9 Tourism Policy

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Forms of Tourism Development

In formulating tourism development policy and plan, it is important to understand the different forms and physical types of tourism development

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Resort based tourism Urban tourism Special interest and adventure tourism Water transport tourism Residential tourism Alternative forms of tourism Other forms of tourism


A tourist resort can be defined as a destination areas that is relatively selfcontained and typically provides a wide range of tourist facilities and services including those designed for recreation & relaxation The two (2) principal forms of resorts are integrated resort and town resort

Integrated Resort



Including holiday villages, are plan developments for virtually exclusive use by tourists, although employees may live in or near the resorts Are oriented to particular features such as; beach, lake and marine recreation areas, ski slopes, mountain scenery national parks or major natural features

Are varied in size from one hotel to several hotels Typically self contained, including various tourist facilities & services of a commercial center or facilities, recreation & sport facilities, sometimes cultural facilities and perhaps a conference center or major meeting facilities in the hotels

Some integrated resort contain a wide range of accommodation from various types of hotels and cottages to self-catering apartments (may be lived in by retirees, be second vacation homes, or available for rent to short term visitors), townhouses and villas Eg: Hawaii, Genting Highland Resorts, AFamosa Resort

Town Resorts

Combines the usual land uses and activities of a town community but is economically focused on resort activities and contains hotels and other types accommodation and tourist facilities and services Typically oriented to specific attraction feature (snow skiing, spa facilities, religious pilgrimages)

Eg; beach resort town in Australia, spa resort town in Japan, Sunway Lagoon Resort (Sunway Resort & Spa)

Retreat Resorts

A form of integrated resort; becoming popular in various parts of the world such as the Caribbean and Pacific Islands Small scale (25-50 rooms), but often high quality planned resorts located in remote areas such as on small islands or in the mountains Only access may be by boat, small airplane

Cater to guests who wish a quiet, isolated vacation environment but usually with some recreation activities available Remote hunting and fishing lodges often function as retreat resorts Because of their specialized character and often high development and operational costs, retreat resorts require careful feasibility analysis

Eg: Fraserss Silverpark Resort, Fraser Hill; Eco-retreat, eco-resort ( Borneo Highland Resort), Sukau Eco-lodge


Take place in large cities where tourism may be important but is not a primary activity in the urban area Serve both holiday and business traveler Tourist attractions are typically ones that are visited and used by residents as well as tourists A common practice to develop or redevelop certain urban areas Conference & convention facilities are often developed in cities to attract more tourists


Refers to tourists, usually in a small group tours, who are traveling to learn about and experience particular specific features related to an area Often associated with the tourists long term avocational or vocational interests Can focus on a wide range of features (infinite)

Related to special interest tourism is adventure tourism whereby tourists engage in physically challenging and sometimes dangerous ( or perceived to be dangerous) activities This types of tourism does not require large scale or expensive development of facilities and infrastructure

Careful organization, knowledgeable guide services, at least basic accommodation and catering facilities are essential


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Is very much resource based and depends on availability of navigable waterways and imaginative development 3 types of water transport tourism; Cruise ship tourism River and canal tourism Yachting tourism

Cruise Ship Tourism

fly-sea cruise Specialized adventure cruises (developed by Lindblad) high cost cruises to exotic places as the Antarctica and Galapagos Islands (now alliance with National Geographic Society) Star Cruise, SuperStar Virgo

River and Canal Tourism

River boat tourism involves tourists taking river boat cruises with accommodation and meals provided on board of the boat Eg; Nile River and Mississippi River; Putrajaya River Cruise, Sarawak River Cruise Old canal systems offer the potential for houseboat vacation travel River rafting and canoeing; with overnight camping alongside the river, can be considered a special form of river transport tourism

Yachting TourismLocated at some coastal and island ports in interesting sailing areas and posses protected anchorage fly sea yachting arrangements Well developed in Mediterranean and Caribbean regions (sail and cruises)


Refers to cabins, houses, villas, townhouses and apartments that are developed expressly as vacation or retirement homes, and often include a combination of these in one development (the length of stay may be more than a year) Vacation or holiday second homes have become a common form of tourism development in North America and Europe


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Examples (pg 166-167) Village tourism (Sarawak Cultural Village) Rural, farm or agro tourism (homestay, Dusun Eco-Resort) Walking and cycling tours Fishing tourism (Perkampungan Nelayan) Nature eco-tourism of hiking, trekking and canoeing in natural areas Urban eco-tourism



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Transportation-oriented tourism (eg; Airport hotels, motels along roads) Camping and caravan tourism (eg; RV) Youth tourism (eg; travel for education, recreation and sports such as YMCA; facilities such as youth hostel) Safari, trekking and mountain tourism Social tourism (provide vacations for lower income people and those who would otherwise not take the initiative to travel subsidized by the government and employers or trade unions, clubs and other associations to which the people belong)


Can be defined as a set of regulations, rules, guidelines, directives and development/promotion objectives and strategies that provide a framework within which the collective and individual decisions directly affecting long-term tourism development and the daily activities within a destination are taken (Goeldner & Ritchie,2006)


It defines the rules of the game the terms under which tourism operators must function It sets out activities and behaviors that are acceptable for visitors It provides a common direction and guidance for all tourism stakeholders within a destination It facilitates consensus around specific strategies and objectives for a given destination It provides a framework for public/private discussions on the role and contributions of the tourism sector to the economy and to society in general It allows tourism to interface more effectively with other sectors of the economy



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In general term, a formal tourism policy for a given destination will address such areas as (at national level): The roles of tourism within the overall socioeconomic development of the destination region The type of destination that will most effectively fulfill the desired roles Taxation types and levels Financing for the tourism sector sources and terms

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The nature and direction of product development and maintenance Transportation access and infrastructure Regulatory practices (eg; airlines, travel agencies) Environmental practices and restrictions Industry image and credibility Communication relationships Human resource and labour supply Union and labor legislation Technology Marketing practices Foreign travel rules



Policy is determined based on several considerations and approaches These include; The objectives of developing tourism provide the basis for establishing policy because policy is the expression on how the objectives can or will be achieved. For eg; if the objective is for minimization of sociocultural impact, then the policy may be for highly controlled, limited tourism development

2. It must reflect the overall development policy and plan for the country or region so that tourism is an integrated sector. The background review of existing policy & planning will have provided the basis for thin integration. The political and economic ideology of the country or region also affects the policy as related to the respective roles of the public and private sectors in developing tourism

3. It evolves from the survey, and synthesis of any present tourism development patterns and infrastructure, tourist attractions, and tourist markets. Socioeconomic and environmental factors are very important consideration in policy determination, especially the social and the environmental absorptive or carrying capacity of the area




It must be based on all considerations for domestically or internationally so that the tourism will be developed in a balanced manner The government should assume the lead role in determining tourism policy because policy affects the entire country and its communiti