7 Teaching Islam in the Primary School

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    TEACHING ISLAMIN THE

    PRIMARY SCHOOL

    PRIMARYRELIGIOUS EDUCATION

    SUPPORTMATERIALS

    NUMBER 7

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    Very few of the ideas in this booklet are my own.They have come from a variety of sources over the years.

    To all I am very grateful for their inspiration.

    Wendy RidleyAdvisory Teacher

    March 2007

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    ISLAMIC ARTEFACTS

    Artefacts Topics

    QUR'AN

    The Muslim holy book revealed to ProphetMuhammad. It is wrapped in cloth, kept in a high

    place with nothing put on top. It is not left open.

    Hands are washed and head covered before touchingit. It is written in Arabic which is read from right toleft.

    SPECIALBOOKSSACRED

    WRITINGSPRAYER

    QUR'ANSTAND (REHL)

    A folding book stand made of wood and ornately handcarved; used to raise the Quran off the floor whenreading it.

    WOODBOOKS

    PRAYER MAT(JA-SAJJADA)

    Used so the place of prayer is clean. The arch designis put down facing towards Makkah. The 2 buildingsoften portrayed on mats are the Ka'ba in Makkah andthe mosque in Madinah. The pillars represent the 5

    Pillars of Islam. Includes a deliberate design error asa reminder that only Allah is perfect.

    SPECIALPLACESHOMES

    PRAYER

    COMPASSUsed to find the direction of the Ka'ba so Makkah isfaced when praying. DIRECTIONS

    PRAYERBEADS(SUBHA)

    Used for recitation of prayers; the 99 or 33 beadsrepresent the 99 names of Allah.

    HANDSPRAYER

    PRAYER CAP(TOPI)

    Worn by males when praying to keep the hair back. CLOTHESPRAYER

    PICTURES OFKA'BA,MAKKAH, andMADINAH.

    Pictorial aids to explain Hajj-one of the 5 Pillars ofIslam. Every Muslim tries to make a pilgrimage toMakkah.

    PILGRIMAGESJOURNEYSSPECIALPLACES

    EID CARDSEid-ul-Fitr is celebrated at the end of Ramadan.Eid-ul-Adha is celebrated at the end of Hajj to remind

    people of Abraham's sacrifice.

    FESTIVALSCELEBRATION

    ALLAH'SNAME

    Display as high as possible. CALLIGRAPHY

    HADITH Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). BOOKSHOMES

    PATTERNSandCALLIGRAPHY

    For decoration patterns are used rather than pictorialrepresentation.

    PATTERNSSIGNS andSYMBOLS

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    ISLAM

    There are many Muslims in Britain over 1 million, mostly from Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indiaand E. Africa. The first mosque was built in Surrey in 1889. World wide it is the fastest growingfaith, especially in Africa. There are about 1 billion Muslims mainly in N and W Africa, theMiddle East, SE-Europe and SE-Asia.

    WHO WAS MUHAMMAD (P.B.U.H.)?

    (As a sign of respect, after Muhammad's name is spoken devout Muslims say Peace be upon himwhich when written can beabbreviatedto pbuh. orsaw, the abbreviation for the Arabic.)

    Born in 570 CE in Makkah, Muhammad (pbuh) was orphaned while young. He was brought upby his grand father and by his uncle. He didn't learn to read and write as he had to work - as ashepherd, then helping his uncle trading. Known for his honesty, kindness and wisdom, at the ageof 25 he married a wealthy widow Khadijah, for whom he worked. They were married for 15years and had 6 children - 2 died young. After her death he married 8 more times.

    The people of Makkah believed in many Gods and worshipped idols. Muhammad (pbuh) believed

    in one God and frequently went into the desert hills around Makkah to pray on his own. In 611CE, in the cave of Hira, he received the first revelation from God through the angel Gabriel.Revelations continued over the next 23 years. Initially Muhammad (pbuh) was alarmed by theexperience but was reassured by his wife. He preached in Makkah for 13 years but was not wellreceived by most Makkans.

    In 622 CE at the invitation of the inhabitants of Madinah, Muhammad (pbuh) left Makkah (this isknown as the HIJRA) and established the first Muslim community - a city state with Arabs, Jewsand Christians. The Makkans repeatedly tried to attack Madinah. In 630 CE Muhammad (pbuh)took control of Makkah, smashed the idols in the Ka'ba and pardoned the Makkan leaders. Hedied in 632 CE.

    Muslims believe: Muhammad (pbuh) was a human being, not a divine or semi-divine person. Most would not

    describe him as the founder of Islam, that honour is reserved for God.

