by subjecting bonded samples to cycling heat,humidity and xenon arc UV lamp exposure, and measuring thedynamic tensile, shear and peel strength values.

    Accelerated aging was conducted at the 3MWeatheringResource Center in St Paul, MN, with exposure up to 10,000hours duration. The objective of this test was to compare thedurability and performance of 3M VHB Structural GlazingTape to a two-part structural silicone sealant. The exposureused a 3M Proprietary test condition that has been found to bea good predictor of service durability and generally better thantypical industry tests. Exposure was under high intensity UVlight (Xenon Arc) with cycling heat and humidity. 3M VHBStructural Glazing Tapes G23F and B23F were bondedbetween glass and metal (black anodized aluminum), withUV exposure direct through clear float glass (1/4 thick). Testconfiguration was 1 x 1 tensile (ASTM D897) and 1 widthpeel mode (ASTM D3330). The same sample configurationwas used for the two-part structural silicone sealant except forthe sealant thickness which was 3/8. The peel test was onlyconducted on the tape samples.

    A dynamic wind load ac...