60
A ! Modem Guide to Fingerings for the Flute Revised. Greatly Enlarged 2nd Edition \ ' J by Ja mes J. Pellerite (formefl y, solo flutist, Phila. Orch.) Indiana University School of Music crWo Zalo Publications·· · RO. Box 913·· · Bloomington. Indiana 47401

A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the Flute

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A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the Flute by James j. Pellerite

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Page 1: A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the Flute

A Modem Guide to Fingerings for the Flute

Revised Greatly Enlarged 2nd Edition

J

by Ja mes J Pellerite

(formeflysolo flutist Phila Orch) Indiana University School of Music

crWo Zalo Publicationsmiddotmiddot middotRO Box 913middotmiddot middotBloomington Indiana 47401

ULlS lt 34-0

middotP3 7 107iJ

INDIANA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

BLOOMINGTON

Copyright 1972 by James J Pellerite

Previous Edition Copyright 1964

Library of Congress Catalog Card No 72-76260

No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without pershymission in writing from the author

Printed in the United States of America

INDIANA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

HOW TO READ THE CHARTS

1 BASIC FINGERINGS bull 6

2 (a) HARMONICS bull 10

(b) FRENCH MODEL FWTE 11

3 TRILLS (Half Step and Whole Step) bull 12

4 TREMOWS (a) Major and Minor Thirds 18

(b) Perfect Fourths and Tritones bull bull 23

(c) Perfect Fifths bull 28 (d) Sixths Sevenths and Octaves 30

5 ALTERED FINGERINGS 39

6 QUARTER-TONES and QUARTER-TONE TRILLS bull bull 42

(a) C Flute 44

(b) Alto Flute and Piccolo bull bull 48

7 MULTIPHONICSand SPECIAL SONORITIES bull 51 (A) Multiple Trills and Multiple Effects bull bull 53

(B) Tonal Characteristics and Dynamic Ranges bull bull 59

(C) Suppressed Chords bull 59 (D) Connecting Single Notes to Multiphonics bull 60 (E) Fluttering-Multiphonics bull 61 (F) Singing or Humming Sustained-Multiphonics 61

[3J

Special recognition must be accorded to Harvey R Frye Supervisor of Graphic Arts Audio-Visual Center Indiana

University for his organizational planning expert guidshyance and aesthetically excellent designing and drawing

of these charts

-- James JPellerite

[4J

bull bull bull

1 BASIC FINGERINGS

~-~ bull I bullbullbull 1 1111 bullbullbull

~-- I bullbullbull I

~- I bullbullbull I

~~

~- I bullbullbull I

W-- bull I bullbullbull I

~_ I bullbullbull I

m~ --+--bull--4It-4~1 r-t-----Ir--tt-t-+---I---I--+-~I I

bull I bullbullbull I I I bull I I I

~ __ bullf---i--~---__bull I I bull A~~ ---- bull__-t--tI~---i I I I 1 I 11 ~_ ~--+----+---l bull I 12bull

I I 12 bull I bull bull I bull 12

~ bullbull I I I I I I bull

~ bull --1-I---i---i~t---J I I I I I I I I I

I I I I 3 fti----- bull bull bull I bullbullbullI I I

bull I bull I bull

bullbull I

I bull bullbull bull bullbull bull I bull I bull bull

[6 ] ---~-) Basic fingerings(These should be learned first)

bull bull bull bullbull

bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull

bull bull

~---- ~ bullbullf--_t__--4__J--I

~ ~ f--_t___J--I---I

~--

~ ~ --__I------bull----1i---li---li---I

bull

bull bull bull I

I--I----l---+I---+-ef--I-_+--+I 4 1--I----l---4llbull ---I-1-41~_+---j1 5

bull I I

bull I I

I bull I I I

bullbull--+-_+_+_+-+---ibull-t-t--tl 2

1---f---If-----1f-----1--+ t--I--+-1 2 ~__t--t--+__~_ _t__+---il 2

bull I I

I bull I

I bull I I I

I bull I

I bullbull bullbull I I

~~I---t______+--+---I--+_+--tl 6 bull

BASIC FINGERINGS

1 This fingering produces a slighily lower level of pitch However its use in extremely technical passages is inshyvaluable

2 Each fingering must be learned with equal facility and applied interchangeably The control of various technical passages and added dexterity will be dependent upon this flexibility When possible emphasize the use of the BIever RH

3 The fa~lty intonation and thin tone structure of the open C~ can be corrected partially through the use of this fingering When using a French model flute deshypress the key-ring 2nd LH and vent approximately one-half of the tone hole This offers more control in a crescendo

4 To maintain the proper pitch level when playing PP depress the 2nd trill key(D~) gently as is needed

5 See item 1 In this octave the F is more noticeably flat in pitch This fingering is equally useful when sustaining the note in a ff to adjust the intonation

6 A controll~d level of pitch can be achieved in a ff when the EP key remains closed However the tone quality becomes muffled at this lower level of pitch and will necessitate embouchure adjustments

[7J

BASIC FINGERINGS (CONTJ

bull I bull I I I I I I bull I I I

~------I

If~-- I I bull bull I

bull Ibull bull Ibull

I I I I I

I

bull I

I bull

bullbull I bull

I I I

I

15

bull bullbull~~--I ~II----+--+--4~

I

bull I

I

bullbull

I

I

I

I)

~ I bull bull I

bull I 1 bull I I I I bull I I I

~-~ bull bull I

bull I

bull X

I X

I I

I

bull

I

1

I 8

19

I ~

8va 8v bull I bull bull I I X I 1

bull I bull I X X 110bullf I bull I X bull ~bull I 110 bull8va---

I bull bull bull I bull I I I middot11~--- I I 12

-shy

bull bull bull bull bull I bull 1 I 7 WI I 0

I I I I 1 I 14 8 T bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bull bull 113

bull bull bull bull bull bull I k

8va--

f 9 TII I bull I bull I I I bullbull 115

iJ I til1 I bull bull bull I I bull I bull bull 115

TI I bull I bull I I I I I I 15 10

11 W I I I I f

8va bull bull bull I bull bull bull

12 T S~

13 T8va-- fI I I Ibull I X bull~_I bullr

I I bull I I bull bull 114 14 Tbull middot)( n I I bull bull 114 vbull bull I middot)(

I 15 bullbull I X

I bullbull Tbull bull bull bull bull 08va

bull I bull o---j I X 116 16 W

bull I bull bull I X bull bull bull 117 17 T

h~ X

I

s

i

8va----- 1-+--+--middotmiddot--+- f-----+-+-IXl(---+I-+---+-H 15

7 When playing If this fingering produces a lower level of pitch and an altered tone quality as well

8 To facilitate the execution of rapid passages the ED key may remain open

9 This alternate fingering will aid the adjustment of the intonation for a PP Avoid the use of an excessive volshyume of air as the note responds with ease

10 This lowers the pitch level for alf bull

11 When using a flute with a iow C foot joint the little fingerRH is raised

12 This fingering affords a slightly lower level of pitch See item 11

13 This fingering demands added breath support but the resulting pitch level is lower Use this Blso on a flute with a low C foot joint

14 This fingering produces a lower level of pitch but the note lacks an immediate response However this may vary on different flutes

15 These fingerings are applicable when using a low C or low B foot joint

16 When possible vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightly This may improve the response of the note

17 This fingering as well as 16 will respond on flutes having a low C or B foot joint

A SECURE PLAYING POSITION

The basic elements involving position and balance in holding the flute properly are of ultimate importanceat all levels of performance Much has been written onthis subject by many prominent flutists Therefore only the salient features relevant to fingerings are repeated now

1 Develop a secure hand position with the arms remaining free from tension to form an equalshyization of balance for the flute

2 Avoid any cramping of the musculature in hands wrists and arms which could bring about stiffshyactioned fingers

3 Encourage the use of a light action with the finshygers remainlng on the keys at all times Added inflections or accentuations in the music are the only occasions for which the fingers may be raised slightly higher on the keys

4 Permit the keys to lower and raise with all of the sensitivity possible The keys must be lifted not the fingers

5 Maintain a naturally arched position of the fingers This signifies the existence of freedom from any tension A flexibility and maneuverability of the fingers should be the result

Security in a playing position when achieved will bring controllabilitYand a solid technique with dexterity This must be available at any tempo

[9J

INTRODUCTION

An advanced flutist has reached that performance level because of the extreme sensitivity with which all facets of flute technique have been applied Certainly one of the most important of these instrumental techniques has to be the disciplined approach to the use of proper finshygerings It is assumed that this is a major concern of the professional performer but it should be equally so of each developing flutist

Too often due to negligence undesirable fingerings become firmly implanted in the playing habits of the young performers Correcting these faults in the early stages of their careers can result in a functional use of fingershyings as the flutists progress into the higher levels of proficiency This can be evidenced in their execution of extremely technical passages as well as the production of exotic tonal effects

Learning to use the appropriate fingerings for various situations ought to be considered a vi tal segment of basic musicianship since the application of the correct or corshyrective fingerings parallels the importance of other flute techniques This concept should become a part of each flutists daily routine and hopefully will guide the playshyer in the aspiration of becoming a sensitive musician

This compilation is presented as a methodology for finshygerings by offering a wide range of selected fingerings for the flutist and directing their use in diverse techshyniques It is hoped that this reference guide will encourshyage an exploitation of the flutes potentialities which should be the ultimate goal of every ambitious student of the flute

James J Pellerite Professor of Flute Indiana University

HOW TO READ THE CHARTS

These fing~rings apply to the Boehm system flute with the closed G~ key In many instances a low B foot joint is necessary although a low C will be acceptable for many of these fingerings Auxiliary keys that are someshytimes found on specially made flutes have not been conshysidered However the French model flute will be essenshytial for those charts in which the fingerings call for venting the various tone holes

A number appearing next to the illustration for each fingering will refer to the text material The correshysponding number is followed by a brief statement which relates to the fingerings purposefulness

The fingerings have been illustrated using the symbol ( ) and will indicate only that the keys are depressed For this reason it is not necessary to give considerashytion to whether or not a key remains open

The other familiar symbol (0) will apply exclusiveshyly to the use of the French model flute and be used solely to signify that a key is to be vented in its enshytirety

bull The key is depressed

C) The tone hole is vented accordingly

0 Vent the tone hole in its entirety

Apply the French model flute+ X Use the D or D Trill key

PI Pianissimo

If Fortissimo

R H Right Hand

L H Left Hand

[5J

2(a) HARMONICS

The production of overtones is a basic technique with which all flutists must become familiar Not only does -it represent the foundation for proper tone production but also it offers additional opportunities to simplify many complex technical passhysages which occur in the 3rd octave of the flute The fingering combinations for such phrases become moderately easy by using the fingerings for the fundamental notes to produce the harmonshyics Created by overblowing the fundamentals these are generally indicated as follows

0 g0 a 0 12

0 8 0 amp

To produce D3 (2nd overtone) use the fin~ering for fundamental Gl for E3 AI for F3 B l etc

To overblow the fundamental tone an intense air column must be applied This can be formed by diminishing the size of the aperture and increasing the breath pressure(subsequently the air speed) The air column needs to be directed more horishyzontally across the embouchure plate as one progresses into the higher harmonics Treating the fundamental tones in this manner will produce the following overtones in succession

[see Overtone Series chart (first measure)]

(a) 1st overtone - octave (b) 2nd - 12th (octave and a fifth) (c) 3rd - 15th (double octave) (d) 4th 17th (two octaves and a third) (e) 5th 19th (two octaves and a fifth)(0 6th 21st (two octaves and a seventh)

Frequently students find it difficult to reach the full gamshyut of overtones that are shown here This stems from the fact that sometimes they lack proper control of the embouchure and the air column However should this not be the case then the source of the problem may be the existing properties of the headshyjoint It is an accepted fact that no two headjoints ever will respond alike(even made by the same manufacturer) This varishyance means that one flute may possess either more or less resistshyance in its bloWing characteristics It is this added resistance that often may deter the production of the extremely high harshymonics However further development of the embouchure is asshysured as the production of these overtones is attempted and pracshyticed The resultant physical capability enables the flutist to create a greater number of overtones for each fundamental With this facility extremely technical passages in the upper ocshytaves are simplified by the use of left-hand-fingerings eg low G and A overblown can produce the overtone which would afford easier performance in a rapid passage of the 3rd octave

[10]

Due to the acoustical construction of the flute these harshymonics in the 3rd octave possess a rather veiled character of tone quality and a somewhat lower level of intonation than that produced when the regular fingerings are used The presence of the lower fundamental note causes this phenomenon since the reshyquired vent hole which is normally open in the regular fingershying is closed For example the regular fingering for D2 i properly vented by raising the 1st key LH ~he ton~ qoa11ty is muffled and its pitch level lowered when th1s key 1S closed In fact so many students accidentally produce this tone quality by using the incorrect fingerings and are not aware of the resultshying faulty tone structure One must discriminate and exercise discretion as to the use of these nshort cut fingerings Often the tonal beauty of a melodic passage is impaired by the obtuse sound of harmonics Their use in performance should be limitshyed to the most difficult passages in orchestral or band litershyature and even then only in rapidly moving phrases where it will ~ot be detected that harmonic assist has been applied

On the other hand there may be a desire for moments of tonal coloring in isolated cases Thus using the tone quality of some of these notes the harmonics become a purposeful and effecshytive display They can be used advantageously so long as the notes are played with conviction and will sou~dcorrect In actushyality many compositions now call for ~he add1t10nal tonal shadshyings that are possible when the harmon1cs are properly managed

The low register fingerings presented in thechart on Basic Fingerings are applied to the fundamental notes 1n the Overtone Series chart As the flutist progresses and studies the charts for trills tremolos etc he will discover that the application of the harmonic series will appear inexhaustible

Overtone Series 0)

Q it0Q ao ~ ~ e ~ ~ A

Q

- L g

2~ (0) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

~~ ltIi D ~

A ~ ~ ~

0 ~ IA 11amp I ~ IT 21 ~I

0 0 i~ lI- j- (2)

0 ltIi b b Q ~ ~ A shy1J ~ -amp - -- ~ = r ~ oa t ~ t 9 k

(2)1bullbull 1 v bullbull I

(3) (5)(6)(4)

Q

bull amp ~ ~Q Q

e- a Q ~

~ 6shy

~ ~Q ~v if Rk iv P V t v ~ I (2)

QQ ~ 6shy0 ~ ~

~o Q ~ -amp e

8 8 bull V R V 0 9J lit lit a 0~ ~

Note The following alterations may be applied when practicing from this chart These will assist in performing the upper harmonics with greater ease and their physical placement in the ocshytave would be identified more readily Followshying a degree of proficiency in the execution of the harmonic series these intervals should be practiced legato[slurred]

1 Vent the 2nd key RH 2 Use the Gn ~ey 3 Close the EP key 4 Use the low B key if available 5 Close the C key 6 Close the Cn key

2(b) FRENCH MODEL FLUTE Also referred to as the open tone hole model this flute is

identified by its perforations in the centers of the five keys that are activated by the fingers The relevancy of the French model flute is noteworthy Its prominence in the flutists career has been brought about by a variety of technical applications through which its advantages seem compounded

A substantial number of fingerings specifically for this instrushyment can be learned from these charts that follow The special finshygerings are for purposes of varying the pitch dynamics or tone quality or any of these in combination They also will effect a more realistic pitch relationship in the intervals for trills or tremolos according to the instructions as may be directed by the numbered comments There are some fingerings that are traditionally for the closed hole flute For these the use of the French model possibly could be supplemental to improve upon some of the original fingerings

The technique of venting the various tone holes is one that ought to be introduced to the lesser experienced flutist as soon as practicable The astute professional always has recognized the value of this application To develop the technique of sliding over the tone holes one must emphasize a subtle movement of the fingers with utmost sensitivity and vent cautiously for absolute control Almost immediately this reveals the ease with which it is possible to exeshycute a glissando of the scale bull

or a slide[portamento] to or from various notes

The left hand fingers should glide away from the flute in an outshyward motion while the right hand fingers move in the opposite direcshytion and towards the key mechanism This seems to be the most adaptshyable approach to venting However since each individuals hand position is subject to a mUltiformity due to basic differences in musculature other methods may be devised and considered equally successful The expertise of an artist teacher will be vital in considering each situation that is problematical To vent the hole by a fraction the finger is to be moved in a calculative fashion The pitch is raised according to the amount of the hole exposed The opposite is true when the desired pitch level is to be lowered By depressing the key ring by its edge it is possible to vent the enshytire tone hole The numbered comments accompanying each chart will suggest the appropriate venting combinations for each fingering

The acoustical principle applied to the vented fingerings is based upon the production of the harmonic series The overtones (see Overtone Series chart) can be altered conveniently by ventshying the fingerings for their fundamental tones This produces an array of pitches in a composite of overtones and results in total flexibility for the ensuing techniques that are to be applied By gliding these pitches the notes are altered to possess a wider range of intonation as well as a broad spectrum of tone content This development takes place as the fingerings alter the tubeshylengthsCdistance air column travels] for tone production These are either extended or contracted depending upon the location of the key being activated and the amount that its tone hole is to be vented Also with these fingerings the resistance factor of the instrument sometimes is transformed from its traditional response to an entirely different sensation in the production of certain notes Examples of this condition will be discovered when reading from the charts on tremolos altered notes quarter-tones etc

These modifications as provided by the use of the French model flute are beneficial in all facets of musical performance not only in contemporary music but in the standard repertoire as well

[llJ

bull bull

I TRILLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step)

bull bull bull I

I bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull I bullbull I

I bull I bull I bull I bulltr I I

bull I bull I tr bull II 0 I I 1(+)

tr I bull I bull I bullbull I I I

tr I I Ibull I bull I bull I

bull I bull I bulltr bull II I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull bull I I I

I I Ibull bull bull I bull I bulltr I bull I

bull bull bull I I bulltr I bull I I bull I I I 2

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

~-~ _ a--f----=-________

~_~----J

~-~ _ trtr ---------bull-bull- I bull I I

tr tr bull I bull bull bull bull bullbull-+--+--+-+-+-1-iIJ-+I-+---t1

bull bull I ~r I - I 4

~ tr j~ - bullbull--+-1---eillE-la--j---j I bull I bull

bulltr I bull I I bull bull I bull

bulltr I I I

(+) Applicable to the French model flute

I bull I

tr I bull I bull

bull f---1f--l--+-+-+--af-+-+--l1 5

f--tt-+-+-+------r---ilbull-t-+--ll 6

bullbull-+-1--t---t--+--+-f-+--t---11 6

tr Ibull I bull I

bull I

1--+---+---1a--t ---1bull--+---+---I1 7 (+)

~~r--+---+--+---+----II tr bull I~ bullbullgt---~+--+-------o---J bull bull bullbull I 7 (+)

