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@ITIFdc 5G and Next Generation Wireless Doug Brake Telecom Policy Analyst, ITIF August 24, 2016 @dbrakeITIF

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@ITIFdc

5G and Next Generation Wireless

Doug Brake Telecom Policy Analyst, ITIF

August 24, 2016

@dbrakeITIF

Table of Contents

Intro and the “G’s”

Challenges, Use Cases, and Benchmark Goals

The Technology Behind 5G

Standardization and The Long Runway of 4G LTE

Cooperation and Competition under 5G

Policy Considerations

2

4

5

6

2

1

Introduction: 5G and Next Generation Wireless

5G is a unique opportunity design a new wireless network incorporating recent

technological advancements to radically extend wireless capacity and

adaptability.

5G will move beyond mobile broadband, toward systems that connect far more

different types of devices.

Presentation focuses on three key use-cases driving 5G, three key enabling

technologies, and implications.

3

The “Gs”

Mobile technology has been characterized by the

generations of standards.

1G – analog voice service; 1980s.

2G – digital voice (GSM and CDMA); 1990s.

3G – introduced data services and functionalities beyond

voice, e.g. multimedia, texting (UMTS, EDGE); 2000s.

4G – designed to support mobile broadband (LTE, WiMax);

2010s.

5G – ???; estimated 2020, with earlier trials.

4

Table of Contents

Spectrum 101 and the “G’s”

Challenges, Use Cases, and Benchmark Goals

The Technology Behind 5G

Standardization and The Long Runway of 4G LTE

Cooperation and Competition under 5G

Policy Considerations

4

5

6

5

Challenges, Use Cases, and Goals

5G development is driven by challenges and opportunities that cannot be

met by current networks.

Three categories:

Enhanced Mobile Broadband

Massive Internet of Things (IoT)

Critical Communications and Control

6

Enhanced Mobile Broadband

Use-case we are most familiar with as

consumers.

Improved consumer experience of mobile

broadband; faster, more responsive network.

100 Mbps reliably; >10 Gbps peak download

capacity.

Currently constrained by relative spectrum

scarcity and cost of smaller cell sizes.

7

Martin Cooper, inventor of the cell phone Attribution: Rico Shen

Massive Internet of Things

IoT at a much larger scale requires changes throughout the network.

5.5 million “things” connected every day of 2016; total of 20.8 billion IoT devices

connected by 2020 (Gartner estimates).

3G and 4G not designed for IoT.

Must support simplified signaling, cost-efficient devices, and long battery life (goal is

10 year battery life).

But adaptability is key. Not all “IoT” devices are low-bandwidth; some mobile, some

stationary.

Competing with solutions based on unlicensed spectrum.

8

Critical Communications and Control

Extremely reliable, low-latency, low error-rate

connections will enable real-time control.

High-value industrial automation.

Autonomous or connected cars and other safety

applications.

Very low latency needed for “Tactile Internet,” and

applications like shared augmented/virtual reality.

9

5G Triangle

10

Table of Contents

Intro and the “G’s”

Challenges, Use Cases, and Benchmark Goals

The Technology Behind 5G

Standardization and The Long Runway of 4G LTE

Cooperation and Competition under 5G

Policy Considerations

4

5

6

11

Technology behind 5G

5G not simply a new standard, but a collection of diverse

technologies, many still under development.

Three key technologies:

High-band or “mmWave” spectrum

Advanced antenna technology

Software-based networking

12

Spectrum Crash Course

“Spectrum” is a conceptual tool used to organize a set of

physical phenomena.

Electric and magnetic fields oscillate, producing electromagnetic

waves.

Electromagnetic waves vary in frequency (and wavelength), with

different properties.

Radio spectrum is managed by the government through a licensing

system to prevent interference.

5G looking at higher frequency spectrum than used for mobile today.

13

U.S. Spectrum Allocations

14

High-band Spectrum

Extremely high-frequency spectrum is one key component of

anticipated 5G networks.

Existing mobile (e.g. 700 MHz, 800 MHz, 2.5 GHz) will be complimented with

new spectrum.

FCC has moved forward with rules for a series of bands between 28 and 71

GHz.

Much, much larger bandwidth means greater capacity.

But comes with a trade-off. Higher frequencies do not propagate as far;

can’t penetrate buildings, foliage.

Denser networks of smaller cells.

15

Advanced Antennas

High-band spectrum really shines when combined with advanced

antenna technologies.

Can use multiple antennas to transmit a single stream of information;

called Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO).

mmWave spectrum enables “massive MIMO,” using over 100 antennas.

Narrow beams can steer signals directly to users, allowing spectrum to be

re-used.

