Embed Size (px)
OLR (1987) 34 (I 1) F. General 1011
was not supported by background levels in the penguins' stomachs, and there is evidence that suggests food was unavailable due to a change in oceanic conditions. A 1986 ENSO event is suggested as the probable cause of penguin mortalities in the South Atlantic. Inst. for Environ. Studies, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. (lit)
87:6664 Brooks, J.M. et al., 1987. The Oceanography Report.
Hydrates, oil seepage, and chemosynthetie eco- systems on the Gulf of Mexico slope: an update. Eos, 68(18):498-499.
During 1986 Texas A&M's Geochemical and En- vironmental Research Group made several major discoveries on cruises and submersible dives to investigate the occurrence and nature of chemosyn- thetic organisms found on the Gulf of Mexico continental slope. The organisms--tube worms, mussels, and clams--were found living in dense communities at 17 sites on the Louisiana slope, often at active oil and gas seeps (500-900 m) in close association with shallow seismic 'wipeout zones.' The researchers also identified a mussel 'potentially capable of utilizing methane as its sole carbon source,' showed that stable isotopes can be used to distinguish heterotrophic sulfur-based symbioses from methane-based organisms, and demonstrated the transfer of carbon from these organisms to other heterotrophic organisms. Dept. of Oceanogr., Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX, USA. (hbf)
87:6665 Ember, L.R., 1987. Comment. Changing atmosphere
challenges [U.S.] Congressional action. Chem. Ind., 7:218-219.
The U.S. Congress seems aware that controlling and reducing the production of chlorofluorocarbons (let alone other atmospheric pollutants) requires inter- national cooperation, and supports the establish- ment of U.N. conventions to do so. However, there are bills (not yet passed) calling for unilateral action and trade sanctions designed to force similar legislation elsewhere. Such actions are thought, in this essay, to be too hasty. (fcs)
87:6666 Haymet, A.D.J., 1987. Freezing. Science, 236(4805):
There is no first principles theory of freezing or melting, even for the simplest materials. The pre- diction of phase diagrams is an important first step in understanding the crystal-melt interface, crys- tallization near equilibrium, and nucleation. Re- cently, a new approximate theory for the freezing of
classical liquids, known as the density functional theory, has been developed. The predictions of the theory are relatively accurate and its mathematical structure is simple enough to provide a starting point for theories of more complex, dynamical phenom- ena. ©1987 by AAAS. Dept. of Chem., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
87:6667 Kerr, R.A., 1987. Ocean drilling details steps to an icy
world. Science, 236(4804):912-913.
Sediment cores from the seafloor near Antarctica, collected during ODP Leg 113 in early 1987, contain clues to understanding when and through what stages that region changed from a warm ice-free climate to its present frigid state. Shipboard analyses of the cores lend support to the ideas that (a) Antarctica was unglaciated prior to 40 mya, (b) ice appeared about 35 mya, and (c) the smaller West Antarctic Ice Sheet is more durable than many suppose and can, in fact, withstand a less frigid climate. The project also recovered two undisturbed cores crossing the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. (wbg)
87:6668 Kerr, R.A., 1987. Making the world's roof. Science,
At a recent NAS geophysical symposium, descrip- tions based on on-site visits to points in Asia provided fresh views of some of the remarkable iandforms and structures there--the Himalaya, and Tibetan Plateau, which mark the 45 m.y. ongoing (5 cm/yr) continent-continent collision between India and Asia, and the Xianshuihe fault system, 'a fine analog for the San Andreas,' which has experienced four earthquakes M~6.8 in this century and where slipping averages ~15 mm/yr. Although bureau- cratic obstacles and the physical strain of working in remote, high altitude regions complicate fieldwork, the prospects for mutual beneficial cooperation between U.S. scientists and the Asian nations appear to be good. (hbf)
87:6669 Monastersky, R., 1987. Antarctic ozone: the plot
thickens. Sci. News, Washington, D.C., 131(21): p.326.
Researchers from the U.S. National Ozone Expe- dition have reported an important clue to the mechanism responsible for the seasonal ozone hole above the Antarctic in the form of chlorine mon- oxide levels that are 100 times normal, and sur- prisingly low levels of nitrous oxide. Since chlorine monoxide is a key ingredient in theories using