XtrI I I 181bull

Xtr II bull I 1---4~XE--tr--l--+-----tIt-+-+---l1 9

1---4a-l--l--4llXctr-+I_-+-+--11 9bull

I bull I bull I bullbull~--I bull bull bull tr

trFR=--() bullbullbull 1--iIIbull --+-__t---tIIt-+--+---+---I1 10

EUI= 1-1-+---~a-bull-+ bull bull ~r I I

TRILLS [Half-step and Whole-step]

1 This is possible only with the use of the French model flute Depress the 3rd key-ring RH by hooking the thumbnail underneath and behind the key trilling the tone hole Adequate time is necessary for the preparation of this unshynatural hand position

2 When possible begin the trill by using regular F fingering (3rd RH) to establish the proper level of intonation

3 This may be used for added facility when the trill is followed by the note E However the F~ is slightly flat in pitch

4 This fingering produces a flat BP(A) It is acceptable in a If and its use may facilitate technical passages

5 Appropriately used for a PP this fingering produces a higher level of pitch for C2 and C3 bull

6 Use this fingering for a ff since a lower pitch level for C2and C will result3 7 The intonation for C(DP) is lowered by venting approximately

one-half of tbe tone hole of the 3rd key LH

8 When possible begin the trill by using the regular D fingering to establish the proper pitch level for the interval

9 This lowers the C for a near correct interval

10 When possible lower the 1st key L4H~ slightly until the intoshynation and tone quality for D and Di(EP) is improved

x- Use Trill Key [l3]

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull

3 TRILLSltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

bull bull bull bull bull bull

I trbull middot1 bull bull I

I middot1 tr

Ibull bullbull I 110

~--bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull I Jr

J ~r I Jr I

Ibullbull III I 1112

M---1 bull bull bull bull I Jr l I 1

~--e-j bull bull bull ~ 2

~-- I bull bull bull I Jr I I I bullbull I I I

~--_I bull bull bull tr ~

~-- bull bull bull ~

~-- tr

bull bull bull bull ~

~--e-j tr

bull bull bull bull [14J

bull bull Jr I~-

~ I bull bull tr bullbull tr tr

~_ bull bull bull bull tr tr

I Jr bullbull bull I

I Jr l-i~_ bull ~r I Ibull bull I

bull bull bulltr I II

~-- bull bulltr H

~-- bull

tr I~_ I bull

bull I tr Ibull

bull I bulltr I

t-rl I I I bull I I I I

H-+++-e-+-+-t--

I I I I I I 1 I Ibull -+-1 I I bull I I I I H--+--++-+++-1 4

~ f--I I I I bull I ~-H

H-+-++e-++-H

Jr- I I I I I Ibull I ~r I I bull H---H

1-+--1 f==1 bull 5 I ~ 1--1 6

bull I II- I bull 16

Smiddot +

bulltr I I bull I I I

I I bull I

1------l----il)(e--tr+1--+-~-tIt-t--+-I1 13

I bull I I I

I------l--+-+I-Xlrt---jrIr--tIbull -+1-+1-II 14

I I

)(tr I Xtrl IbullU--I II bull1-1--+--t-----Cgt----i X

tr I Xtrj 15(+)

bullbullbull I I I bull I Ia~--I Xtrl

O-Depress the key by its edge

I I I Ibull bull bulltr bull

bull bull J--i 1--0 bull bull 116(+)

bull bull bull tr bull bull I bull I bullbull I I I

bull bull I I

1----tbull -+-CgtIgt--+--i-+-+----I117 (+)

tr trbullbullbullbull 1 bullbull 111

II Begin the trill by using the 1st key LH open for E~(D)

12 F2 is lower in pitch when this fingering is applied 13 While using the trill key apply proper tone support to simulate

the tone quality of regular C Adjust the direction of the air column downward

14 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for D Then apply the trill key and proper tone support to sustain a more correct interval

15 Depress the 3rd key LH venting the entire tone hole This assists in correcting the intonation level for a ff

16 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for E then apply the trill fingering venting the entire tone hole of the 1st key RH When playing PP the 3rd key LH is to be vented slightly during the trill

17 Almost the entire tone hole of the 2nd key R H is to be vented In a pp the tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be slightly vented while trilling

[15]

8va---

3TRilLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

r-- tr ~~ I bullbullbull I I I I I I I bull I 126

f--(gt I bull I bull bull I I 27(+)~~ I I bullbullbull

tr I I II e I 1

8va--- bull I I bull bull I I Jr Xtr I I I bull I I 28

~ ~I Imiddotmiddotmiddottr Xtr I I bull I I I bull () bullbull 1--+1--+-1-+-1~ -~I-+--II 29(+)

8va-

~I bullbullbull tr tr

f-I- bull -+-~bull-bull- bull I bullbull ~ 8va---

1---e~1+1~XF-tr+1 -bull-r---i--tl 30~ ---H bullbull I I I ~r I bull I I I I bull I

bull tr 1---e~1+-1lh a---fI-+--+--J1 31bull I bull bull bull8va--- tr

r4--~ bullbullbull I~J~r f-I+-1lhbullbull=-+I-+-1-+1--1 32(+)

~ bull I Jr l bull 11----+-1~II---+-I -tI~1 -+1=-11 33

~ tr

1~-l)(If-+~11---+-1-+1-1bull-+1--1 34(+)

8va---- bull I bullbulltr

0-1 ~r I I I I I I 135(+)

t---eJ--r)(If-tr-+I-l)(1E-+-1-+1-+1-+I---li 36(+)

~~ Jr )(trI I I I I I I 1---a~JrX-+rI~IeA----4l-+r-+1-1 37

bull I bull I bull ~rX I I I I I I Ibull I bull I bull

8va---

I bullbull I~~

bull I bull

gt--+---+I~o

I bull

I ~r I tr ~ I I

I Jr I bull I I Jr 1

bull

I f--+----t--lto

I I Xtrl

I I bull I I bull bull I

X bull I I

I bullbull I

118

119(+)

120

I I

I I 1121

I bullbull I I

I I bull I I I Jr I bull I

I bullbull I I I I bull I I

I 122 I 23(+)

I 124

I bullbull I I I I bull I bull I I 25(+)

I I bull I I I

-[16]

__========-==========~~========~=====~ ~-_ 1

8va---

~ ~rll bull bull bull---I--r--bulltr-e~~r-iIIIt--t bull x bull bullbull 138

8va--D- tr x bull ~--bullbull-+--jo-r-+-tJ-I X oJ-+---f---+--1 39(+)

8va---

~ tr I tr bull I ~__-+--- ---t---e--i I )( I 140

8va-- tr tr

bull bullbull bull -I )(1---4a-+--e-4--+--+-+-+--e 4 O ~--IJgt-r-III---1----lt~ 1----41-+-+---+---+--+--+-+--4140bull bull bull bull I

8va--- tr tr

1---4~-+--+--+-1 -lt+--+-+-1-- 40~_ bull bull bull bull bull I

18 Although a basic fingering this does produce a faulty F

19 Vent the entire tone hole of the 2nd key RH If necessary the interval can be adjusted further by venting the 2nd key LH while trilling

20 The tone quality and pitch level of this interval is inadequate but in a ff this trill is acceptable

21 This fingering is appropriately applied in a PP On French model flutes vent the 1st tone hole RH while trilling to execute a secure diminuendo

22 To adjust the intonation for a more correct interval apply proper tone support

23 This fingering is useful in a PP bull Vent the tone hole of the 2nd key LH according to the desired level of pitch

24 Although the F is flat this fingering is acceptable in a ff 25 Depress the 2nd key RH to lower the level of pitch for

a If 26 Fundamental tones G] and A] are overblown in the production

of this trill HenCe a greater amount of tone support is necessary

27 Vent approximately one-third of the tone holes of the 2nd key LH and the 1st keyRH The intonation for G may be imshyproved by venting the 3rd key LH slightly during the trill

28 The A is faulty Throughout the trill apply firm tone supshyport to improve upon its tone structure

29 Begin the trill by using regular fingerings for G and A Then vent the 2nd key LH approximatell one-third of the tone hole [appropriately used for a PP J

30 This fingering offers suitable control for a PP bull

31 Use this fingering in a ff bull 32 The tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly to

provide for an immediate tonal response in a pp bull

33 Fundamental tones A] and Bl are overblown to produce this trill It is recommended fOr a ff level only

34 This fingering is applicable for a softer dynamic level Vent the 2nd key LH approximately one-third of the tone hole bull

35 The problem of coordinating this fingering may effect the tonal production Avoid moving the flute while blowing Vent approxshyimately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH and one-half of the tone hole of the 1st key RH or as may be needed to adjust the intonation for A

36 The 1st key RH may be vented slightly while trilling to raise the pitch level of the BP in a PP bull

37 This is appropriate for a 17 bull 38 The note C is lower in pitch 39 The intonation can be improved by vegting the entire tone hole

of the 3rd key RH 40 This trill demands substantial breath support Apply low C for

flutes without a low B foot joint

[17]

bull bullbull

bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull

bull

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

I bull I bull I ~I bull bull I 1(+)

bull I bull bullbull I bull I bull I Jr I bullbull 1 2

I bull I bull bulltr II bull I 12

I bull tr tr

I bull I bull I bull I I 2

trbull I I ~rl I H2

bull I bull bullbull

bull I bullbullbull I ~r I Jr I bull bull I I I 2

[18J

bull bull ~ Jr I I bull I 12

bull bull ~r I bull I bull I I bull I Imiddot I 23

trbull bullbull I I I I I bull I I 123

bull ~r I I I I I r bull 1--+-1 2

I I I I bullbull I I 12bull bull bull tr I

bulltr bullbullI ~1---I---+-----lI---+---+---1124 ~I-J--+----JI~ t-+---+--i1 2

tr tr I ---11-+-11--+-1-4-+---+----11 2

Jr ~r I ~I-J--+----J--t--J-t-I---+--il 2 bull--~tr tr--1I bull I bull I 12

f--i--j-+-t--t--j-l-t----+--il 24 tr tr I 1--+-4--+--1-+1l-t---t--il 2

bull I bull

bullbull I

bullbull I

bull I bull

Ibull

bull I

bull bull I bull__-+---

bull

I

~ trbull bull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull bull bull bull

124

12 ~ --+---+-H I xtrl xtrl bull I I I

~ tr trbull bull bullbull bull bull tr bull bulltr bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bullbull

12

15

16 ~ e---+-+-+--+--1

-i tr tr Ibull bull bull ~I Xtrl xtrl bull f-e-I bull I bullbull

16

19

~

~ ~

~

bull 4rbull I tr trbull bull bull I

tr tr trbull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr Ibull I tr bullbull I tr I I tr bullbull tr I I Ibullbull I ()----jbull bull bullbullbull bull

I tr

l

X 1

bull I

bull I I I I 1 I Xtr

Jr I Xtrl

I I Xtrl

bullbull

bullbull bull bullbull bull bull bull

124

127

127

16

12

12

12 18(+)

I 16

TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

1 Firm the hand position by anchoring the little fingerLH against the flute and underneath thi G lever Then apply the technique as described for the C -D trill [See TRILLS]

2 This fingering also applies to the octave above

3 Firm the hand position to avoid unnecessary movement of the flute against the embouchure The interval will sound more correct if it is produced with a less intense air column

4 This fingering affords a secure hand position The interval is faulty but may be acceptable at a ff level

5 The Cmiddot is flat and will demand the use of greater breath support

6 This is appropriately used for a PP level

7 To achieve a balanced ~and position while executing the tremolo depress the G lever

~ bull bull

bull bull

XtrlI ~r I 1

I I bull Xtrl bull

I 16

8 Apply this fingering at a PP level only When using a French model flute vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH

9 Begin the interval with the use of regular fingering for the lower note then proceed with the fingering as shown

[19]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

1

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

~ bull I tr trbull bull bull I bull middot1 I middot1 I 19

~ trbull tr bullbullbull I I I 19middot

~ Jr tr trbull bull bull I middot1 I I I bull 1 1 19

~fJf ~

bull

Apply lower octave fingerings

Jr I Jr II bull bull bull I I bullbull I I 110

~ bull I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I trbull bull I I I II

bull I bull I I Xtr Xtrj middot1 112bull

~r I Jr 1 I bull I 113bull I bull bull I~ bull

~ a ~ ~

~

~

bull bulltr bull bull

bull

bull I

bull bull bull bulltr I1

bull I bull bull Jr I ~r I tr bullbull I I

bullfr I bulltr 1 bull I tr tr I

I

tr tr I tr tr

tr trbull I bull bull bull I

x tr I I I bull I

xtr I Xtrl bull I

I I X tr

I Xtr 1

I Jr 1 1 I I bull I

I bullbull tr I bullX

19

114

I I

I 115(+)

116

19

I bull I bull J9

I bullbull 117

bull I I bull I 18

I I 118

I I I I I I I 119

[20J

bull bull tr tr I f------1-+--+--+--+-e_f-t-i1 25

~--+-__+_-+-----1I__-II-+-l1 24

tr f----tt-+I--bullI---iIII~e-f-t-i1 20

~--+-I__+_-+-----1If--agt-+-+-1 22

f-+-+---+--+----If--agt-t--+---11 23

~a___+__f--+----+--+---ll 20

1--1-+---+---+--+1---+---+-11 21

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull bull bull trbull bull bullbull

tr trbull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull

bull

bull

bull

trbull

bull

bull

8va-----

~(lt

8va----

~

r~~t-rXt-1--+--t-+1~I-+I-I 26(+)

f----4III~-rX--1r 1--+--11--+-1~I-+---li 27(+)~ tr t

bull 1 bullbullbull 1 1----1--t--+-+--it-r-+I-e-t--ll 28

10 Overblow the fundamentals(D-F) at the 12th

11 Overblow the fundamentals(E~-G) at the 12th

12 The D is better in tune as the tremolo is played pp bull

13 The fundamentals (E-G) are overblown at the 12th

14 Apply this fingering at a ff level

15 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown at the 12th When using the French model flute vent the 2nd keyLU and the 1st keyRU slightly while trilling This improves the intonation and affords control at a pp level

16 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

17 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

18 The fundamentals(G-BP) are overblown at the 12th

19 The fundamentals(G-B) are overblown at the 12th

20 This fingering is more difficult to coordinate however it produces a more correct interval

21 Overblow the fundamentals(G-B) at the 12th

22 Overblow the fundamentals(AP-C) at the 12th

23 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

24 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

25 Overblow the fundamentals (BP-DP) at the 12th

26 These harmonics are produced by overblowing BP at the 12th and F at the 17th This fingering is applicable also when using a closed-hole flute however the French model will produce the tremolo with clarity The tone holes of the 2nd and 3rd keys LU are vented slightly

27 Same as 26 but apply the harmonics B at the 12th and F at the 17th

28 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown to produce the harmonics at the 15th

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

8va------

~ bull bull trbull r-cirxtr I I I I bull I I 29(+)

8va-

~

8va----

~fit bull

bullbull

trbulltrbull

tr trbullbull I I

I I tr

X I

I I I

I bull I 131

bull 1 I 130

8va----

~ bull I bull

tr tr bull bull bull I I I I bull I I 132

8va----

bull bull bull bull I Jr l I I I I I 133

8va--

bull tr trbull bull bull I I I I I I bullbull 134

[22J

8va----

~r bull o--e I bull I I I I I M 35(+)

f

29 Overblow B2 to produce the harmonic at the 12th On French model flut~s the response of the interval is improved by depressing the 1st key ring RH

30 Overblow the fundamentals (G-BP) at the 15th

31 Overblow C2 at the 12th to produce Gbull

32 The fundamentals (G-B) are overblown at the 15th

33 When using a flute with a B foot joint depress the low B key only

34 Overblow the fundamentals (A-C) at the 15th

35 On French model flutes depress the 3rd key ring LH The tonal response when using this fingering may vary with some flutes if so use the EP key instead of low C

I I

These charts include as many fingerings as are pracshyticable in the execution of tremolos involving intershyvalsinfourths fifths sixths sevenths and octaves Those intervals which have been omitted lacked acceptshyable fingerings that would offer adequate facility with the necessary tonal response Probably these intervals could be played with a degree of proficiency by using the regular fingerings resulting in a superior effect

Tremolos other than thirds or fourths are used inshyfrequently but being knowledgeable in their technical production would prove most beneficial to the performer Their physical demands would add a totally new dimenshysion to the flutists technique Embouchure flexibilishyty and the coordination of the fingers are the initial benefits that accrue from the execution of these wide intervals

It will be noted that a resemblance to the regular fingerings will exist in some of these and the addishytion of the G~ or thumb or trill keys serving as vents lend an added distinctness to the intervals In many instances these keys bring about a response as efshyfectively as would an octave key on other woodwind inshystruments

Apart from their function as tremolos there are nushymerous advantages which these fingerings offer The conshytrol of technical passages by applying these as short cut fingerings the production of tonal effects in lyrshyical phrases or the purposeful application of tone coloring simply by reiterating these intervals slowly are all distinct merits that would contribute to a pershyformers technical skills However the individual situations in present-day repertoire must be researched experimentally in order to apply the various fingerings These will promulgate a more comprehensible approach to the application of the harmonic series as well as provide for an extended view in the use of the French model flute

4(b) TREMOLOSCPerfectFourths and Tritones

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

tr1middot1middot bullbullbull I bull I Jr I Jr I bull bullbull

tr trI bull I bull I I bullbull II

tr tr ~ bull I bull I bullbull II

II

I tr I tr I tr I I I1---iIbull-I--iIIIIr--+-ja-t-1IIbull-+------1 I

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones)

1 Apply these fingerings one octave above

[23)

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones) Cant

tr tr trbull I bull I bull 1 I I IIbull bullbull I

bull bull tr

bullbull I tr

bull I bull I bull I I I 11)2

tr tr bull bull bullbull bull I bull I bullbull I I 11)2

tr bull bull bull I I I bull I bullbull I I 11 1 3

trbullbullbull I 11 I 1 I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I bull I I bull I I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I I I I bull I I II

I 1 I I I bullbull I 1 11)5

I I I I I I bull Jshy 1L

I I I I I bullbull I I II

bull ~r bull I I Jr I I I I bull I I 114

tr trbull bull bull

tr trbull bullbull

tr tr Ibull bull bull

bull bull I Xtrl I bull I 16bulltr tr bull I I I I I bull I 11)7bull bull

I

Xtrlbull bull bull I I bull I 16- bull

t

trbulltr bulltr bull bull bull I I I I I bull I I 1)7

I XtrlI I I I 18bull bull bull bull bull I~- tr

bull bull I I I x bull I 19~-

I I~ bull ~r I I bull bull I bull Ibull [24J

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

y ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~

bull bull I bull 19

bull bullbull

bull bulltr

Ibull bull I I tr trbull bull bull bull I

trbull bull bull ~r I tr Jr I

tre----1 bull bull bull bull I bull bull

tr bull tr

Apply lower

tr tr tr

bull bull I

Xtrl Xtrl bull 19

bull bull I bull bull I

tr trbull bull X l bull 110

bull bull I bull I II

tr tr middot1 bull I I bull I II tr Jr Xtrlmiddot1 bull 110

Jr l XtrlI bull I 112

octave fingerings 13

~rl ~rl tr I bull 1 I bull I

~ Apply lower octave fingerings

~fJf 13

2 It is acceptable to trill only the G key for a PP level otherwise alternate the trilling of the G key with the 1st key RH