    God gave messages to many prophets (25 in the Qur'an are the same as in the Bible e.g.Abraham (Ibrahim), Adam, David, Isaac (Ishak), Ishmael (Ismail), Jesus (Isa), John, Lot,Moses (Musa) and Noah) who all relayed the same message but people corrupted the earliermessages. Muhammad (pbuh) was the last and final prophet sent by God to humankind - afterhim no other prophet will come.

    WHAT IS ISLAM?

    The message Muhammad (pbuh) preached is not named after him. It is called Islam which isArabic for peace. Peace is attained through submission to the will of God after, or through, athorough examination of his teachings, as revealed by Muhammad (pbuh).

    A follower of Muhammad (pbuh) is called a Muslim which means 'one who submits'. Islam is away of life based on submission and observance to Allah. It is about how to act, right from wrongand discipline. It entails 5 Pillars (internal duties or basic rules of practice) which are:

    1. Shahadah 2. Salah 3. Zakah 4. Sawm 5. Hajj

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    1) SHAHADAH:isthe act of bearing witness to the unity of Allah and the affirmation that Muhammad (pbuh) washis messenger. A Muslim becomes a Muslim by declaring this Shahadah or formula of faith'There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger. The Arabic word Allah has nogender or plural form. Islam is strictly monotheistic and does not accept the Trinity.

    2. SALAH:

    is the advice to pray 5 times daily so Muslims are constantly reminded of God. Worship can be inthe home, work place, mosque, or street and follows a set pattern of actions and words in Arabiccalled RAKAH. Muslims face the Ka'ba in Makkah, which stands on the foundations of theoldest shrine of God and contains the Black Stone, given to Abraham by God.

    Salah emphasises the important concept of community. Muslims prefer to worship together sothey back each other up in good actions. They say prayer is 27 times more powerful donetogether than alone. The communal prayer (JUM'A) day is Friday. The 5 daily mandatory ritual

    prayers (RAK'AH) take about 10 minutes. FAJR is at dawn; ZUHR at midday; ASR in the lateafternoon; MAGHRIB after sunset; and ISHA in the late evening.

    Salah teaches humility before God, hence the use of bowing, in lines shoulder to shoulder,

    standing to attention with hands near to ears, to show one is listening to God and wants God tohear the prayer. Then bowing and prostrating (SUJUD) to show respect to God, going onto kneesand touching the forehead, nose, palms, knees, and toes to the earth twice.

    Artefacts connected with Salah are:

    prayer hats (HOPI/caps or DUPATTA/scarves) for covering the head;

    mat (JA-SAJJADA) - because the place of prayer has to be clean;

    compass to find the direction of Makkah which is faced during prayer;

    prayer beads (SUBHAH) with 99 or 33 beads and reflecting Allah's 99 names.

    WUDU is cleanliness of body before prayer. Muslims speak the name of God thenwash their hands 3x; rinse mouth 3x; nostrils 3x, wash face 3x; right arm from wrist to elbow then

    left arm, hair and head; ears; neck; and finally the right and left feet 3x up to the ankles.

    HAZZAN is the call for prayers broadcast from minarets by the Muezzin.

    MOSQUE means place of prostrationand is the place where the worshipper bows before God.Shoes are removed as a sign of respect. The mosque is also a place to meet and often an IslamicCommunity Centre. The entire world is regarded as a mosque or a sign of God.

    Mosques often have:

    sinks or running water; a dome and a tower (minaret);

    a Mihrab which is an alcove denoting the direction of prayer;

    a Minbar which is a short flight of stairs with a platform at the top forthe Imam, leader of prayers, when he is addressing the congregation.

    There are no:

    Seats;

    Pictures of heavenly or human beings because Muslims believe Allah created all things sopeople shouldn't copy or pray in front of sculptures as only Allah should be worshipped;

    Priests the community is led by religious scholars; In some mosques there is no provision for women to worship as they are expected to pray at

    home. In other mosques there is a gallery or separate area for women to pray in.

    3. ZAKAH:issocial welfare or purification of wealth. If money remains after everyday expenses have been

    met it is obligatory to give a proportion (2.5% of annual earnings) as charity. In some Muslimcountries it is part of the state tax. The money goes to the poor and needy. Equally all Muslims

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    should practice charity every day, helping others in any way they can-giving a smile, time etc.Muslims should give gifts to others as Allah has given gifts to them.

    4. SAWM:is fasting during the 9th month Ramadan, the month of abstention. The emphasis is on self-control and exercising will power. Nothing is eaten or drunk between sunrise and sunset. Childrenunder twelve are exempt but many want to emulate their elders. Pregnant women, travellers and

    the sick may postpone their fast till later.

    During Ramadan Muslims try to be celibate; focus on their 5 daily prayers; read the Qur'an; dohones