What is MOTIVATION?Motivation refers to the process of activating behavior, sustaining it, and directing it toward a particular goal.Motivating refers to the act of giving employees reasons or incentives to work to achieve organizational objectives.
Why be concerned with motivation?A firms overall performance depends on the performance of its individual groups. To understand how an organization functions, we must understand why individuals behave as they do.Because of competitive pressures, higher operating costs, and external demands, firms must do everything they can do to remain efficient.Organization have become aware of the importance of developing a talent pool that will be perpetual reservoir of skills and abilities to keep them competitive on a long term basis.
Factors contributing to motivationWillingness to do a job.Self-confidence in carrying out a task.Needs satisfaction.
The Process of MOTIVATIONNEEDSMOTIVATIONACTION OR GOAL- DIRECTED BEHAVIORNEED SATISFACTION
plusleads towhich results towhich leads to readiness for the next need
Evolving managerial approaches to motivation:Traditional Model
Traditional ManagementIt held that finding the one best way to perform any job would improve efficiency and that incentive pay and threats would motivate workers to perform up to their capabilities.In other words, workers could be enticed into properly performing repetitive, boring tasks if they were motivated and adequately paid.
Theory X (Douglas McGregor)The average person has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible.Because of this dislike, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment to get them to work hard enough to achieve an organizations objectives.The average person prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and wants security above all.In summary Theory X view human nature holds that the dislike of work is so great that even the promise of rewards will not overcome it.
2. The Human Relations Model
importance of viewing workers as whole people
2 areas of emphasis:Making workers feel importantAllowing workers to satisfy their social needs through social interaction on the job.
Employee morale, adequate communication, and job satisfaction became management concerns, and the importance of individual recognition became management concerns, and the importance of individual recognition became apparent.
3. The Human Resources Model-recognizes that people are motivated by a complex set of variables, including recognition, social needs, money, achievement, and a host of other factors.Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)Expending physical and mental effort in work is as natural as it is in play or rest.External control and the threat of punishment are not the only ways to make people work to achieve an organizations objectives.
3. Commitment to objectives depends on the rewards associated with achieving them.4. Under the right conditions, the average person learns not only to accept but also to seek responsibility.5. Many people have relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organized problems.6. The average persons intellectual potential is only partially utilized under the conditions of modern industrial life.
Theories of MotivationClassification:Need theories focus on internal stimuli or forces that causes people to take action. Such stimuli are called inner drives, needs, or instincts.Expectancy theory tries to explain the mental process that people go through in deciding whether or not to undertake some action.Incentive theories analyze the external influences that shape behavior; they try to show relationships between behavior and its consequences.
Needs theories1. Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsProposed by Abraham H. Maslow
The theory says:human needs, arranged in a hierarchy of relative importance, determine human behavior.That is Maslow contended that people are motivated to satisfy the need that is most important to them at the time, before they are motivated to satisfy higher-level need.
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDSSAFETY/SECURITY NEEDSSOCIAL NEEDSESTEEM NEEDSSELF-ACTUALIZA-TION NEEDSGrowth NeedsRelation-oriented NeedsDeficiency NeedsMaslows Hierarchy of Needs
Criticisms of Maslows TheoryThe most basic question concerned the validity of the hierarchys order. There is some empirical evidence that the two lower level needs are arranged properly, but no evidence supports Maslows arrangement of the upper-level needs.
Cofer and Appley make this point:Maslows formulation that needs or drives arranged in a sort of dominance hierarchy does, we think, receive partial support from various kinds of evidence. That the support is partial is because the evidence concerns only the needs of the two lower levels in his hierarchy, the physiological and anxiety (security) needs. While there is some evidence that intense physiological and safety needs can dominate behavior, evidence for the hierarchical relationship of other needs is wanting.
Relevance to Engineering ManagementEven if Maslows theory has been largely questioned, one basic premise cannot be discarded: a fulfilled need no longer motivates an individual. If this is the situation the subordinate is in, the engineer manager must identify an unfulfilled need and work out a scheme so that the subordinate will be motivated to work in order to satisfy the unfulfilled need.
2. Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene TheoryFrederick Herzbergs theory is also called two-factor theory.
Basis:-responses received from two hundred accountants and engineers who were asked to recall times when they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs and to cite the factors that led to those feeling.
Factors mentioned:Job satisfaction (satisfiers) motivatorsJob dissatisfaction (dissatisfiers) hygiene factors
MOTIVATORSHYGIENE FACTORSResponsibilityCompany policyAchievementTechnical supervisionWork itselfInterpersonal relationsRecognitionSalaryAdvancementWorking conditions
10987654321012345678910Level of no satisfaction and no dissatisfaction (no reason not to work but no motivation to work hard)
LEVEL OF SATISFACTIONLEVEL OF DISSATISFACTION
The over-all contribution of Herzbergs study do, however, outweigh its limitations. Besides stimulating further research on employee motivation, his efforts called attention to the need for understanding the role of motivation in organizations. Herzberg study also prompted business managers to look at more than just the money as a tool for increasing worker productivity.
Relevance to Engineering ManagementIf Herzbergs theory will be considered by the engineer manager in motivating employees, he/she must do something to eliminate the dissatisfiers and install satisfiers. For even if the dissatisfiers are eliminated (at point zero) the employee is still not motivated to work hard.
3. The Achievement Motive
David McClellands studied on personality traits with the effort to distinguish among achievement-oriented, power-oriented, and affiliation-oriented people.
His theory of motivation, based on research that used projective personality tests, is now generally referred to as the achievement motive.
McClelland used the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) to pinpoint people who spend their idle time thinking about their family and friends (affiliation oriented) and those who spend it thinking about doing something constructive (achievement oriented).Achievement-oriented people tend to compare themselves with a standard of excellence. They want economic rewards, but their real satisfaction comes in the form of a more intrinsic reward achievement.
Achievement motive is actually a trait theory. It is based on the premise that everyone has a different need for achievement.Perhaps the most important part of McClellands theory is his contention that the need for achievement is not necessarily innate, but rather is developed by a persons experiences.MAXIM: All people have achievement, power, and affiliation needs, but different people have different levels of these needs.
Expectancy Theory1. Expectancy Theory This theory was developed by Victor Vroom in 1964. It focused on the thought processes of people who must decide whether to exert some effort to achieve a possible payoff.Key Elements:1. Expectancy is the likelihood that some undertaking will produce a particular outcome. This likelihood, or probability, is determined subjectively by the person deciding whether to act and can range from 0 to 1.
2. Valence or preference, is the degree to which a decision maker wants a particular outcome. Valence can either be positive or negative. Theoretically, an outcome has a valence because it is related to personal need that the decision maker wants to satisfy.3. Instrumentality refers to how much the decision maker believes that attaining some first-level (organizational) objective will translate into a second-level (personal) payoff.
MOTIVATIONVALENCE x EXPECTANCYEFFORT
ACHIEVEMENT of organizational objective
SATISFACTION of personal need
VROOMS EXPECTANCY MODEL
Incentive Theories1. Skinners Reinforcement Theory this is based on the belief that all human behavior is shaped by its consequences. That is, a person behaves in a certain way because of a reinforcement or stimulus he or she received in the past for the same behavior. If the outcome of a particular action is pleasant, positive reinforcement occurs and a person is likely to behave the same way again. He or she is likely to change behavior if the reinforcement