3 Use an intense air column to produce a more correct tone quality for Abull

4 Coordinate the action of both fingers to avoid lagging the response of the interval

5 For added facility trill only the 2nd key however the B will remain faulty bull

6 At a pp level this fingering may be acceptable

7 Although difficult to coordinate this fingering is preferred

8 Adequate breath support and directed inward will assist toward the production of a more appropriate tone quality for the D

9 As the upper note is faulty direct the air column inward to match the tone quality of the lower

10 This responds with ease and is suitable for app 11 The upper note will respond more readily as the interval

is played If 12 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to ensure clarity

13 Apply the fingerings given(See 1)

[25J

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritonesgt Cant

bull I I 11 21(+)

~ 8va--

tr tr bull lOX I bull I I I 22(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr bull I ~r I bull I I I I C) x I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va----

tr t tr tr bull I r I bull I I I I Craquo( I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr I I I I I I I I Ibull I I bullbull

~ 8va---

tr tr tr trbull I bulltr bull bull I bullbullx I 124 tr tr tr

~I x I 1(+) ~ bullbull8va---

tr tr I I bulltr bull bull bull I I x bull bullbull 125

~ 8va----

tr tr tr tr I I I I I I I 126bull I bull bull bull bull~

x tr xtrJ~rbullbull-+--+--I116(+) tr

l tr

)( I X I I 117

tr tr I I X 0 I I bull I I 1(+)

tr tr tr ~gt-+-If-X~I-e-ilr--+-il 19(+)

1--+1-i)(lrtr-tI-iXlrtr--+I-e-ilr--+-ll 20

11--+1-+-1-+I--+--+-bull-JI--+-I 14 t---drxtrl I I 115(+)

tr tr tr 117(+)bull bull bull bull bull I I xo I

bull tr tr Xtr Xtr bull bull bull I bull I I

tr tr tr 118(+)~ f-OX I X I bull I I

~ tr

bull I bullbull I I

bull I bullbull Jr I

[26]

I

8va---

~ 8va----

~ I_tr~x__t r+-I -+-+-1f-+-j--+-41 27 (+)

~ 8va-----

bull bull Jr ~29

~

14 Anticipate the action of the 1st key to avoid a lag in the response of the interval

15 In spite of this awkward fingering a ready response is afforded Alternate the use of the LH keys with those of the RH

16 This is purposeful for a ff

17 Apply this fingering for a pp

18 Control the action of the trill keys for a clearly defined interval Vent also one-half of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

19 Vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling to effect a pp bull

20 This is used for a ff

21 Vent approximately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH

22 For controllability concentrate on the use of an equal action with the RH fingers

23 The interval responds best when approximately one-half of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH is vented

24 This tremolo by necessity will be executed at a slower speed Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the thumb key and the right hand keys simultaneously

25 This tremolo will need to be executed quite slowly Altershynate the trilling of the G key with the use of the thumb and trill key together

26 Overblow the G~-C~2 fundamental at the 12th

27 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the use of the RH keys

28 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with the use of the RH keys

29 To correct an F that is faulty the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly while trilling

[27]

bull bull bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull

4(c)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

bulli I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I middot1 bull bullbull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 1 bullbull I

tr~ bull I bull bull bull bull I Jr I bull I bull I bull I II

~ trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 bull I I I I

bull tr trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 e e bull I 1 I

tr trbull bull I bull bull bull I Jr I el middot1

bull bulltr bull Ie I Jr I 12

tr trbull I bull bull bull I bull I e I 13 ~ tr tr tr I 1bull I bull bull bull bull I 1 4

bull ~

~ ~ -bull ~ bull

tr tr tr

I 1

bull I bull bull bull tr I

I

Ibull bull bull bulltr

I

tr tr II

tr tr II

e I bull bull Ibull tr tr tr

J

I bullbulltrx bullbull I

15

~rxtrl

xtr

xtr bull I

I I bull 16(+

17

I I Xtrl xtr bull 1

I tr tr Ibull I bull X bull I I 18

I bull I I Xtrl bull I I 19

I I I I I bull bull I I I

I ~r I tr tr bull I bull I bullbull 1

I I I I I I bull I I I

bull bull bull bull

bulltr bull bullbulltr

tr trbull bull bullbull I

tr trbull bull bulltr bull

bulltr bulltr bullbull

tr bulltr bulltr bullbull

bulltr bull bullbull I

bull bull bull o--e

e---jf-----bull-----

bullbull---1-----bull-0-0____

tr1- middotmiddot1 tr ~rl1-41-+1-----4---4----bull-11--+--11 II

bulltr I bull --+-iII~-+~1 12

tr bull I I - I

I - - I

ytrl tr 1--~7lr---+-+--4middotmiddotmiddot-4Imiddott---+-+---1113 I

114(+)

~ tr 115(+)

I bull trl bullbull 11516(+)

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

1 This fingering also applies to the octave above Alternate the use of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 The B is slightly flat

3 This fingering serves more appropriately for a pp bull

4 A more correct interval results with this fingering

5 Apply the use of a large aperture to produce a dispersed air column iQ using this fingering at a pp level The impurities in the C~ thus can be eliminated

6 This fingering is most appropriately used for a pp bull The D may be sharp in pitch

7 Use a strong air column to assist in the correction of a faulty D Alternate the use of the 1st key LH with the trill key

8 Avoid the sounding of extraneous notes in the interval by emshyphasizing control in the action of the RH fingers

9 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to secure coordinashytion with the LH keys being trilled

10 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the simulshytaneous action of the 3rd key LH and the 1st key RH

11 Avoid moving the flute thereby improving the coordination of the fingers

12 The B will respond clearly only if the action of the fingers is equalized

13 A slight accentuation of the G will assist in producing the interval with greater assurance Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with those of the RH

14 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightlyand about one-h~lf of the tone hole 1st key RH to adequately tune the G~ Avoid excessive closing of the embouchure

15 Accentuate the A throughout the tremolo to lend clarity

16 This fingering produces a controlled pp

~(c) TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths) Cont 17 Vent also one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH while

trilling

18 To ensure a tonal response accentuate the lower note

19 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH to properly tune the D This is more suited to playing pp bull

20 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with those of the RH

21 Apply a low B if available

22 An intense air column must be used for this interval Altershynate trilling the thumb key with the 2nd Although this finger- bull ing is awkward the interval responds readily and is enhanced further through the use of a low B