16

Massive MIMO

17

Rice University researchers will use many-antenna base stations with more

than 100 antennas apiece in a 5G wireless test network in Houston on the

university’s campus. Photo credit: Jeff Fitlow/Rice University

Software-Based Networking

New developments in networking allow for more flexible, dynamic

allocation of network resources.

Software-defined networking (SDN) and network functions virtualization

(NFV) are transformational.

Can move many functions from individually configured equipment to

centrally-controlled software running on generic hardware.

Foundation for “network slicing”—dedicated portion of network capacity

adapted for specific use cases.

Net neutrality may affect development.

18

Numerous other Technologies

Other tech in various levels of development.

Full duplex; simultaneous transmission and reception on same frequency.

Aggregation of heterogeneous networks.

Cloud-RAN; move baseband processing to centralized location for a cluster

of small-cells.

Mobile edge computing; network predicts desired content, cache closer to

user.

“New Radio”—standardization of new air interface.

Wireless backhaul, higher-order modulation, virtual cells etc.

19

Table of Contents

Intro and the “G’s”

Challenges, Use Cases, and Benchmark Goals

The Technology Behind 5G

Standardization and The Long Runway of 4G LTE

Cooperation and Competition under 5G

Policy Considerations

5

6

20

Standardization Process

Standardization is key for interoperability, with several bodies

involved.

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) solicits proposals for “IMT-

2020.”

3GPP is main standards body for the mobile industry. Will submit a strong

candidate technology for IMT-2020.

IEEE standardizing 802.11ad “WiGig” that uses mmWave unlicensed

spectrum.

EU Commission formed the 5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership

(5G PPP) with €1.4 billion.

21

Standardization Timeline

22

Rice University researchers will use many-antenna base stations with more

than 100 antennas apiece in a 5G wireless test network in Houston on the

university’s campus. Photo credit: Jeff Fitlow/Rice University

Long Runway of LTE

Today’s dominant 4G standard, LTE, still has a long shelf-life.

LTE still actively developed in 3GPP.

Numerous functionalities in LTE specification yet to be fully utilized by

operators.

Equipment vendors looking to meet opportunities with existing networks.

Will be an evolutionary transition to “5G” with “pre-standards”

deployments.

23

Table of Contents

Intro and the “G’s”

Challenges, Use Cases, and Benchmark Goals

The Technology Behind 5G

Standardization and The Long Runway of 4G LTE

Cooperation and Competition under 5G

Policy Considerations 6

24

4

5

Competition

5G opens new avenues of competition.

Mobile performance closes on fiber means increasing competition

between wired and wireless. First “5G” deployments will be fixed wireless.

Land-grab in IoT market.

Some advancements dramatically lower cost, others still expensive.

Backhaul may be key differentiator.

SDN/NFV sees shake-up in networking equipment market, with value

shifting to operations management and orchestration.

International competitiveness is a consideration.

25

Cooperation

Different forms of cooperation will be important for flourishing of

5G.

Standardization requires large-scale agreement on most important

benchmarks.

Extent of infrastructure sharing is a key question.

Cooperation from local governments on both antenna siting and backhaul

will greatly assist deployment.

26

Table of Contents

Intro and the “G’s”

Challenges, Use Cases, and Benchmark Goals

The Technology Behind 5G

Standardization and The Long Runway of 4G LTE

Cooperation and Competition under 5G

Policy Considerations

27

4

5

6

Policy Considerations

Stage setting rather than full industrial policy.

Continued R&D

Allocate spectrum

Streamline infrastructure deployment.

28

R&D

Continuing role for government support of academic and industry

development of new technology.

Many constituent technologies developed in academic research setting.

NSF recently launched a $400 million Advanced Wireless Research

Initiative.

Some wireless technologies carry expensive, high-risk development.

29

Spectrum Allocation

FCC recently moved on allocating large portion of mmWave

spectrum for 5G uses.

Licensed use in the 28 GHz, 37 GHz and 39 GHz bands; Unlicensed use in

the 64-71 GHz band; Shared access in the 37-37.6 GHz band.

Huge bandwidth: 4x existing licensed spectrum; 15x existing unlicensed

spectrum.

Strategic move on part of United States to advance its mobile ecosystem.

Requires sharing with existing federal and satellite operations.

30

Infrastructure Deployment

Again, backhaul and siting will be key economic constraint. Cities

play a key role.

Streamlining of permitting and access to rights-of-way. Consolidated

paperwork.

Dig-once policies for streets and sewers; install conduit when already

digging.

Utility poles and streetlights will be key assets.

States should ensure non-discriminatory access, mandatory timelines,

just and reasonable rates, and an efficient complaint process.

31

@ITIFdc

Thank You!

Doug Brake | [email protected] | @dbrakeITIF