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

~

I Jr I ~r I~ bull bull bull bull I bulltr

I bullbullbull

~ bull I bull bull bull bulltr I Jr l bull I bull I bull bullbull 1

Jr I 1 bull I bull I bullbullbull 2~ bull bull bull tr

tr tr I~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull middot3 bull l

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull

bullbull1IIIIIIl~~~~

lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

~~~~

bull bulltr bullbull

tr trbullbullbullbullbull 111 bullbull 11

tr trbull I bull I bull I bullbull 12bull bull bull bull I

-i tr tr I I bull I bull I bull I bull bull I3

bull bull bull bulltr

tr tr tr I bulltr I bull I bullbull bullbull I

bulltr

I bull I bull I bull I I

bull I bull bull bull I tr I bullbull bull bull 14

~rl bull bull bull

bull I Jr I bull 16 Jr I bull I bull I

Jr I bull bull I 14

I ~r I bull I bull I I I I

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I j5

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I 15 tr trbull bullbullbull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

1 Alternate the trilling of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 Although this fingering demands coordination the tonal reshysponse is aided by the trilling of the 1st key RH

3 The A~ is slightly flat

4 This balan~ed hand position provides maneuverability howshyever the A~ remains flat in pitch

5 Direct the air column inward to achieve adequate response for the low C~

6 This fingering produces a lower pitch level for A~ bull

[31]

bull bull bull

--

I bull I I I I bull I I I

trxtrlI I Xmiddot bull I I 110

Xtr tr X bullbull III

Xtr Xtrl bull I 112

tr tr I bull I I I~r I X

Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 113

tr tr I JrXtrjbull bull I I 114

tr I Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 114

tr tr tr II tlr I bull I bull bull bullbull 15(+)

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)Cont

~ tr tr tr I bull I Ibull I bull bull bull I 17

tr tr I 1 bullbull I I~ - bull bull bull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull bullbull I I I

tr tr tr trbull I I I~ bull bullbull -I middotmiddot1

~ tr trbull I bull bullbull ~rl bull I I bull I I I

tr tr tr tr I~ bull I bull bullbull I middot1

__I tr tr ~8 ~ bull bull bull

tr bull bull Xtrl~ bull I bull bull I I middot1 I 19

[32J

~ ~ ~ V bullbull bull bull

tr tr Jr I

Ibull bull bull bull I

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull I

-1 bull bullbull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull bull

I I

r

I tr tr tr tr

I 115(+)bull bull bull bull bull I-laquogt bull I bull I bull I 13

bull ~ rdr r I bull I bullbull 113(+)

bull bull bull tr

~ bull bull I bull I 118(+)1

bull bull bulltr r I I bull Xtrl bull I 119

tr trbull bull bull bull ~ I bull bull bull bull 118(+)

tr tr 120(+)bull bull bull bull r--laquor-I bull I bull I bull I

1-1t-t-I-+--1-iI-+----+--+----11 21(+)

trbull bull bullbullbull

7 Avoid moving the flute during the tremolo Direct the air column inward to assure response for the D

8 Alternate the trilling of the LH key with the trill key The D is faulty Avoid the lag in response resulting from the LH reacting late This interval will prove to be difficult in sustaining a tremolo

9 The D is flat and requires added breath support Alternate the trilling of the thumb with the trill key [see 8J

10 This tremolo is more correct in pitch if played softly Use a slightly diffused air column to prevent the D from becoming sharp

11 This interval must be played louder than 10 for it to be near corr~ct in its intonation Intensify the air column for the Dli

12 Use greater breath support to raise the pitch level for D bull

13 This interval will be difficult to execute as a sustained tremolo

14 Use the ED key to raise the pitch for the upper note if needed Alternate the G key with the simultaneous trillshying of the RH keys

15 Alternate the G key with the trilling of the keys of the RU The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH This tremolo is difficult to coordinate due to the possishybility of certain tone holes not being covered adequately

16 Anticipate the action of the trill key to aid in the proper coordination

17 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH while trilling The clear response will depend upon this controlled venting

18 The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th A breath emphasis given to this note will assist in its response

19 Adequate breath support for the F may paTtially correct its faulty tone structure

20 Vent ~pproximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH The Gli is a harmonic at the 12th Venting the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling may add distinctness

21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

[33J

r

- - -

tr -I I I 121(+)- -shy

4(d) TREMOLOS ltSixthsSeventhsOctavesgt Cont

-~

tr ~

trbull I bull -

_I

tr r--o I

tr - I -

- 1 bull

-

I

I I

__

21(+)

118(+)

~ - I bull tr

- o----l ~r 1 -I _I __ 118(+)

~ - I tr

bull -~ tr- -I -I I I I 22(+)

-~

tr ~

tr- 1 bull -()-----1

tr I _I --I I-tr tr I -I I- shy

121(+)

122(+)

- ~ tr

j--() I _ I - I - - 12 3(+)

tr ~ -I -I - I I 124(+)

~

bull ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~

~

Jr I tr tr 0-1shy~

~

~

~

tr - shy-

tr trbull I - I- I

-tr I - II I

Jr 1 _I- I I

Jr I _ -- I

tr tr I-I I - I-Jr I I I - Ishy

I Jr II I - 1 shy

tr I tr I Il I

I 124(+)

I I 21(+)

I 125(+)

I 124(+)

1 121(+)

I 121(+)

- 126(+)

I 127

[34]

bull bull bull bull

2nd 3rd

l~~ tr

bull bull bull bull I bull~

bull r ~r bull I I Jr 1 ~r I bull bull I 127

~ tr tr tr tr rr I xI H27bull bull bull bull l bull I

~ r tr ~r Xtrbulltr bull bull I r-+- bull I 127

~ tr tr trbull bull bull bull I I Jr I XI bull I 127

~ tr tr tr

I XI -I 128

~ tr ~I X I

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull I

~ tr tr

Xbull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 129

~ tr tr Xtr bulle-----i bull bull bull bull I X bull bull 11330

~

B~

tr I bullbull 130bull bull bull bull bull

~ tr tr tr I

--I bull bull bull 1 bull 1 bull X I bull bull 11331

~ 21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper

note is a harmonic at the 12th

22 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

23 Vent approximately one-half of the tone holes 2nd key LH and 1st key RH while trilling This produces a G~ harshymonic at the 12th but on a low C fundamental (vented)

24 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

25 Vent one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The A is a harmonic at the 12th

26 Also vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

27 Favor the embouchure and direction of the air column used for the lower note throughout the tremolo

28 The D will be flat and demanding of full breath support

29 This interval may be cumbersome as it requires alternating the trilling of the 1st key LH with the trill key

30 Direct the air column outward and to further the responsiveshyness of the interval lend a breath accentuation to the upper note

31 Alternate the trilling in the LH with that of the RH

[35J

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

4(d)TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths OctavesgtCont

I I xtrI I 1 bull bull 113131

~ tr tr trbull I bull bull bull bull I I X I X bull I bull bull 113~

tr tr X bull bull I bull bull bull I I Xtrl I bull bull 113131

~ trbull I bull bull bull bull tr Xtr I Xtrl bullbull 113

~ tr tr tr

~ Jr Ibull I bull bull bull bull bull x I bull bull 13

pound tr tr trbull I bull bull bull I x I bull bull 11331bull

tr ~rXtrlbull I bull bull bull I I I bull bull 113 131

~ ~r I

tr tr tr I I bull bull 11332(+)[=~

X

[36 ]

bull I I Jr Jrxtr I 113 133bull~ ~ ~ 1tJ= ~va---

8va--bull 8va---bullyen bull

I

~

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bulltr bull

bulltr I I

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

tr trbull I bull bull bull bull

(+)

~rl Jr I I I bullbull 134

tr tr tr middot1 bull x I H 31(+)bull I

tr tr I I I C) )( I bull I H1335

(+)

~rl bull I I bull I I 136(+)

~rl ~r I I bull I I 137(+)

tr ~ I ~r I bull bull H13 138

(+)

~cirl I I 1(+)bulltrbull

140(+

I42(+)

I(+)

140(+

bull I

~~I-+-+-11-----+-1--+--JI 39

I tr tr

j Ll-J

~bull --Xlf-+-+---+-H I I 43 (+)

r-Jr I bull I bull I

i----()-4--I-+-1--+-+----+--J (+)

tr tr bull bull egt--e

tr tr

bull

tr trbull bull bullbullbull

trbullbull--I----(raquo)--+-~

bullbullr----I--r--~o--j

bull bullbull ~ bulltr ---+~-+--~

8va--

~ bull bulltr bull

32 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH Alternate trilling the G~ key with the simultaneous trillingof the RH keys

33 The 2nd key RH is vented imperceptibly while trilling Alternate the LH with the trilling in the RH

34 B~gin the tremolo by giving breath pulsations to the upper G~ to benefit the response of the interval

35 The 2nd key LH is alternated with the synchronized trilling of the 3rd key LH and the RH keys The 2nd key RH is vented slightly

36 Vent about one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

37 The 1st key LH is alternated with the trilling of the RH keys

38 Scarcely vent the 1st key RH The harmonic content of the G adds to the difficulty in its response Regular fingering for this interval might be appropriate

39 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd

40 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

41 Also vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling

42 The 3rd key LH and 1st key RH are vented slightly according to the dictates of the interval in its level of intonation and ease of response

43 Scarcely vent the 2nd key LH while trilling the 3rd key approximately one-half of the tone hole

[37J

bull bull bull bull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Seve-nthsOctaves) 5ALTECont Nearl

the Fren of the f

(a) A 8va~ (b) A

(c) A

bulltr bull bulltr bull (d) E

(e) A~ These tOnal ef

8va~ be most trastsbulltr tr tr I I Jr I 144 (I

1-1-+--+--X~-+-+--+-J -I I Altho

erally i ~ breath p pianissi sitively notes to check til imperati in balao tack tha44 Use the low B key when available

Alter45 Vent about one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH special Hence t with eas

46 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd A firm action by the 1st finger must be accompanied by a slight Howev breath accentuation for the B offering

er breat pitch Ie clined t

At ti use of a followin suggeste ness giv plish th mended t fingerill The adju to the t teristid duct ion dependcn tonal sl oughly t completlO dynamic~

illgS is essenti~

44(+)

trbullbull

tr tr

trbull I 144

I bull I I x tr I bull I I 145(+)

I Jr I I bull I I

trbull bull

trbull bull bull

trbull bullbull

tr Cgt

~r bull I

bull

bullbullbull Itrbull

trbull

trbull

bull

bull bull bull bull

5ALTERED FINGERINGS Nearly all of these altered fingerings will require the use of

the French model flute They produce notes possessing two or more of the following characteristics

(a) A transparent tone structure (b) A higher pitch level than with normal fingerings (c) A variation of timbre (d) Extreme pianissimo with sensitively posed adjustments (e) An added resistance factor for playing fortissimo

These notes retaining a transparency add a new dimension to the tonal effect and used with discretion this blending of sound can be most desirable in phrases that also call for greater dynamic conshytrasts

Although the amount of breath support needed for these notes genshyerally is less than for those played with normal fingerings the breath pressure should be maintained in the usual manner as for a pianissimo The resultant pitch level can be controlled more senshysitively with many of these fingerings and the usual tendency for notes to become flat while playing softly sometimes can be held in check through their application When executing these notes it is imperative that the tongue stroke for the individual attack be used in balance with the dynamic level This avoids an overbearing atshytack that can delay the tonal response of the note

Altered fingerings for the notes of the third octave will be of special interest since the breath support for these can be lessened Hence the adjustment in the level of intonation can be accomplished with ease and flexibility

However some of these fingerings produce an opposite effect By offering substantially more resistance they permit the use of greatshyer breath support in playing a fortissimo Consequently a lower pitch level can be attained for those notes that normally are inshyclined to be sharp These also possess a different timbre

At times it may be difficult or impossible to coordinate the use of an altered fingering with that of a preceding note or one following In each circumstance the fingering must be applied as suggested by the accompanying material and with equal attentiveshyness given to its resulting tone production In order to accomshyplish the maximum result with a degree of practicality it is recomshymended that the various possibilities as offered by more than one fingering for a particular note be explored as much as possible The adjustments for these varicolored notes must be made according to the treatment of the air column and the notes resulting characshyteristics Since each flutist by nature will approach tone proshyduction differently the ventin~ of the tone holes then will be dependent upon this phenomenon The performers capacity to hear tonal shadings nnd minute modificntions of intonntion will be thorshyoughly tested as he nttemllts to develop a technique for venting A complete understanding of this proceduJe for altering the pitch dynamics and tone quality is vital and the use of special fingershyings is a vnlued supplement to the interpretive skills that are essential in the flutists performance

This concentration of fingerings stressing the use of the French model flute will serve as an appropriate introduction to the SUbsequent charts in this book Many of these fingerings can be altered further to vent for a more exacting structure of a quarshyter-tone scale and because of their relationship with the function of the harmonic series they form a fundamental approach in the proshyduction of multiphonics

~ ~- bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 2bull bull bull bull bull 0-+-0 bull bull I 12

12~ bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull bull 12

~- bull bull bull o--i ~ bull bull bull bull 2

bull bull bull 0-1 f-o bull bull bull bull I 12

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull bull 12

0 bull bull bull 112~ bull bull bull bull bull bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull o-e bull bull bull bull bull I 12bull

bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull I 12 bull 0 0bull bull bull bull bull bull I 12

l Vent the tone holes completely Apply a wide aperture and use very little breath support This will lower the pitch signifishycantly and at the same time produce a light and transparent tone structure

2 Each of these fingerings offers a slightly varied tone quality Vent the tone hole(s) as indicated

[39J ALL FINGERINGS ARE USED FOR PIANISSIMO UNLESS DESIGNATED BY()

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cont)

()bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull I 17~-15bull bull bull bull I bull x I bull I

bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 12~- bull I bull bull bull Hgt I I I bull bull 18bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 12 ~- bull I bull bull bull 9

I H I I I bull 110~- bull I bull o-e bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 23 bull bull bull bull I o---e 123bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull bull bull I---igt I bull I bull bullbullbull8

I bull 0 I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull4tyenyent= bull bull ~-

bull I I Hgt I bull I bull I bull bull 18bull I ~ I I I I bull I I 13 bull bull bullbull ~-

I bullbullbull3bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull egt-e 10~ ~- bullbull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull egt--- bull I bull 1 bull I bullbullbull11 I bull () bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I 14 bull I bull bull o---e bull I I I bull I 112

() I I I I 110M- I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I 13 ~- bull I bull I I bull I bull I 13 I () bull I I bull I bull bull I I 113bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bullbull I bull I bull bull o---i I bull I bull bull I I I 1114

I I 0 I I I 17bull bull bull I bull I

bull I

I I 15sect2g bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull I ~- bull I bull () bull 1 I bull bull I bullbull j I 113 I bull X bull I bull I 15 bull bull bull I bull bull bullbull bull bull I o---e I I bullbull3

I 15~- bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull bull I bull I bull bull bull I bull I 0 I j 17

I bull bull bull bull I bull X bull I bull 15 ~- bull I bull 0 bull I bull [ bull bull I 115

bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I () bull I 16

[40J THESE ARE USED FOR FORTISSIMO ONLY

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

-

bull bull bull I bull () bull 17 ~- bull bull bull f-4gt bull bull bull bull bull 8

bullbull bull f--O bull bullbull 19

I bull I bull~- () Hgt I bull bull bull ~ I bull

f-ltgtbull bull bull I bull bull egt---i I Ibull~- I I bull bull bull I I I X 0

1--4gt I bull~

()

0pound- bull bull 0

0bull bull bull Ibulla- bull

8va---

bull bull bull I 0 ~- bull

0bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull ~

116

bull bull 1817

bull bull bull 18

bullbull 19bull bull 110

118

bull I 119

bull I bull bull 113

X I I 1820 bull

I bull I 113 X

I bull I bull I 118

818

bull 118

bull 110

3 This fingering makes possible a dynamic level that is louder than that produced with regular fingering

4 Vent the ~nd key LH slightly

3 Vent by using the trill key but only according to the desired level of intonation

6 Adjust the intonation by venting approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key RH

7 Scarcely vent the 2nd key ~H

8 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 The entire tone hole of the 1st key RIl is vented Use a sparse air column for the tone support to be used in maintainshying the level of intonation

10 Vent the tone hole according to the existing level of intonation while executing a diminuendo bull

II Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH

12 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH

13 Scarcely vent the tone hole of the ~nd key LH for added conshytrol of the pitch level This fingering noticeably produces an immediate tonal response nnd with tllis a veiled tone quality isproduced with ease

14 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH This produces a transparent tonal effect

15 Vent about three-fourths of the tone hole 2nd key LH If this is vented less the note may be played louder and a greater content of harmonics will result in its tone structure bull The note will be lower in pitch

16 Use an extremely soft attack to ensure greater sensitivity in the production of a light and clear tone structure

17 Gently raise the 1st key LH slightly This aids in eliminating the sound of the harmonic in the tone

18 The tone hole of the 2nd key RIl is vented completely

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality is desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch bull

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly bull

[41J Ij

I

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cant]

bull 0 bull bull 118~- bull ~ bullbull--+-__---+--__bull--1 0 bull bull 118bull

8va---- laquogt 119bull bull bull bull I bull I bull Isect==

bull bull bull bull I o----t-ltgt I I 21~-8va-----

~-~ t-----J-+I---t--+---~-+-11 10

I bullbull I I r-41~X~cgt-+--+--4It-+--+----i1 22

Ir--+I--X)f----jl-+I~bull-+-+---+-ll 23fiF=--bull middotbull -1---+---middotbull -1 1-0 X I X I I 924

~- bull bull I--t--A-X---t-I--JlX~~bull-lI--+-j1 8va----

~- bull bull bull bull middot1

~_~ bull j bullbull 1

8va---

bull 11-$shybull ~

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality ip desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly

21 TIle entire tone hole of each key 2nd and 3rd RH is vented Close a portion of the 2nd tone hole RH to adjust the pitch further if necessary

22 The (D) trill key is opened gently to raise the pitch At the same time vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key RH

23 Use a lip attack for added control of the pitch level

24 Depress the 0 trill key only slightly for the purpose of raising the pitch level if needed during the execution of a diminuendo

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute)

QUARTER-TONES To pursue the study of the quarter-tone scale one may wish to begin

by learning the notes in the chart on Altered Vingcrings When used apshypropriately they could establish n general background for the techniques that are related to this scale Altered fingerings can produce new timshybres that result from certain alterations of the physical properties of the air column Such alterations reveal multiple tube-lengths in the air column of the flute and are caused by the venting of various fingering combinations Tllis is noted wIlen using some of the fingerings for tremshyolos as well as altered lIotes As an acoustical phenomenon this emerges with greater prominence as tlw fingerings then arc vented further through the use of the French model flute It is by this modification of the finshygerings that the tonal responRe is transformed to produce a wide range of

[42J

tone colors Identifying these timbres and adjusting to their accompashynying physical sensations will enhance the performers adaptabilities in the development of embouchure control Also the application of a posishytive approach to the function of the air column will occur with greater sensitivity

To establish the scale of microtones(quarter-tones) it is necessary for these new sounds to be accepted in the traditional sense and played with firm conviction It is a known fact that when the flutist possesses a well developed tone structure for the semitones the prevailing intonashytion also will be appealing This same standard of performance would apshyply and hopefully should exist when developing the quarter-tone scale Therefore adjusting to the array of timbres that accompany the various notes of the quarter-tone scale should become natural and their tonal characteristics accepted as being ordinary

The fingerings included in this chart are based on an elaboration of the harmonic series The conventional response of the overtones is alshytered by venting certain tone holes which brings about the formation of the multiple tube-lengths This departure from the fixed overtone arshyrangement permits the sounding of the neighboring harmonics and with this occurrence a chromatic quarter-tone scale can evolve in an organshyized manner The use of these fingerings can bring about a greater flexshyibility when endeavoring to achieve absolute control of pitch

The listening required for the proper placement of the microtone inshytervals is indeed acute and becomes intensified with each effort This hopefully ought to assure the guiding of the intervals of semitones

As the quarter-tones are learned they must be treated as new fundashymental notes The tone control for these ought to be developed justas it has been for the regular semitones and an understanding of their placement in the schema will add immeasurably to their eventual evolushytion in the production of multiphonics ~Qqing of pitches normalshyly executed by the accepted practice of rolling the headJoint in or out to alter the direction of the air column need not be an exclusive apshyproach to the tempering of the pitches for the microtone scale Too ofshyten this technique seems unreliable although in a number of instances it can prove to be beneficial and will assist in the effectiveness of a particular fingering

Frequent adjustments of the embouchure in conjunction with the use of breath pressure and the directional change of the air column will be necessary for most of the notes Instructions for such treatment will be given for each note

The French model flute is an absolute necessity in the production of a great many of these notes since there is no way in which the closed-hole flute can tune quarter-tone~ as accurately The use of only the basic fingerings can become restrictive and will limit the degree of variation

A reeducation in tonal imagery and pitch relationships is vital to the development of a microtone scale This could eliminate the aleatory approach to tuning Therefore it is imperative that the player should determine the proper venting of the tone holes for these fingerings by seeking the correct pitch levels In fact as a result of the experience that was gained by the venting for the notes in the charts on tremolos and altered fingerings the flutist now must treat this as an accepted technique and consider the proper venting to be in balance with the emshybouchure habits in tone production Hence the text material in this chart will not dictate the amount that the tone hole is to be vented since each player varies the basic approach to tone production

The exclusive use of straight tone is not necessary for these notes and the application of vibrato certainly is in order Of course the

usual considerations would apply for its expression and it should be used with discretion

In most cases due to complexities that may be encountered with some of these fingerings there will be very little dexterity or facility for rapid passages Flutists must determine which fingerings will serve best in a given situation At the same time it is assumed that equal conshysideration will have been shown by composers in their compositional deshymands and that the musical structures can be clear of technical hazards

The notes of the chromatic scale of semi tones have been illustrated (in parentheses) with the quarter-tones in this chart To adjust for the tuning of each microtone properly the regular semi tone should be played first Following this each fingering for each quarter-tone ought to be tried in order to establish the correct interval as closely as possible At the same time one must be attentive to each fingerings tonal charshyacteristics With this the player then should react to the resistance factor which is set up in the flute This is resolved by recognizing a physical sensation that is demonstrated by the manner in which the tone responds At this time the embouchure should be adjusted accordingly Reshycalling this experience each time that the fingering is used should reshysult in the performer cultivating a familiarity with a more definitive approach to these tones and an anticipation of their prevailing pitch levels

Contemporary composers have used a variety of signs and symbols to indicate the sharps and flats for the quarter-tones In order to give this chart readability arrows extending from the stems of the convenshytional alterations have been used These denote that the pitch is raised or lowered a quarter-step Although only sharps have been used here the player must assume that the enharmonic notation would be used in performance

At same as 8~ Et same as ot etc

Also the enharmonic pitches apply as follows

A~ same as 8f or A1 ot or cl same as o~ etc

Unquestionably a great deal of experimentation with fingerings such as these will result in acquiring added facility in the manner in which all facets of tone production are studied Other fingerings may be conceived for notes of this scale However the criteria inshyvolving their adaptability will be similar to that already described in the preceding paragraphs

QUAIITER-TONE TIULLS

These fingerings create quarter-tone trills either ascending or descending Many of the notes include the possibility of a trill in either direction emanating from the principal note and are indicated as such by the text materials The instructions are given in an abbreshyviated form and are interpreted as follows

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The note this pro-letter identifying the to be activated duces and its tend-note ~ encies if any

Ex-( 4F C key DOWN to Q )

The flutist may wish to research these fingerings further in as much as they offer a seemingly limitless display of intervals of varshyious degrees Mini-microtones(sixth-tones or eighth-tones) also are possible and these will be referred to as pitch-pulsations in the subshysequent charts

[43]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

IPIO I C) 1 I 1 I I bull I 1 13~ bull I I I 14bull bull I bull I bull bull I bull I

~ I bull bull I bull I bullbull 15

0 I bull I I I I bull I bull I bullbullbull6- e-+ bull bull bull bull I bull bull 12 ~ bull bull I I f----o I bull 1 bull I bull bull 17Cgtbull bull I

iCO)~ IAIB I bull e bull I bull I 0 bull I I 13 IR I --0 I I I 14bull ~ bull bull bull bull I bullbull I bull bull bull bull I 0 I bull I bull bull middot12 I I bull I bull I bull bull I I 14

bull I bull bull f----o I bull I bull I bullbullbull4 ICIO I I 0 I I bull I I 13~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 4

bull I bull bull bull f----o I bull bull I bull bull 1I

~ IElFe I r-o 13 I (U)qgg ISIT I bull I bull I bullbull I I 14

IS I I bull () 1 I I I bull I I 141Ge---l bull bull bull r-o I bull 1 3

IS~ I I bull I --t-1 8

I (~~ bull I bull bull D---i I bull bull I bull I bull bull II IU I () bull I I bull bull 1 bull I bull 19~

I IV jIH bull D------i r-o bull I bull I bull I 14 I bull I bull x bull I bull bull I 15~ bull bull IVIW IIH bull bull o-------j I bull I bull I I bull bull 14 bull I 5bull

IJ e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 14 fXIY I e e bull I ex bull I bull I 13

IJ 5e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull 1 ~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I () I 110 I(e)~ IKIL bull ()----e I 1 I I I I bull I 13 IZ2A I I I 14bull bull bull X bull bull

IMIN~ If-O bull I bull bull 15

I bull bull o----e I bull I I ICia) M 2B2C bull bull bull I bull I bull I o bull 13bull bull bull bull bull 5 ~

bull I I bull I bull bull 15 I bull e bull bull I bull x bull I 311

[44J The preferred fingering for each note is illustrated first

bullbull bull bull 0 bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

~2F2 bull bull I 0 l_l I bullbull I 13bull -shy2H I I j 13bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 2J bull bull bull I f-cgt X I I bull bull la

~2~L bull bull o-j bull I bull bull 112 I X 0 I 112bull bull bull I bull

2M bull bull bull I I I bull bull bullbull1213

bull bull () bull I I I bull bullbull I 114

1 Apply a mlmmum amount of breath support using a wide apertureThis note lacks the usual tonal presence of the low register and its use is limited to extremely soft attacks

~ Direct the air column downward to adjust for the level of intoshynation This effort must be exaggerated when using a low C

3 This fingering produces a tonal response that is similar to that of the notes of the tempered chromatic scale of semitones A firm breath support may be applied and a resonance as well as a variation of dynamic levels are possible

4 Direct the air column downward in order for the note to attain as much tone center as possible and a proper adjustment for its intonation A light volume of air is applied but a medium dynamic level seems possible

5 Direct the air column upward in order to raise the pitch level A large aperture and the use of a dispersed air column will renshyder a distinct contrast in tone quality for some of the notes

6 Since there is no suitable fingering for a more accurate tuning of this note the air column must be aimed exaggeratedly downshyward However an interesting tone color emerges and a near correct level of pitch can be attained

7 If a split-E attachment is available this fingering may be alshytered to produce a correct pitch level Otherwise an unorthoshydox method of closing the 1st key RH is necessary to vent apshyproximately one-half of the B hole This seems impractical

8 This fingering effectively produces a subdued tone quality and is suitable for a soft dynamic level

9 The sounding of multiple harmonics in the tone must be elimishynated as the key is vented Attempt to favor the sounding of the upper pitch

10 A slight venting of the tone hole 3rd key RH will assist in the control of the intonation in a soft dynamic level

11 bull The 3rd finger RH should lean gently on the trill key in order to vent for the appropriate degree of intonationbull

12 bull This fingering serves best when playing loudly Apply an intense air column and use as wide an aperture as possible without altershying the tonal standard

10 The keys of the low B foot joint must be closed securely to preshyvent any unnecessary venting otherwise the F cannot be altered auequately Direct the air column upward

14 The tone holes as indicated are to be vented imperceptibly A translucent tonal structure is indigenous to most of these fingerings

lA I 3rd RH I UP to E

IB I E~ key I DOWN to Q(Sharp)

lC I 2nd RH I UP to I

ID I 3rd RH I DOWN to ~(sharp)

IE I 2nd Rff I DOWN to I

IF lIst RH I UP to 1

IG I 2nd amp 3rd RH I DOWN to F

IH I 1st ~nd UP t (( I )and (3rd) RII I 0 ~ S WIP

IJ lIst 2nd UP to G and 3rd RII I

lK I 3rd LH(vented) I UP to A

lL I G key I DOWN to ~~

1M I G key I UP to A

IN I 3rd RH DOWN to G(sharp)

IP I 2nd LH(vented) I UP to A

lQ I 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) I

lR I 2nd LH UP to C amp 1st RH I

IS I Thumb key I UP to ~

IT I 2nd amp 3rd LH DOWN to C (depress G~ key) I I

IV I 1st RH I DOWN to ~

IV I Thumb key I UP to Q

lW I 1st LH I UP to Q

lX I G~ key I DOWN to D

lY I E~ key I UP to J)

lZ I D Trill key I UP to D

2A I 2nd LH I DOWN to D(ring only)

2B I 3rd RH I UP to I

2C I E~key I DON to Q

2D I 2nd RH I UP to F

2E I 3rd RII I DOWN to (shllrp)

21 I 1st HH I UP to f

2G I 2nd RIl DOWN to f(half-vented) I 211 I 2nd RII I UP to r 2J I D Trill key I DOWN to I

(sharp)shy

2K I 2nd RH I UP to Q (sharp)

2L I )rd RII DOWN t ro (ring only) I a _

~-1 I )rd HII I UP to Q

[45]

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

8(a QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

2N bull 0---1 I bull I bull I 13bull 2P I I I bull 114- 2a bull 1 I bull 115bull I

4 m 2S2T I bull bull o--t f-o bull I bull I bull I 13

2T 1 bull bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I bull 13

bull I bull () bull bull I 1 I I bull 1 114

2S2U I bull bull o---e I I I I bull I 13rztt=22W bull I 0 I i I I I bull -t-+-3 2V2X~ I I 116bull I bull I bull I

(~)~ 2Y I bull I I bull I 0 I bull I I 116bullI 2Z~A I bull bull bull I I bull I bull I o bull I 13

f--(gt I 114bull I bullbullbull Ibull I bull bull bull I 38 I Q---j I 116bull I bull I bull I bullbull

I(n)qn ~ 3C I bull bull I I bull bull I bull I I I 116

bull I bull 0--+--1 f-ltgt I bull I bullbull 15 3D I bull bull bull I f---Cgt I bull I I I 114 3E I bull bull I I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

3E30 I 0 I I I 13bull bull bull I I bull I

f 1 t

bull bull 1

(~q~~ 3Fe

I bull bull middot1

I

3G

3H3J I

(~I~~ 3K I bull I I

I bull ()-e-j3L I

(0) qn ~3M3N I I I

bull ()I bull If

3P I bull 3Q

f (0) n ~~ 3R3S bull bull bull bull I 3S3Te

3T

3R3S3U

(~) ~-amp ~Q 3V

I 3W3X

bull 3Y

(0) ~o~ 3Z

1 4A

bull bull o--e ()

bull bull o--e

I bull bullbull I bull I bull I I o--+-Jbull I bull 0 bull I

I bull +---cr--l I bull bull I

tI I x I I bull 13

~ 115bull I bull I bull I I I I x I bull I I 118

1---0 I bull I bull I I I 1919

I 0 112 I bull I bull I bull I I I 317 r bull I bull I I bull I

j I bull I x bullbull 13 I

I bull I bull I bull bull 110 115I bull I bull I bullbull

1 I I x I bull 1310

13 I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

I bull x bull x I bull I I 116

I bull I () I bull I I 115

t---o I I I bull 1 bull 11920

I I I I I bull 119 bull X

[46J

B +

~ 48 bull bull bull bull I bull 112 4C

40 bull bull

bull bull bull

X bull I bull

bull 116

121 8va I

~4E4F bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13 4E4F bull bull bull bull 117 4G4F

middot8va 1rrplusmnt5=4H4J bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull I bull I bull

bull 0

0

bull bull

bull bull 119

112

bull 117

4JI bull () bull bull 1-0 bull bull bull 117 8va I (-Q)J-e- -eshy 4K4L I

I 4M4L I

4Me

bull ()

bullbull bull bull e

bull I X 1 bull X f---Q X

bullbull

114 11622 119

15 This is used advantageously for n pianissimo The intonation level is controllnble by venting the tone hole of the 2nd key L H slightly

16 A firm breath support with a vnrinble volume of air may be apshyplied to produce a reasonable range of dynamic coloring The intonation seems controllable as the flow of air iR directed upward

17 A relaxation of breath pressure seems possible ith this fingershying The tonal structure is altered nccordingly and at the same time a medium range of dynamic level can be controlled

18 This fingeringwill demand coordination when ascending from D and again to D The pitch level can be controlled by directshying the air coumn downward

19 The tone structure may become excessively airy but this as well as the intonation level can be corrected by adding subshystantially to its breath support

20 The use of the 3rd key RH aids only in the balanced hand position Thus the application of the fingering either in an ascending or descending paRsage is facilitnted

21 Overblow the low G at the 15th as softly as possible The harmonic content of the tone structure will be of contrasting quality The air column must be directed donward

22 To facilitate tuning this note ly vent the tone hole 2nd key

2N Low C key UP to ~~

2P 2ntl HII DOWN to ~

2Q )st I 2ntl HH UP to G~

2H 1 st HII UP to ~~

2S 1rtl LII UP t A (ring only) 0

2T 1st 2ntl DOWN to G~ anti 1rtl RH shy

2U G~ key DOWN to ~

2V 2nd LH UP to A~ (ring only)

2W 3rd LH (ring only) DOWN to A

2X Low C~ key DOWN to A

2Y Low C~ key DOWN to A~

2Z 3rd RH UP to 8

3A ED key DOWN to A~

38 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) shy

3C 1st RH UP to pound

3D 3rd RH DOWN to _8 (ring only)

3E 2nd RH UP to pound 3F 2nd amp 3rd RH DOWN to C

3G 1st Rn UP to C(flat)(ring only)

3H 1st RH DOWN to pound(ring only)

3J Thumb key UP to pound

3K 1st LH UP to Q

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

at a soft dynamic level scarceshyLH

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

3M 1st LH DOWN to 0

3N 0 Trill key UP to Q

3P Low C key UP to Q

3Q ED key liP to 1)

3R 1st RH DOWN to 0

35 3rd LH UP to E

3T 3rd RH UP to E

3U 1st amp 2nd RH UP to ~

3V 2nd RH UP to I

3W 2nd LH DOWN t E (ring only) 0 _

3X 2nd amp 3rd RH UP to I

3Y 3rd RH DOWN to ~

3Z 1st LH UP to I

4A 0 Trill key DOWN to F

48 G key UP to ~

4C D~ Trill key DOWN to I~

40 Thumb key UP to ~

4E jIst LH UP to G~

4F G~ key DOWN to G

4G 3rd RH UP to G

4H 1st amp 2nd RH DOWN to G~

4J 3rd LH UP to ~

4K 3rd LH(vented) DOWN to A

4L 0 Trill key DOWN to ~

4M 2nd LH UP to A~

[47J

II

1iibull bull bull

Sea) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

8va I_4N4PI bull r---ox x 123

40 I I X I 119

4N4R I 1317bull bull I X bull X 8va i

(o)~ft ~ I e19bull bull bull bull bull bull bull I 451 ()---1 x e e 119bull 8va i

(-e-)~-e- ~ 4Te bull bull bull I bull X I I 24

I bull e 0--- f-O I X bull bull 124

it

23 When descending from the regular B the 1st and 3rd keys LH may remain closed

24 This note may be played only at a loud dynamic level A firm breath pressure is vital to the control of the intonation alshythough the note tends to be sharp

4N D~ Trill key DOWN to ~

4P 1st HH(vented) UP to B

4Q 2nd LH UP to ~

4H D Trill key UP to _Band 2nd HH

45 2nd HH DOWN to ~

4T D Trill key DOWN to f

[48J

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo)

In this chart the fingerings for both the alto flute and picshycolo are combined The concepts of tone production and pitch disshycernment that were discussed in the preceding section on quartershytones for the C flute would apply to these instruments also Due to the limitations in venting the fingerings there will be less flexibility in the tuning of these notes In fact some noiesof the scale have been omitted because of unsuitable fingering comshybinations and a lack of control for the pitches However if an open-tone-hole model piccolo is available to the player other fingerings from the previous chart could be applied It will be noted that a great deal of emphasis is placed on the exaggerated change of direction of the air column for the purpose of tuning This will compensate for the lack of venting for most of these notes

QUARTER-TONE TRIllS

The text materials for these trills are presented here in the same manner as for those in the previous chart In some instances the direction of the air column has to be exaggerated either upward or downward in order to reach the proper intonashytion level for a single note in the quarter-tone scale This precludes the proper tuning of the quarter-tone trill When it occurs the smaller interval that results is termed a pitchshypulsation However prior to playing the trill special effort must be made to tune the quarter-tone from which the trill is to emanate otherwise even the small interval(pitch-pulsation) will be nonexistent Occasionally when only one fingering is given for both instruments the text will indicate the instrushyment for which the trill fingering is intended

bull bull e bull bull I bull I bull bull bull e I I~ e(o)~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull 12

reg - ALTO FLUTE

j ~

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull

f (e)~eF IA bull bull bull bull bull bull bull IA

Sb

+ l(ie)~ IQ I bull bull bull bull bull bullbull

I bull bull bull bull bull bull bull The little finger nlI must open the IP key and at the same

IS time close the footjoint keys The air column must be dishybull bull bull 30~ bull bull bull rected dowmarct to lower the pitch 1 eve IS bull bull bull bull bull bull 12reg

2 Exaggerate the ctowlllVilnl directioll of the njr column The apshyerture must relilain il~ opcn ttl possj) 1c otlerwjse the tone structure becomes sllpplcsilted This fi lIferinf i~ more appro-

IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13reg priate for il sort 1Ild subdued efrcct~ bull IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 14reg 3 Apply the techniques noS ill )- nlll u--( vcry I it tIc volume

of air This note milY lack ndeqllnte tOllnl projection

4 Using very little bleilth support direct the nil columnI(e)~ ID bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 120 dowmarct to Ilchieve the lIeceSiltary Jevel of pitch 1I0wever the tone qUilli ty of the lower register 01 the piccolo willIE bull bull bull bull bull 14reg project substllntiillly

5 Use a slightly victe Ilperture ilnd il direction of the air col-IF 140 umn that is similllr to that of the preceding note bull~ bull bull bull bull bull bull IG 14reg 6 Direct the air column downward but slightly for the evenshy

tual adjustment of intonAtion

7 The air column is directed upward~ IH bull bull bull bull bull bull I 150

8 It may be difficult to maneuver the fingers adequately butIJ bull bull bull I 14reg if the trill keys can be scarcely opened the note can be

properly tuned

I (ci)qng IK I bull bull bull bull bull 150 UP(pitch-pulsation) IJ I 2nd amp 3rd LH I UP to elA I 3rd RH I

IK I 14reg lK I Thumb key I UP to e~IB I 2nd RH I UP to F~ (flat)

lL I Thumb key I UP to D (Piccolo)Ie I 1st 2ndlIL 1 160 UP to G~ (sharp)3rd RIlFfft)~ bull bull bull X bull bull 1M I Thumb key I UP to D~10 I 3rd RH I UP(pitch-pulsation)IL bull bull I X bull 170

IN I 1st amp 2nd LH I DOWN to DIE I 1st 2nd amp 3rd RH I UP to A

IP I D Trill key I UP (pitchshy1M X X bull bull 150 IF I 2nd amp 3rd RII I UP to A~ Jlulsa t ion)(fla t)

INIP I I I X bull 16reg A~ lQ I 3rd LH I DOWN to D ~ bull bull bull

IG I 3rd LH I UP to (fla t)

0- PICCOLO IH I 2nd LII amp 1st RII I UP to e

bull bull bull bull bullbull

- IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull I I 124reg

IT 16bull bull bull I bull bull I bull~ IT bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14reg

l(~e)~ bull I bull bull bull X I bull bull IIOreg

IU 17g-QdegfO bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull IUIV bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull IGreg

~WX bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 17

bull bull bull bull bull I I x I bull I IIO IY bull bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull I 12reg

~ IZ bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull 6bull IZ2A 1 I I Iregbull I bull I I bull I

[50]

I(0) ~o ~e 2B bull bull bull I bull bull I 16middot0 2C20 16reg I bull

I(~~ Me 2E2F I I I I I bull 16middot0bull 2F2G I bull I I bull I bullbull 16reg

(~t~~ 2H I bull bull I 2J

(ft) ~n ~2K~L I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I Ibullbull 190 bullIR bull bull bull bull I bull I

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo) Cont

1 (Ito-) ~ ~-e- 2M2N 17

f

bull bull bull bull I bull I bull x bullbull 2P bull II bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull 16~P

(~) ~~ ~Q 2Q~R bull bull bull I bull I bull bullbull 16~I 2

(n) qn ~ 2T bull 1 bull 1 I bull 1I1

I bull 1 bull X

2U2V bull I bull bull I 11rreg 8 va 0i

~2~X bull bull I 1 bull bull I bull I 170

8va regI

I I I 1712rrplusmnyen==2~ bull bull bull I bull 8 va i

I I x bull 1110et-ECilDbull bull bull bull bull bull

reg

8 va I

(-amp)]-amp ~3E3F I I I bull 17I bull X 8va

I

I I bull I I I X bull X I I IIIO3H bull

9 Direct the air column as in 2 However the tone strucure will permit an acceptable projection at a medium dynamic level

10 Vent imperceptibly by opening the trill key gently The air colshyumn should be directed downward only slightly but the aperture is to be somewhat larger than for the preceding note Thisfinshygering serves best when ascending from the regular semitone

11 This is suitable only for a loud dynamic level The note deshymands full breath support and the air column should be directshyed upward slightly

12 The additional resistance that this fingering lends to the piccolo may cause undue forcing of the tone unless the performshyer displays control of the embouchure in this octave However the use of this fingering is not as problematical when applyshying it to the alto flute

lR 3rd RH UP to P

IS 1st LH UP(pitch-pulsation)

IT 2nd RH UP to r~ (Piccolo) (flat)

lU 1st RH UP to G~

IV 2nd amp 3rd RH

lW 1st RI DOW

IX 3rd LH L~ to

lyen 1st amp 2nd RH

lZ 3rd LH UP to

2A 2nd RH DOWN

DOWN to G (flat)

to G~ (flat)

A

UP to A

A

to A

2B 2nd RH UP to C

2C b Key DOWN to B

2D 3rd nH UP to C

2E 1st RH DOWN to C

2P Thumb key UP to C

2G 1st RH DOWN to C

2H 2nd LH DOWN to C

2J 1st LH UP to D

2K Eb key UP to D

2L G key DOWN to D(Alto flute)

2M 1st RH DOWN to D

2N 3rd LH

2P 3rd RH

2Q 3rd RH

2R 1st LH

2S Eb key

UP to E

UP to E UP to r (Piccolo)

UP to r(Alto flute)

DOWN(pitch-pulsation) (Piccolo)

2T D Trill key DOWN to r

2U 1st LH UP to P (flat)

2V 2nd RH DOWN to P

2W G key UP to G

2X Low C key DOWN to r

2Y 1st RH UP to G (Piccolo)

2Z 1st LH UP to G

3A 3rd RH DOWN to G(Piccolo)

3B 2nd RH DOWN to G (Alto flute)

3C G key DOWN to G

3D 1st LH UP to A (flat)

3~ 2nd LH UP to A

3P D Trill key DOWN to A

3G D Trill key DOWN to A

3H 2nd RH UP to B (flat)

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES MULTIPHONICS

No longer can the flutist expect that a traditional flute tone is the only attractive or acceptable sound structure Sound pheshynomenon must be valued as significant structure which the aspiring performer must embrace in order to add to the variety of musical exshypression in contemporary music In the various periods of music the goal of each generations performers has been to enrich and augment the sometimes restrictive character of the sound of the flute Hence with this standard of excellence in flute playing the evolution of compositional techniques has paralleled the instrumentalists develshyopment Accordingly more and more is expected of the flutists technical skills and resources

The or ani tion of many-voiced sounds is now a vital part of the f~ts technique ana for this all of the aspects of tone

-proouction are to be considered Rultiphonics involve the layerin ~ developin an understandin of the n use Q ere ones ~n e over one series of the flute~coustical the orma ionof _ muitiJHe tube-lengtns in the air column g e a number 0 requency vibrations with whic to produce added pitches simultaneously TOis affords an array of chord groups that are controllable Such pheshynomenon is observed when a short tube-length and a larger one are formed in the air column as additional keys are vented in a fingershying combination This causes a modification of the fixed overshytone arrangement of the flute

The composition of many of the fingerings for the multiphonics v ~can be traced directly to those presented for tremolos(especially

sixths sevenths and octaves) altered fingerings and quartershytones Interestingly many of the quarter-tones can be identified as fundamental tones for a number of these chords However the fingerings for these have been changed somewhat in order to facilshyitate the tonal response of the multiphonics

The tonal characteristics of these chords seem to fit into (3) different categories according to their timbres and dynamic levels They can be studied further by referring to these groups in part(B) of this section

The chords illustrated in this chart have included only the notes that possess a reasonable amount of prominence stableness and immediacy in tonal response Quite possibly some performers may be capable of elaborating on these structures to produce upto five tones However this would require considerable experience and a phenomenal control of techniques Except for those few inshydividuals who have such technical skill most flutists will need to devote some practice time to these peculiar techniques

~A flexible_~bnuchUI~_togetherwith sensitivit~ for the approshypriare use of the air column are an absolute must w en exper~mentshy~ng with new auditory experiences As the mUltiple tube-lengths are felt via the resistance of the flute the physical reaction to these must be repeated in virtually all of these chords The transformashytion of this resistance factor from its normal state in the flute tube must be recognized then the air column can be effectively used in balance with this

Those chords that react readily do so because the resistance is not posing a major hazard Thesetwo-note chords require little breath support with a slight alteration of the embouchure However

[51J

~the multiphonics that include1hr~~ or four notes offer muchgreatshyer resistance As a barrier this must be permeated by applying inshyensity to e breath pressure and at times with a large volume of

air Consequently more attention must be given to embouchure corshyrection for these Usin a w~ aEertur the air column needs to be directed so that a--segment of the flute range can be sounded in one air blast By diffusing the air column the tone is spread and thereby capable of including several notes at once These can sound simultaneously as a chord spanning more than one octave of the flute All of this is contradictory to the normal procedure that prevails for playing single-line notes For these the apershyture needs to decrease in size as the air pressure is increased

The volume of breath support for a multiphonic is an equally important matter The qeterminant is evidenced by the demands for each multiphonic and as the player adjusts to these the physical sensations that are to be recalled should be used as guides for the proper maneuvering of the embouchure

The text materials which accompany the fingering for each chord suggest the embouchure movements and technical modifications of the air column However the performance of these sounds cannot be achieved with only these directives More importantly the player must adapt to these sensitively by feel and become accustomed to reacting to the response of the chord with perceptiveness

Many of the chords can be sustained with reasonable success and sufficient duration However vibrato cannot be used because it would disturb the steadiness of the air flow Straight tone is the prime mover in establishing stability for the multiphonics

It is impossible to effect an instantaneous response from a chord Inorder to create the illusion that all of the notes are sounding at the same time the necessary corrections must occurat once These are realized by attacking the lowest note first or for some chords the highest This method assists in the use of the wide-angle aim of the air column for an equal response of the other notes of the tone-group The effect is one of a broken chord as is often played on a keyboard instrument or the harp If the response should lag and the notes of the chord are not soundingin balance with one another then those notes that are positioned at the opposite level from the attacking note either the lowest or highest of the chord must be favored This is done by directing the air column toward that level in the range that seems weakest

The chords have been placed according to their lower fundamenshytals in ascending order This is only approximate and in some inshystances when these pitches were the same the total effect of the chord was considered although the placement is purely arbitrary

The arrows on the alterations do not necessarily indicate quarter-tone pitches Some of these notes could be mini-microshytones In fact many of these notes may not always impart their ~itch levels as originally conceived in as much as the techniques of tone production are variable But this pitch discrepancy also can be extolled as a virtue since so many notes that have the same pitch level would also be capable of lending an impressive range of timbres When isolating the lowest or highest note of each chord and its intonation seems controllable a new dimension in tone coloring can be imagined for any single-line phrase

[52J

This arrangement of fingerings is not a complete collection of multiphonics Rather it is presented as a systematic study and a survey of possibilities for tone clusters There are fingerings which have not been included capable of producing virtually the same notes as some found in this chart Probably there are still other fingerings that may be ascertainable However those shown here seem to lend substantial control for a clear image of eachmulshytiphonic and are to be accepted only on this basis Therefore once the flutist has developed the technique for these additional finshygerings producing new chord structures could evolve through the efforts of individual research

The following points may be considered when the multiphonics are played for the first time As possible solutions to some probshylems that involved technical deficiencies these applications conshytributed to the learning process

(~) Do not isolate the individual tones of the chord as ~ the direction of the air column is adjusted

(b) Avoid an excessive covering of the embouchure hole on the flute and prohibit the forming of a small aperture A diffusion of the air column and a spreadshying of the tone structure should result

(c) A low B must be used when advisedotherwise the inshytervals may not respond with the same assuredness

(d) A wider than normal aperture must prevail for most chords

(e) The air column must be directed in favor of the opposshying note If the chord is attacked via the lower note then the air is to be directed slightly upward etc

(f) Learn to identify the resistance factor first to best judge the necessary breath support for a response

(g) Ascertain the proper venting of the fingerings

(h) Avoid moving the flute on the embouchure this ensures a functional application of straight tone

(j) Minimize the action of the embouchure when it becomes necessary to adjust the direction of the air column Extreme sensitivity is essential

(k) Avoid any exertion of external pressure of the flute against the lip Provide for mobility of the embouchure

(m) Adapt the embouchure and the air column to the sounds Do not attempt to alter the peculiarities of the timbres so radically otherwise the idea of having varieties of tone qualities at hand will be defeated These chords must be played convincingly or they will become repulsive

bull bull bull bull

-I

SPECIAL SONORITIES

When applying these fingeringsthe flutists and composers may wish to explore a variety of sonorities through the use of the chords Numerous effects are discussed in these sections that follow The position numbers and code numbers with letters have been assigned to the multiphonics These are to be referred to as each part is consulted for study

(A) Multiple Trills and Multiple Effects

Control of the multiphonic must be assured for the proper exshyecution of these effects The flute must be held steady to ensure the adequate dispersion of the air column so as not to obstruct the sounding of the multiphonic Practice by moving the fingers slowly at first in order to achieve a lightness in the action of the keys This will prevent a jarring of the flute on the embouchure

The following are possible using the illustrated fingerings

(a) MULTIPlE TRILLS UP or DOWN--- The lower and upper notes of a chord trill simultaneously and in the same direction

(b) MULTIPlE TRILL - CONVERGING -- One note trills upward while another trills in a downward direction This is created by the sounding of a common note onto which each trill converges

(c) Single trills in any direction are possible while other notes of the chord sustain

(d) MULTIPlE PITCH - PULSATIONS -- These account for trills of microtonessmaller than quarter-tones

(e) Together with multiple pitch-pulsations other tones can be sustained

The instructions for the above effects have been abbreviated(as in sections on quarter-tones) and the words lower upper and sometimes middle refer to the particular notes in the chord This is followed by the indication of the direction in which the trill is moving

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The resul tant letter identifying the to be activated effect note

Ex- ( IE 1st RH Multiple Trill-UP )

tJ) 0 A

~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull 1 0

(2) yen-- bull bull bull bull I 0 bull I bull bull 2

(3)~ IA bull bull bull bull I bull o bull 13 -eshy

(4) 0yen--IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 12 -fi

(5)~ IC 0 bull bull I 13

(6) ~-ICID bull bull f-o bull I bull bull bull 1bull

~--e-(7) fyen IE bull bull bull 1-0 bull bull 13

bull bull bull bull bull bullbull3 =--e- 10 (8) ~-IB bull bull bull f---O I bull bull bull 13

1 Using a wide aperture direct a dispersed air column downward Little breath support is needed Close the keys for low B with certainty

2 Direct the air column upward Intensify the breath pressure sufficiently to effect the response of the upper partials but allow for adequate openness of the aperture to permit an immeshydiate sounding of the lower note as well Only a minimum of breath support is necessary Close the keys for low Bsecurel~

3 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the lower notes Avoid changing the size of the aperture when adding to the breath support for the upper notes Close the keys for low B securely

lA

18

3rd RH Multiple Trill-UP

Thumb Upper sustains key Middle trills DOWN IE

ID

1st RH

3rd RH

Multiple Trill-UP

Multiple Trill Converging

lC 2nd RH MUltiple Trill-UP

[53]

bull bullbull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cont

~

(9) ~ e-

IEIF bull bull bull bull I bullbull middot2

1I0) ~-IE bull bull bull 3 (II) (f -IBIG bull bull bull I 0 I bullbull middot4

0 Ibull I bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14

(12) ~-IAH o-j bull I bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (I3)~ 15IAIJ~ bull I bull bull I bull I

eshy(14) ~ fA IK IL bull I 16Ibull bull 0-+

I bull bull I

(15)11 -IJILIM bull o-j I 16 bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I

IAIH(16) -0 I bull I bull I I 17IN~ bull bull 0-

(17 ~ -IMIP bull bull o---j ~I bull bullbull 178

l8) ~ ~-IAIJ 15bull 0 bull I I bull bull rmiddot

tt (l9)~--IQIR bull o----j bull I bull I I I bull bull 17bull

(20) _ -IEIS 0bull bull bull bull bull I I bull I 17

~ ~) I

bullbull I

f~ ~bull lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

8deg 8 ~ G+ + f-eshy

(21l~~IUIT I bullbull bullbull f-O I bull bull I I 17

(22)~ -IJIP~ 1-0 bull I bull I bull 15 ~n

(23)~ IV I bull bull o-l H bull I bullbull I 1-i98 e

(24) ~-ILIM~ 0bull I bull I I bull bull 15

(25)~- IMIWIX I bull 0 bull bull I 0 bull I bull I 15 ~Q

(26) ~ -IMIJ I I bull I I 0 I I 15bull 0 bull bull (27)rW-IJIQIYe--1 0 o bull I I l6bull bull bull I bull

(28) ~-IQIB bull bull I 01bull o bull I bull bull middot3 ~~~

(29)~-IQIZ bull 0 bull I bull I bull I bullbull 19

(30) ~~ ~ILIQ~ bull I 0 I bull bull 19IR2A

t-n (31) ~ -IMIN2S I bull 0 bull I Hgt I bull I 16

D (32) ~ IQIY~ 162C2D I bull I bull A

(33)~-IJIQlVIY~ I bull I 01 bullbull I 16

(34) ~_rNQbull I bull 0 bull I f-ltgt bull I bullbull 16IL [54]

~~~JI~~I

Isf Th Th 2nd 3rd

~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ (35)~ IDILIQ2C~

(361 ~-IL bullbull o--e ~~

t37J ~n ~-ILIQIW~

(38) 111~ IQIR~ 2C2D- I bull - I

(39) Qi ~-IMIV2E~

-eshy(40)~

~-2F2G bullbull~+-_--(O bull

(41) ui ~ - 2C2G2H bullbull--I-----(O bull

p-u (42) ~ 2~iH~ -amp

(43)~ -IQIR2L~ lB

44J ~ 2E2M~ (45)~--2D2N~

~1gt-+-o---+---+--+--+-----1 68

t--iI~I--tt-tI H__+-1-t---ll 9

r--laquogt I bull I I bull bull 178

r-o--t- bull I I bull bull III

bull I

t-o I

bull I

bull I

310

bull bullbull7

bullbull 19

f--o

bull bull I

bull I bull 19

bull bull 1912

bull bull bull

bull bull

I II

16

4 Direct the air column upward slightly and intensify the breath using an embouchure that favors the middle register

5 Adjust the aperture mainly for the lower note and direct the air column inward Use only a light tone support

6 The air column is to be directed upward very slightly with the embouchure favoring the upper note

7 Use a wide aperture with substantial breath support and direct the air column upward

8 Also vent approximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 Use an aperture more appropriately adapted to the upper notes but direct the air column downward slightly Only a medium amount of breath support is needed

10 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH imperceptibly

11 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the middle range This chord is to be supported robustly

12 Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd key LH also

IF 2nd RH MUltiple Trill- IX (ring only) DOWN

IG 1st RH Upper sustains lY (ring only) Lower trills DOWN

IH

IJ

lK

lL

1M

IN

IP

lQ

lR

IS

IT

lU

IV

lW

1st RH Upper sustains lZ Lower trills UP

1st RH MUltiple Trill 2A Converging

3rd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP 28

2nd LH Multiple Trill-UP 2C

3rd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2D

EP key Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2E

3rd LH MUltiple Trill-UP 2F

2nd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

2G Low C Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWNkey Upper trills DOWN

2H 1st RH Lower sustains2nd RH Upper sustains Upper trills UPLower trills UP 2K 2nd RH Multiple tones susshyLow C Multiple Pitchshy (ring only) tain Middle noteskey Pulsations Middle pulsatetrills UP 2L 3rd RH Upper sustains1st RH MUltiple Pitchshy Lower trills DOWNPulsations Upper

sustains 2M 1st RH Lower sustainsMulshytiple Trills ConshyEP key Lower sustains vergingmiddot

Upper trills DOWN 2N 3rd RH Multiple Trill-DOWN

G key Upper sustain~i Lower trills UP

[55]

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills UP

G key Multiple Trill Converging

1st RH Multiple Trill Converging

3rd RH MUltiple tones sustain middle notes pulsate

1st RH Lower sustains Upper trills DOWN

Thumb key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

Thumb key MUltiple Trill-UP (wide intervals)

2nd RH MUltiple Trill Converging

2nd RH Lower sustains

bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES

07(

Cont

~

(46) 1 -IL 2P 20 19I I -0- bull bull bull I bull I bull bull

(47)~ IAIL2R 16

~ bull 0 bull bull bull I bull I bullbull (48) ~ __ 252T bull o-o--j bull I bull I I bull 17

~2X(49) IEIO 2U bull I bull I bull 1 bull bull 4

~A bull

(50)~ - -2U2V2W bull I bull I 0 I I I II bull

IE2U(51) It ~ 02X bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull3

(52)~-ICIE2U2Y 0--1 bull I bull I I 15I bull bull ~n

(53) ~ 2C2U 2Z bull 0---1 bull 1 0 I 1 bull III

n (54) ~ly2Z3A383C bull bull I bull 1 bull 1 16

(55) ii-lEI bull bull t--o bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (56) 11-amp

~-IH2T3D I f--o bull I bull I bull I 15 D

(57) ~_IHIP I bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I 152T3D I

(58) If --IEIY bull bull f--o I bull I bull bull bullbull3

[56]

( 1~(O~)~ 2Z I I bull I bull I I I bull bull 12I

~Q-6shy(60) ~-IYI2H I I bull bull I 1-0 I bull I bull I bull bull 15 =~

(61) ~--3C3E I I I

(62) t~ -3F I

~ (63)1~

( 3E I I laquogt---ebull (64) d-Qshy-0- ~-2H3G~

(65) ~ - IP3G3H I I I

(66) ~ - IMIP3KI

- bull bull bull bull (67) 0shy

lt1 ~ I P283L3M I I

-(68) ~~4l-~IM2BI Itba 3K bull

(69) = ~--IM3N1

=1l-6shy(70) ~ ~ I] II IP I I bullbullbull bull

(71) ~~ ~--(X3P~ (72) qA gIX2H~

1-0 I bull I bull I bull I 15

I bull I I I I 1 bull bull I II

bull I bull 1 I I I I 1113

f--O I I I I I bull bull 15

I I I I I I bull I I 15

L bull I bull I 0 I bull I 16

1 bull I I 15

bull I bull I o bull I I 16

914

I bull 0-+-----0 bull 1914

1---0 I bull I bull I bull I I 613

1-0 bull 1 bull J bull I ~16

bull bull

13 Approximately one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH is to be vented

14 Vent also one-fourth of the 2nd key RH~

~ ~o (73)~

E= - 3K3Q3R 1-1--I--~-4a--o---e

(74) ~ ~2G3K3RI bull 0 bull

~ a (75) ~2B2G3Q3R3Sr----t------oshy

(76) t~ ~ 3R3T3U 1-1--l-~-egt----J--1

(77)I~i - -- 2P3 L 1-1--I~~----4 --shy

n __

(78) g _ 1-1-+--+-~----3V ___ ~

t79)ff ~ - I B2Y3V 1-1--I--+--4a-4~bullbull

~-e-(80) ~ 2H 3L __-+ ----ia-+_~ ~ 3W bull 1

(811 _ 2H 2U bullbull~gt---~+-__

(82) 1- ~ - bull --shy2U3Xbullbull~-l---

(83) Qg ~- ILfQ30bullbulll--+--bull--0 bull

j~

qt (84) EQ IR zu ----1

EE 3W3Y bullbull~~~-l---I~----

t9 t85) ~

~~ 3Y3W3Xbullbullf------+--+-~o__1

bull I bull I bullbull 19

~~X--+-I-+--+-+-f----t---il 6

7

~x I I bull I

bull loX I I 13

x I bull I bullbull 14

I--+I---4-X~----+-1-+---+1 4

3L

3M

3N

3P

3Q

3R

35

3T

3U

3Y

D Trill MUltiple Trill-UP key

2nd LH Multiple Trill Converging

Thumb key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

1st RH ~ MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

3rd LH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

D Trill key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

G key Lower sustains Upper trills UP

3rd LH Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWN

D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills UP

1st LH MUltiple Trill-DOWN

3W D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills DOWN

3X 1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

3Y 2nd LH Multiple Pitchshy(ring only) Pulsations

2P

2Q

2R

25

2T

2U

2Y

2W

2X

2Y

2Z

3A

3B

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

3K

3rd LH

E~ key

1st RH

2nd RH

MUltiple Trill-DOWN

MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

Lower trills UP Upper and middle

interpose

Multiple notes sustain Middle trills DOWN

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills DOWN

2nd LH Multiple Trillshy(ring only) DOWN

Low C Multiple Pitch-key

3rd RH (vented)

3rd RH

3rd RH

1st LH

2nd LH (ring only)

2nd LH

3rd LH

Pulsations

Lower sustains Upper and Middle

interpose

Multiple Tones sustain Upper trills DOWN

Multiple PitchshyPulsations

Multiple Trill-UP

Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

Upper sustains Lower tremolo DOWN

Multiple Trill Converging

G key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd RH MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

D TrillHigh C sustains key Middle trill UP

D and D MUltiple Trill-UP Trill keys

D Trill key MUltiple Trill-UP

1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

[57J

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7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cant

0bullI X I bull 1 2

bull bull I bull X bull 1 19

bull bull bull X bull I 17

bull bull I I bull X 19

bull bull e- r-oX I I bull I 15

bull bull I bull I X 16

bull r--o X I I 15bull bull I bull I bull X 1 15bull ()----j X bullbull middot11015bull o---j X I bull I 11315bull

o-ebull r-o-I I X bull bull 17

0--1 I I X I X I I 16

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19S) It II -3P3Qbull I Ibullb6shy

199) 11~

0shy~-2H4E bull egt---l

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1I01l

U-eshy1I02)~

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JO IPJQ4F I

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1I03)~ -2Y4G bull bull o-----e

UA1I04)fshy

-1L2H30 bull () bull lI05) ~

~ ~-IL2P I bull bull I bull II06I~r~

-2H3H4A~n lion xx

IBJR3H I~ I bull bull bull qn 1I0S)rD

-- IL3K l----+-----o-shyt-e

1I09)r 2U3K3L I I I e-bull

I I x x I I 115

rox X I bull 1913

2

I--cgt bull I bull I bullbullbull78

I I I I 17 I bull 0 I bull I I I II

1-0 I bull bull I 1713

-o bull I bull I bullbull 1712

7 8

f-I bull I I 115

I bull I I bull bull 14 shy

4

4

15 Approach the attack for this chord via the top note but widen the aperture sufficiently to accommodate the placement of the lowest note Direct the air column downward and apply a sUbshystantial amount of breath support

4D I 2nd LH Lower sustains3Z I D Trill I Multiple Trill-DOWN (ring only) IUpper trills DOWN

4A I G~ key I Lower sustain~i

key

4E I D~ Trill I MUltiple Trill-DOWN Uppertrills uuWN key

4F I 3rd RH I Lower sustains46 I D~ Trill I Upper sustains Upper trills DOWNkey Lower trills DOWN

4G I G~ key I Upper sustains4C lIst RH I Multiple Tri1lshy Lower trills DOWN(ring only) DOWN

3PECJAL SONORITIES

(B) The Tonal Characteristics And Dynamic Ranges

of multiphonics are shown here as three predominant effects Each chord-group possesses a built-in quality of tone and the player should permit this to subsist according to the resistance that is evidenced As the control of the embouchure improves those chords capable of sounding with a full dynamic range may alsobe controllable using a lighter tone quality and played at a softer dynamic level For this reason some chords have been listed in more than one category The numbers used toidenshytify the multiphonics in the main chart appear here in the approshypriate categories

(1) Subdued Quality of Tone Reasonably Soft Dynamics

1 15 34 65

2 18 37 73

24 54 6 25 55 80

12 26 56 90

13 27 57 91

14 33 64 92

(2) Some Degree of Resonance (3) Blaring or Strident Tone Medium Dynamic Range Fairly Loud Dynamics

4 27 57 74 2 37 60 89

5 28 58 75 3 39 62 93

7 29 60 5 94

8 31 61 76 9 41 63 95

9 32 62 80 11 42 70 96

10 33 64 83 16 43 71 97

14 34 65 86 17 44 72 98

15 35 66 90 19 45 77 99

18 36 67 91 20 46 78 100

20 37 68 92 21 47 79 101

22 38 69 93 23 48 80 102

23 40 71 97 26 49 81 103

25 41 72 103 27 50 82 104

26 54 73 106 28 51 84 105

30 52 85 107

32 53 87 108

36 59 88 109

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(C) Suppressed Chords

Often the term smorzato has been used to signify the effect of diminishing or extinguishing tones As is described here a controlled suppressing of tones in the chord can occur while the lowest note continues to sustain This can be accomplished withshyout altering the fingering

By releasing the firmness of the embouchure slightly and pershymitting the breath support to diminish the upper partials can be made to disappear When in some cases this does not produce the effect completely then a directional change of the air column must implement this technique Since the modification of the air column can be regulated voluntarily the suppression of the chords can be realized in any desired rhythmic pattern

In a few instancesanother note of the chord can be sustained simultaneously with the fundamental while the higher one is diminshyishing In other chords certain notes can be suppressed intershychangeably These variables have been indicated in the listingbelow As a result of this added peculiarity these other notes too can be sustained either prior to or following the suppression of the chord This effect is related to that described in part(D) of this section

[59]

In this list the fundamental note is illustrated together with the number that applies to its multiphonic The arrows on the altershyations have been omitted Attention is drawn to the fact that as an added advantage these tones for their distinctive timbres may be used also as single-line notes

The following multiphonics are the most responsive and easiest to control for this effect Two-note multiphonics are listed first and are the most facile

Two-note Chords

6 E 27 G 65 C 91 D

12 G 32 G 66 C 92 D

13 - G 33 - G 67 - C 93 - D

14 - G 34 - G 71 - C 97 - EO 15 - G 52 - So 72 - C 102 - G 22 - G 54 - So 73 - C 104 - G 24 - G 58 - S 76 - C 107 - S 25 - G 60 - C 80 - C 108 - S

26 - G 61 - C 90 - D 109 C

Three and Four-note Chords

36 - Low and middle Gs will sustain as the upper note

2 - E

3 - E is suppressed Alter the 5 - E air columns direction

8 - F (Middle G and possibly 37 - AO middle E can be altershy 38 - AO (The C or G may benated with d) interchanged with the

9 - F sounding of F by altershying the direction of air)10 - F (C can be alternated

with F) 40 - A (C alternates with G) 11 - F 41 - A (F alternates with C) 16 - G 42 - A

17 - G 43 - A

19 - G (E can be alternated 45 - A with F) 46 - A

20 - G 47 - A 21 G

48 - A 23 - G 49 - So (A and B sound simultashy28 Low and middle Gs will neously as the chord is

sustain to~ethet as the suppressed) upper note is suppressed

50 - BO and A sustain as the 29 - G top note is suppressed 30 - G 53 - BO 35 - G 57 - B

[60J

70 - C 87 - D (A can be alternated with E by releasing the breath74 - C pressure interchangeably)

75 - C 88 - D 77 - C 89 - D 78 - C 94 EO (B can be alternated 79 - C with GO) 82 - d 98 - EO

99 - E83 - C (E alternates with C) 100 - F84 - D 105 - A85 - D 106 - B86 - D (f can be alternated with

C~ by changing the direcshytion of the air column)

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(D) Connecting Single Notes to MUltiphonics

The suppressing of chords (part C) indicates that it is posshysible to sustain a single note and connect this to a chordassumshying of course that the fingering being used initially is that of the multiphonic A flexibility in this procedure results from the fact that either the lowest or highest note in each multiphonic can be sustained when going into or coming out of the chord This occurs without any perceptible interruption of the sound oraltershyation of the fingering However it will be found that some chords do not lend themselves to a controllable responsiveness when they are approached via the highest note This can only be determined by trial and error

The middle note in many of the three-note chords can also be sustained The chords listed below have been selected as thosehavshying this characteristic and a few added effects have been noted with several others The letter after each number applies to the middle note of the multiphonic In the case of four-note chords then the note from the middle octave which may lend the easiest response is listed As mentioned previously it is automatically assumed that the lowest and highest notes from each chord can be isolated and sustained without difficulty

In some instances a radical change in the direction of the air column and a simultaneous release of the breath pressure may be necessary to effect the linking of tones to chords portions of which are then to be suppressed Only by experimenting with the process of isolating the tones can the player acquire a famshyiliarization with the physical sensation involved This will dicshytate any modifying of the air columns direction and maneuvershying of the embouchure

The two-note chords are quite simple to execute in this proshyduction and either note can be sustained with ease

Page 2: A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the Flute

ULlS lt 34-0

middotP3 7 107iJ

INDIANA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

BLOOMINGTON

Copyright 1972 by James J Pellerite

Previous Edition Copyright 1964

Library of Congress Catalog Card No 72-76260

No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without pershymission in writing from the author

Printed in the United States of America

INDIANA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

HOW TO READ THE CHARTS

1 BASIC FINGERINGS bull 6

2 (a) HARMONICS bull 10

(b) FRENCH MODEL FWTE 11

3 TRILLS (Half Step and Whole Step) bull 12

4 TREMOWS (a) Major and Minor Thirds 18

(b) Perfect Fourths and Tritones bull bull 23

(c) Perfect Fifths bull 28 (d) Sixths Sevenths and Octaves 30

5 ALTERED FINGERINGS 39

6 QUARTER-TONES and QUARTER-TONE TRILLS bull bull 42

(a) C Flute 44

(b) Alto Flute and Piccolo bull bull 48

7 MULTIPHONICSand SPECIAL SONORITIES bull 51 (A) Multiple Trills and Multiple Effects bull bull 53

(B) Tonal Characteristics and Dynamic Ranges bull bull 59

(C) Suppressed Chords bull 59 (D) Connecting Single Notes to Multiphonics bull 60 (E) Fluttering-Multiphonics bull 61 (F) Singing or Humming Sustained-Multiphonics 61

[3J

Special recognition must be accorded to Harvey R Frye Supervisor of Graphic Arts Audio-Visual Center Indiana

University for his organizational planning expert guidshyance and aesthetically excellent designing and drawing

of these charts

-- James JPellerite

[4J

bull bull bull

1 BASIC FINGERINGS

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~-- I bullbullbull I

~- I bullbullbull I

~~

~- I bullbullbull I

W-- bull I bullbullbull I

~_ I bullbullbull I

m~ --+--bull--4It-4~1 r-t-----Ir--tt-t-+---I---I--+-~I I

bull I bullbullbull I I I bull I I I

~ __ bullf---i--~---__bull I I bull A~~ ---- bull__-t--tI~---i I I I 1 I 11 ~_ ~--+----+---l bull I 12bull

I I 12 bull I bull bull I bull 12

~ bullbull I I I I I I bull

~ bull --1-I---i---i~t---J I I I I I I I I I

I I I I 3 fti----- bull bull bull I bullbullbullI I I

bull I bull I bull

bullbull I

I bull bullbull bull bullbull bull I bull I bull bull

[6 ] ---~-) Basic fingerings(These should be learned first)

bull bull bull bullbull

bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull

bull bull

~---- ~ bullbullf--_t__--4__J--I

~ ~ f--_t___J--I---I

~--

~ ~ --__I------bull----1i---li---li---I

bull

bull bull bull I

I--I----l---+I---+-ef--I-_+--+I 4 1--I----l---4llbull ---I-1-41~_+---j1 5

bull I I

bull I I

I bull I I I

bullbull--+-_+_+_+-+---ibull-t-t--tl 2

1---f---If-----1f-----1--+ t--I--+-1 2 ~__t--t--+__~_ _t__+---il 2

bull I I

I bull I

I bull I I I

I bull I

I bullbull bullbull I I

~~I---t______+--+---I--+_+--tl 6 bull

BASIC FINGERINGS

1 This fingering produces a slighily lower level of pitch However its use in extremely technical passages is inshyvaluable

2 Each fingering must be learned with equal facility and applied interchangeably The control of various technical passages and added dexterity will be dependent upon this flexibility When possible emphasize the use of the BIever RH

3 The fa~lty intonation and thin tone structure of the open C~ can be corrected partially through the use of this fingering When using a French model flute deshypress the key-ring 2nd LH and vent approximately one-half of the tone hole This offers more control in a crescendo

4 To maintain the proper pitch level when playing PP depress the 2nd trill key(D~) gently as is needed

5 See item 1 In this octave the F is more noticeably flat in pitch This fingering is equally useful when sustaining the note in a ff to adjust the intonation

6 A controll~d level of pitch can be achieved in a ff when the EP key remains closed However the tone quality becomes muffled at this lower level of pitch and will necessitate embouchure adjustments

[7J

BASIC FINGERINGS (CONTJ

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~------I

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I I I I I

I

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I bull

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I

15

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I

bull I

I

bullbull

I

I

I

I)

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~-~ bull bull I

bull I

bull X

I X

I I

I

bull

I

1

I 8

19

I ~

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bull I bull I X X 110bullf I bull I X bull ~bull I 110 bull8va---

I bull bull bull I bull I I I middot11~--- I I 12

-shy

bull bull bull bull bull I bull 1 I 7 WI I 0

I I I I 1 I 14 8 T bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bull bull 113

bull bull bull bull bull bull I k

8va--

f 9 TII I bull I bull I I I bullbull 115

iJ I til1 I bull bull bull I I bull I bull bull 115

TI I bull I bull I I I I I I 15 10

11 W I I I I f

8va bull bull bull I bull bull bull

12 T S~

13 T8va-- fI I I Ibull I X bull~_I bullr

I I bull I I bull bull 114 14 Tbull middot)( n I I bull bull 114 vbull bull I middot)(

I 15 bullbull I X

I bullbull Tbull bull bull bull bull 08va

bull I bull o---j I X 116 16 W

bull I bull bull I X bull bull bull 117 17 T

h~ X

I

s

i

8va----- 1-+--+--middotmiddot--+- f-----+-+-IXl(---+I-+---+-H 15

7 When playing If this fingering produces a lower level of pitch and an altered tone quality as well

8 To facilitate the execution of rapid passages the ED key may remain open

9 This alternate fingering will aid the adjustment of the intonation for a PP Avoid the use of an excessive volshyume of air as the note responds with ease

10 This lowers the pitch level for alf bull

11 When using a flute with a iow C foot joint the little fingerRH is raised

12 This fingering affords a slightly lower level of pitch See item 11

13 This fingering demands added breath support but the resulting pitch level is lower Use this Blso on a flute with a low C foot joint

14 This fingering produces a lower level of pitch but the note lacks an immediate response However this may vary on different flutes

15 These fingerings are applicable when using a low C or low B foot joint

16 When possible vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightly This may improve the response of the note

17 This fingering as well as 16 will respond on flutes having a low C or B foot joint

A SECURE PLAYING POSITION

The basic elements involving position and balance in holding the flute properly are of ultimate importanceat all levels of performance Much has been written onthis subject by many prominent flutists Therefore only the salient features relevant to fingerings are repeated now

1 Develop a secure hand position with the arms remaining free from tension to form an equalshyization of balance for the flute

2 Avoid any cramping of the musculature in hands wrists and arms which could bring about stiffshyactioned fingers

3 Encourage the use of a light action with the finshygers remainlng on the keys at all times Added inflections or accentuations in the music are the only occasions for which the fingers may be raised slightly higher on the keys

4 Permit the keys to lower and raise with all of the sensitivity possible The keys must be lifted not the fingers

5 Maintain a naturally arched position of the fingers This signifies the existence of freedom from any tension A flexibility and maneuverability of the fingers should be the result

Security in a playing position when achieved will bring controllabilitYand a solid technique with dexterity This must be available at any tempo

[9J

INTRODUCTION

An advanced flutist has reached that performance level because of the extreme sensitivity with which all facets of flute technique have been applied Certainly one of the most important of these instrumental techniques has to be the disciplined approach to the use of proper finshygerings It is assumed that this is a major concern of the professional performer but it should be equally so of each developing flutist

Too often due to negligence undesirable fingerings become firmly implanted in the playing habits of the young performers Correcting these faults in the early stages of their careers can result in a functional use of fingershyings as the flutists progress into the higher levels of proficiency This can be evidenced in their execution of extremely technical passages as well as the production of exotic tonal effects

Learning to use the appropriate fingerings for various situations ought to be considered a vi tal segment of basic musicianship since the application of the correct or corshyrective fingerings parallels the importance of other flute techniques This concept should become a part of each flutists daily routine and hopefully will guide the playshyer in the aspiration of becoming a sensitive musician

This compilation is presented as a methodology for finshygerings by offering a wide range of selected fingerings for the flutist and directing their use in diverse techshyniques It is hoped that this reference guide will encourshyage an exploitation of the flutes potentialities which should be the ultimate goal of every ambitious student of the flute

James J Pellerite Professor of Flute Indiana University

HOW TO READ THE CHARTS

These fing~rings apply to the Boehm system flute with the closed G~ key In many instances a low B foot joint is necessary although a low C will be acceptable for many of these fingerings Auxiliary keys that are someshytimes found on specially made flutes have not been conshysidered However the French model flute will be essenshytial for those charts in which the fingerings call for venting the various tone holes

A number appearing next to the illustration for each fingering will refer to the text material The correshysponding number is followed by a brief statement which relates to the fingerings purposefulness

The fingerings have been illustrated using the symbol ( ) and will indicate only that the keys are depressed For this reason it is not necessary to give considerashytion to whether or not a key remains open

The other familiar symbol (0) will apply exclusiveshyly to the use of the French model flute and be used solely to signify that a key is to be vented in its enshytirety

bull The key is depressed

C) The tone hole is vented accordingly

0 Vent the tone hole in its entirety

Apply the French model flute+ X Use the D or D Trill key

PI Pianissimo

If Fortissimo

R H Right Hand

L H Left Hand

[5J

2(a) HARMONICS

The production of overtones is a basic technique with which all flutists must become familiar Not only does -it represent the foundation for proper tone production but also it offers additional opportunities to simplify many complex technical passhysages which occur in the 3rd octave of the flute The fingering combinations for such phrases become moderately easy by using the fingerings for the fundamental notes to produce the harmonshyics Created by overblowing the fundamentals these are generally indicated as follows

0 g0 a 0 12

0 8 0 amp

To produce D3 (2nd overtone) use the fin~ering for fundamental Gl for E3 AI for F3 B l etc

To overblow the fundamental tone an intense air column must be applied This can be formed by diminishing the size of the aperture and increasing the breath pressure(subsequently the air speed) The air column needs to be directed more horishyzontally across the embouchure plate as one progresses into the higher harmonics Treating the fundamental tones in this manner will produce the following overtones in succession

[see Overtone Series chart (first measure)]

(a) 1st overtone - octave (b) 2nd - 12th (octave and a fifth) (c) 3rd - 15th (double octave) (d) 4th 17th (two octaves and a third) (e) 5th 19th (two octaves and a fifth)(0 6th 21st (two octaves and a seventh)

Frequently students find it difficult to reach the full gamshyut of overtones that are shown here This stems from the fact that sometimes they lack proper control of the embouchure and the air column However should this not be the case then the source of the problem may be the existing properties of the headshyjoint It is an accepted fact that no two headjoints ever will respond alike(even made by the same manufacturer) This varishyance means that one flute may possess either more or less resistshyance in its bloWing characteristics It is this added resistance that often may deter the production of the extremely high harshymonics However further development of the embouchure is asshysured as the production of these overtones is attempted and pracshyticed The resultant physical capability enables the flutist to create a greater number of overtones for each fundamental With this facility extremely technical passages in the upper ocshytaves are simplified by the use of left-hand-fingerings eg low G and A overblown can produce the overtone which would afford easier performance in a rapid passage of the 3rd octave

[10]

Due to the acoustical construction of the flute these harshymonics in the 3rd octave possess a rather veiled character of tone quality and a somewhat lower level of intonation than that produced when the regular fingerings are used The presence of the lower fundamental note causes this phenomenon since the reshyquired vent hole which is normally open in the regular fingershying is closed For example the regular fingering for D2 i properly vented by raising the 1st key LH ~he ton~ qoa11ty is muffled and its pitch level lowered when th1s key 1S closed In fact so many students accidentally produce this tone quality by using the incorrect fingerings and are not aware of the resultshying faulty tone structure One must discriminate and exercise discretion as to the use of these nshort cut fingerings Often the tonal beauty of a melodic passage is impaired by the obtuse sound of harmonics Their use in performance should be limitshyed to the most difficult passages in orchestral or band litershyature and even then only in rapidly moving phrases where it will ~ot be detected that harmonic assist has been applied

On the other hand there may be a desire for moments of tonal coloring in isolated cases Thus using the tone quality of some of these notes the harmonics become a purposeful and effecshytive display They can be used advantageously so long as the notes are played with conviction and will sou~dcorrect In actushyality many compositions now call for ~he add1t10nal tonal shadshyings that are possible when the harmon1cs are properly managed

The low register fingerings presented in thechart on Basic Fingerings are applied to the fundamental notes 1n the Overtone Series chart As the flutist progresses and studies the charts for trills tremolos etc he will discover that the application of the harmonic series will appear inexhaustible

Overtone Series 0)

Q it0Q ao ~ ~ e ~ ~ A

Q

- L g

2~ (0) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

~~ ltIi D ~

A ~ ~ ~

0 ~ IA 11amp I ~ IT 21 ~I

0 0 i~ lI- j- (2)

0 ltIi b b Q ~ ~ A shy1J ~ -amp - -- ~ = r ~ oa t ~ t 9 k

(2)1bullbull 1 v bullbull I

(3) (5)(6)(4)

Q

bull amp ~ ~Q Q

e- a Q ~

~ 6shy

~ ~Q ~v if Rk iv P V t v ~ I (2)

QQ ~ 6shy0 ~ ~

~o Q ~ -amp e

8 8 bull V R V 0 9J lit lit a 0~ ~

Note The following alterations may be applied when practicing from this chart These will assist in performing the upper harmonics with greater ease and their physical placement in the ocshytave would be identified more readily Followshying a degree of proficiency in the execution of the harmonic series these intervals should be practiced legato[slurred]

1 Vent the 2nd key RH 2 Use the Gn ~ey 3 Close the EP key 4 Use the low B key if available 5 Close the C key 6 Close the Cn key

2(b) FRENCH MODEL FLUTE Also referred to as the open tone hole model this flute is

identified by its perforations in the centers of the five keys that are activated by the fingers The relevancy of the French model flute is noteworthy Its prominence in the flutists career has been brought about by a variety of technical applications through which its advantages seem compounded

A substantial number of fingerings specifically for this instrushyment can be learned from these charts that follow The special finshygerings are for purposes of varying the pitch dynamics or tone quality or any of these in combination They also will effect a more realistic pitch relationship in the intervals for trills or tremolos according to the instructions as may be directed by the numbered comments There are some fingerings that are traditionally for the closed hole flute For these the use of the French model possibly could be supplemental to improve upon some of the original fingerings

The technique of venting the various tone holes is one that ought to be introduced to the lesser experienced flutist as soon as practicable The astute professional always has recognized the value of this application To develop the technique of sliding over the tone holes one must emphasize a subtle movement of the fingers with utmost sensitivity and vent cautiously for absolute control Almost immediately this reveals the ease with which it is possible to exeshycute a glissando of the scale bull

or a slide[portamento] to or from various notes

The left hand fingers should glide away from the flute in an outshyward motion while the right hand fingers move in the opposite direcshytion and towards the key mechanism This seems to be the most adaptshyable approach to venting However since each individuals hand position is subject to a mUltiformity due to basic differences in musculature other methods may be devised and considered equally successful The expertise of an artist teacher will be vital in considering each situation that is problematical To vent the hole by a fraction the finger is to be moved in a calculative fashion The pitch is raised according to the amount of the hole exposed The opposite is true when the desired pitch level is to be lowered By depressing the key ring by its edge it is possible to vent the enshytire tone hole The numbered comments accompanying each chart will suggest the appropriate venting combinations for each fingering

The acoustical principle applied to the vented fingerings is based upon the production of the harmonic series The overtones (see Overtone Series chart) can be altered conveniently by ventshying the fingerings for their fundamental tones This produces an array of pitches in a composite of overtones and results in total flexibility for the ensuing techniques that are to be applied By gliding these pitches the notes are altered to possess a wider range of intonation as well as a broad spectrum of tone content This development takes place as the fingerings alter the tubeshylengthsCdistance air column travels] for tone production These are either extended or contracted depending upon the location of the key being activated and the amount that its tone hole is to be vented Also with these fingerings the resistance factor of the instrument sometimes is transformed from its traditional response to an entirely different sensation in the production of certain notes Examples of this condition will be discovered when reading from the charts on tremolos altered notes quarter-tones etc

These modifications as provided by the use of the French model flute are beneficial in all facets of musical performance not only in contemporary music but in the standard repertoire as well

[llJ

bull bull

I TRILLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step)

bull bull bull I

I bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull I bullbull I

I bull I bull I bull I bulltr I I

bull I bull I tr bull II 0 I I 1(+)

tr I bull I bull I bullbull I I I

tr I I Ibull I bull I bull I

bull I bull I bulltr bull II I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull bull I I I

I I Ibull bull bull I bull I bulltr I bull I

bull bull bull I I bulltr I bull I I bull I I I 2

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

~-~ _ a--f----=-________

~_~----J

~-~ _ trtr ---------bull-bull- I bull I I

tr tr bull I bull bull bull bull bullbull-+--+--+-+-+-1-iIJ-+I-+---t1

bull bull I ~r I - I 4

~ tr j~ - bullbull--+-1---eillE-la--j---j I bull I bull

bulltr I bull I I bull bull I bull

bulltr I I I

(+) Applicable to the French model flute

I bull I

tr I bull I bull

bull f---1f--l--+-+-+--af-+-+--l1 5

f--tt-+-+-+------r---ilbull-t-+--ll 6

bullbull-+-1--t---t--+--+-f-+--t---11 6

tr Ibull I bull I

bull I

1--+---+---1a--t ---1bull--+---+---I1 7 (+)

~~r--+---+--+---+----II tr bull I~ bullbullgt---~+--+-------o---J bull bull bullbull I 7 (+)

XtrI I I 181bull

Xtr II bull I 1---4~XE--tr--l--+-----tIt-+-+---l1 9

1---4a-l--l--4llXctr-+I_-+-+--11 9bull

I bull I bull I bullbull~--I bull bull bull tr

trFR=--() bullbullbull 1--iIIbull --+-__t---tIIt-+--+---+---I1 10

EUI= 1-1-+---~a-bull-+ bull bull ~r I I

TRILLS [Half-step and Whole-step]

1 This is possible only with the use of the French model flute Depress the 3rd key-ring RH by hooking the thumbnail underneath and behind the key trilling the tone hole Adequate time is necessary for the preparation of this unshynatural hand position

2 When possible begin the trill by using regular F fingering (3rd RH) to establish the proper level of intonation

3 This may be used for added facility when the trill is followed by the note E However the F~ is slightly flat in pitch

4 This fingering produces a flat BP(A) It is acceptable in a If and its use may facilitate technical passages

5 Appropriately used for a PP this fingering produces a higher level of pitch for C2 and C3 bull

6 Use this fingering for a ff since a lower pitch level for C2and C will result3 7 The intonation for C(DP) is lowered by venting approximately

one-half of tbe tone hole of the 3rd key LH

8 When possible begin the trill by using the regular D fingering to establish the proper pitch level for the interval

9 This lowers the C for a near correct interval

10 When possible lower the 1st key L4H~ slightly until the intoshynation and tone quality for D and Di(EP) is improved

x- Use Trill Key [l3]

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull

3 TRILLSltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

bull bull bull bull bull bull

I trbull middot1 bull bull I

I middot1 tr

Ibull bullbull I 110

~--bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull I Jr

J ~r I Jr I

Ibullbull III I 1112

M---1 bull bull bull bull I Jr l I 1

~--e-j bull bull bull ~ 2

~-- I bull bull bull I Jr I I I bullbull I I I

~--_I bull bull bull tr ~

~-- bull bull bull ~

~-- tr

bull bull bull bull ~

~--e-j tr

bull bull bull bull [14J

bull bull Jr I~-

~ I bull bull tr bullbull tr tr

~_ bull bull bull bull tr tr

I Jr bullbull bull I

I Jr l-i~_ bull ~r I Ibull bull I

bull bull bulltr I II

~-- bull bulltr H

~-- bull

tr I~_ I bull

bull I tr Ibull

bull I bulltr I

t-rl I I I bull I I I I

H-+++-e-+-+-t--

I I I I I I 1 I Ibull -+-1 I I bull I I I I H--+--++-+++-1 4

~ f--I I I I bull I ~-H

H-+-++e-++-H

Jr- I I I I I Ibull I ~r I I bull H---H

1-+--1 f==1 bull 5 I ~ 1--1 6

bull I II- I bull 16

Smiddot +

bulltr I I bull I I I

I I bull I

1------l----il)(e--tr+1--+-~-tIt-t--+-I1 13

I bull I I I

I------l--+-+I-Xlrt---jrIr--tIbull -+1-+1-II 14

I I

)(tr I Xtrl IbullU--I II bull1-1--+--t-----Cgt----i X

tr I Xtrj 15(+)

bullbullbull I I I bull I Ia~--I Xtrl

O-Depress the key by its edge

I I I Ibull bull bulltr bull

bull bull J--i 1--0 bull bull 116(+)

bull bull bull tr bull bull I bull I bullbull I I I

bull bull I I

1----tbull -+-CgtIgt--+--i-+-+----I117 (+)

tr trbullbullbullbull 1 bullbull 111

II Begin the trill by using the 1st key LH open for E~(D)

12 F2 is lower in pitch when this fingering is applied 13 While using the trill key apply proper tone support to simulate

the tone quality of regular C Adjust the direction of the air column downward

14 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for D Then apply the trill key and proper tone support to sustain a more correct interval

15 Depress the 3rd key LH venting the entire tone hole This assists in correcting the intonation level for a ff

16 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for E then apply the trill fingering venting the entire tone hole of the 1st key RH When playing PP the 3rd key LH is to be vented slightly during the trill

17 Almost the entire tone hole of the 2nd key R H is to be vented In a pp the tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be slightly vented while trilling

[15]

8va---

3TRilLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

r-- tr ~~ I bullbullbull I I I I I I I bull I 126

f--(gt I bull I bull bull I I 27(+)~~ I I bullbullbull

tr I I II e I 1

8va--- bull I I bull bull I I Jr Xtr I I I bull I I 28

~ ~I Imiddotmiddotmiddottr Xtr I I bull I I I bull () bullbull 1--+1--+-1-+-1~ -~I-+--II 29(+)

8va-

~I bullbullbull tr tr

f-I- bull -+-~bull-bull- bull I bullbull ~ 8va---

1---e~1+1~XF-tr+1 -bull-r---i--tl 30~ ---H bullbull I I I ~r I bull I I I I bull I

bull tr 1---e~1+-1lh a---fI-+--+--J1 31bull I bull bull bull8va--- tr

r4--~ bullbullbull I~J~r f-I+-1lhbullbull=-+I-+-1-+1--1 32(+)

~ bull I Jr l bull 11----+-1~II---+-I -tI~1 -+1=-11 33

~ tr

1~-l)(If-+~11---+-1-+1-1bull-+1--1 34(+)

8va---- bull I bullbulltr

0-1 ~r I I I I I I 135(+)

t---eJ--r)(If-tr-+I-l)(1E-+-1-+1-+1-+I---li 36(+)

~~ Jr )(trI I I I I I I 1---a~JrX-+rI~IeA----4l-+r-+1-1 37

bull I bull I bull ~rX I I I I I I Ibull I bull I bull

8va---

I bullbull I~~

bull I bull

gt--+---+I~o

I bull

I ~r I tr ~ I I

I Jr I bull I I Jr 1

bull

I f--+----t--lto

I I Xtrl

I I bull I I bull bull I

X bull I I

I bullbull I

118

119(+)

120

I I

I I 1121

I bullbull I I

I I bull I I I Jr I bull I

I bullbull I I I I bull I I

I 122 I 23(+)

I 124

I bullbull I I I I bull I bull I I 25(+)

I I bull I I I

-[16]

__========-==========~~========~=====~ ~-_ 1

8va---

~ ~rll bull bull bull---I--r--bulltr-e~~r-iIIIt--t bull x bull bullbull 138

8va--D- tr x bull ~--bullbull-+--jo-r-+-tJ-I X oJ-+---f---+--1 39(+)

8va---

~ tr I tr bull I ~__-+--- ---t---e--i I )( I 140

8va-- tr tr

bull bullbull bull -I )(1---4a-+--e-4--+--+-+-+--e 4 O ~--IJgt-r-III---1----lt~ 1----41-+-+---+---+--+--+-+--4140bull bull bull bull I

8va--- tr tr

1---4~-+--+--+-1 -lt+--+-+-1-- 40~_ bull bull bull bull bull I

18 Although a basic fingering this does produce a faulty F

19 Vent the entire tone hole of the 2nd key RH If necessary the interval can be adjusted further by venting the 2nd key LH while trilling

20 The tone quality and pitch level of this interval is inadequate but in a ff this trill is acceptable

21 This fingering is appropriately applied in a PP On French model flutes vent the 1st tone hole RH while trilling to execute a secure diminuendo

22 To adjust the intonation for a more correct interval apply proper tone support

23 This fingering is useful in a PP bull Vent the tone hole of the 2nd key LH according to the desired level of pitch

24 Although the F is flat this fingering is acceptable in a ff 25 Depress the 2nd key RH to lower the level of pitch for

a If 26 Fundamental tones G] and A] are overblown in the production

of this trill HenCe a greater amount of tone support is necessary

27 Vent approximately one-third of the tone holes of the 2nd key LH and the 1st keyRH The intonation for G may be imshyproved by venting the 3rd key LH slightly during the trill

28 The A is faulty Throughout the trill apply firm tone supshyport to improve upon its tone structure

29 Begin the trill by using regular fingerings for G and A Then vent the 2nd key LH approximatell one-third of the tone hole [appropriately used for a PP J

30 This fingering offers suitable control for a PP bull

31 Use this fingering in a ff bull 32 The tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly to

provide for an immediate tonal response in a pp bull

33 Fundamental tones A] and Bl are overblown to produce this trill It is recommended fOr a ff level only

34 This fingering is applicable for a softer dynamic level Vent the 2nd key LH approximately one-third of the tone hole bull

35 The problem of coordinating this fingering may effect the tonal production Avoid moving the flute while blowing Vent approxshyimately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH and one-half of the tone hole of the 1st key RH or as may be needed to adjust the intonation for A

36 The 1st key RH may be vented slightly while trilling to raise the pitch level of the BP in a PP bull

37 This is appropriate for a 17 bull 38 The note C is lower in pitch 39 The intonation can be improved by vegting the entire tone hole

of the 3rd key RH 40 This trill demands substantial breath support Apply low C for

flutes without a low B foot joint

[17]

bull bullbull

bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull

bull

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

I bull I bull I ~I bull bull I 1(+)

bull I bull bullbull I bull I bull I Jr I bullbull 1 2

I bull I bull bulltr II bull I 12

I bull tr tr

I bull I bull I bull I I 2

trbull I I ~rl I H2

bull I bull bullbull

bull I bullbullbull I ~r I Jr I bull bull I I I 2

[18J

bull bull ~ Jr I I bull I 12

bull bull ~r I bull I bull I I bull I Imiddot I 23

trbull bullbull I I I I I bull I I 123

bull ~r I I I I I r bull 1--+-1 2

I I I I bullbull I I 12bull bull bull tr I

bulltr bullbullI ~1---I---+-----lI---+---+---1124 ~I-J--+----JI~ t-+---+--i1 2

tr tr I ---11-+-11--+-1-4-+---+----11 2

Jr ~r I ~I-J--+----J--t--J-t-I---+--il 2 bull--~tr tr--1I bull I bull I 12

f--i--j-+-t--t--j-l-t----+--il 24 tr tr I 1--+-4--+--1-+1l-t---t--il 2

bull I bull

bullbull I

bullbull I

bull I bull

Ibull

bull I

bull bull I bull__-+---

bull

I

~ trbull bull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull bull bull bull

124

12 ~ --+---+-H I xtrl xtrl bull I I I

~ tr trbull bull bullbull bull bull tr bull bulltr bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bullbull

12

15

16 ~ e---+-+-+--+--1

-i tr tr Ibull bull bull ~I Xtrl xtrl bull f-e-I bull I bullbull

16

19

~

~ ~

~

bull 4rbull I tr trbull bull bull I

tr tr trbull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr Ibull I tr bullbull I tr I I tr bullbull tr I I Ibullbull I ()----jbull bull bullbullbull bull

I tr

l

X 1

bull I

bull I I I I 1 I Xtr

Jr I Xtrl

I I Xtrl

bullbull

bullbull bull bullbull bull bull bull

124

127

127

16

12

12

12 18(+)

I 16

TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

1 Firm the hand position by anchoring the little fingerLH against the flute and underneath thi G lever Then apply the technique as described for the C -D trill [See TRILLS]

2 This fingering also applies to the octave above

3 Firm the hand position to avoid unnecessary movement of the flute against the embouchure The interval will sound more correct if it is produced with a less intense air column

4 This fingering affords a secure hand position The interval is faulty but may be acceptable at a ff level

5 The Cmiddot is flat and will demand the use of greater breath support

6 This is appropriately used for a PP level

7 To achieve a balanced ~and position while executing the tremolo depress the G lever

~ bull bull

bull bull

XtrlI ~r I 1

I I bull Xtrl bull

I 16

8 Apply this fingering at a PP level only When using a French model flute vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH

9 Begin the interval with the use of regular fingering for the lower note then proceed with the fingering as shown

[19]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

1

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

~ bull I tr trbull bull bull I bull middot1 I middot1 I 19

~ trbull tr bullbullbull I I I 19middot

~ Jr tr trbull bull bull I middot1 I I I bull 1 1 19

~fJf ~

bull

Apply lower octave fingerings

Jr I Jr II bull bull bull I I bullbull I I 110

~ bull I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I trbull bull I I I II

bull I bull I I Xtr Xtrj middot1 112bull

~r I Jr 1 I bull I 113bull I bull bull I~ bull

~ a ~ ~

~

~

bull bulltr bull bull

bull

bull I

bull bull bull bulltr I1

bull I bull bull Jr I ~r I tr bullbull I I

bullfr I bulltr 1 bull I tr tr I

I

tr tr I tr tr

tr trbull I bull bull bull I

x tr I I I bull I

xtr I Xtrl bull I

I I X tr

I Xtr 1

I Jr 1 1 I I bull I

I bullbull tr I bullX

19

114

I I

I 115(+)

116

19

I bull I bull J9

I bullbull 117

bull I I bull I 18

I I 118

I I I I I I I 119

[20J

bull bull tr tr I f------1-+--+--+--+-e_f-t-i1 25

~--+-__+_-+-----1I__-II-+-l1 24

tr f----tt-+I--bullI---iIII~e-f-t-i1 20

~--+-I__+_-+-----1If--agt-+-+-1 22

f-+-+---+--+----If--agt-t--+---11 23

~a___+__f--+----+--+---ll 20

1--1-+---+---+--+1---+---+-11 21

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull bull bull trbull bull bullbull

tr trbull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull

bull

bull

bull

trbull

bull

bull

8va-----

~(lt

8va----

~

r~~t-rXt-1--+--t-+1~I-+I-I 26(+)

f----4III~-rX--1r 1--+--11--+-1~I-+---li 27(+)~ tr t

bull 1 bullbullbull 1 1----1--t--+-+--it-r-+I-e-t--ll 28

10 Overblow the fundamentals(D-F) at the 12th

11 Overblow the fundamentals(E~-G) at the 12th

12 The D is better in tune as the tremolo is played pp bull

13 The fundamentals (E-G) are overblown at the 12th

14 Apply this fingering at a ff level

15 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown at the 12th When using the French model flute vent the 2nd keyLU and the 1st keyRU slightly while trilling This improves the intonation and affords control at a pp level

16 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

17 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

18 The fundamentals(G-BP) are overblown at the 12th

19 The fundamentals(G-B) are overblown at the 12th

20 This fingering is more difficult to coordinate however it produces a more correct interval

21 Overblow the fundamentals(G-B) at the 12th

22 Overblow the fundamentals(AP-C) at the 12th

23 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

24 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

25 Overblow the fundamentals (BP-DP) at the 12th

26 These harmonics are produced by overblowing BP at the 12th and F at the 17th This fingering is applicable also when using a closed-hole flute however the French model will produce the tremolo with clarity The tone holes of the 2nd and 3rd keys LU are vented slightly

27 Same as 26 but apply the harmonics B at the 12th and F at the 17th

28 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown to produce the harmonics at the 15th

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

8va------

~ bull bull trbull r-cirxtr I I I I bull I I 29(+)

8va-

~

8va----

~fit bull

bullbull

trbulltrbull

tr trbullbull I I

I I tr

X I

I I I

I bull I 131

bull 1 I 130

8va----

~ bull I bull

tr tr bull bull bull I I I I bull I I 132

8va----

bull bull bull bull I Jr l I I I I I 133

8va--

bull tr trbull bull bull I I I I I I bullbull 134

[22J

8va----

~r bull o--e I bull I I I I I M 35(+)

f

29 Overblow B2 to produce the harmonic at the 12th On French model flut~s the response of the interval is improved by depressing the 1st key ring RH

30 Overblow the fundamentals (G-BP) at the 15th

31 Overblow C2 at the 12th to produce Gbull

32 The fundamentals (G-B) are overblown at the 15th

33 When using a flute with a B foot joint depress the low B key only

34 Overblow the fundamentals (A-C) at the 15th

35 On French model flutes depress the 3rd key ring LH The tonal response when using this fingering may vary with some flutes if so use the EP key instead of low C

I I

These charts include as many fingerings as are pracshyticable in the execution of tremolos involving intershyvalsinfourths fifths sixths sevenths and octaves Those intervals which have been omitted lacked acceptshyable fingerings that would offer adequate facility with the necessary tonal response Probably these intervals could be played with a degree of proficiency by using the regular fingerings resulting in a superior effect

Tremolos other than thirds or fourths are used inshyfrequently but being knowledgeable in their technical production would prove most beneficial to the performer Their physical demands would add a totally new dimenshysion to the flutists technique Embouchure flexibilishyty and the coordination of the fingers are the initial benefits that accrue from the execution of these wide intervals

It will be noted that a resemblance to the regular fingerings will exist in some of these and the addishytion of the G~ or thumb or trill keys serving as vents lend an added distinctness to the intervals In many instances these keys bring about a response as efshyfectively as would an octave key on other woodwind inshystruments

Apart from their function as tremolos there are nushymerous advantages which these fingerings offer The conshytrol of technical passages by applying these as short cut fingerings the production of tonal effects in lyrshyical phrases or the purposeful application of tone coloring simply by reiterating these intervals slowly are all distinct merits that would contribute to a pershyformers technical skills However the individual situations in present-day repertoire must be researched experimentally in order to apply the various fingerings These will promulgate a more comprehensible approach to the application of the harmonic series as well as provide for an extended view in the use of the French model flute

4(b) TREMOLOSCPerfectFourths and Tritones

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

tr1middot1middot bullbullbull I bull I Jr I Jr I bull bullbull

tr trI bull I bull I I bullbull II

tr tr ~ bull I bull I bullbull II

II

I tr I tr I tr I I I1---iIbull-I--iIIIIr--+-ja-t-1IIbull-+------1 I

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones)

1 Apply these fingerings one octave above

[23)

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones) Cant

tr tr trbull I bull I bull 1 I I IIbull bullbull I

bull bull tr

bullbull I tr

bull I bull I bull I I I 11)2

tr tr bull bull bullbull bull I bull I bullbull I I 11)2

tr bull bull bull I I I bull I bullbull I I 11 1 3

trbullbullbull I 11 I 1 I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I bull I I bull I I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I I I I bull I I II

I 1 I I I bullbull I 1 11)5

I I I I I I bull Jshy 1L

I I I I I bullbull I I II

bull ~r bull I I Jr I I I I bull I I 114

tr trbull bull bull

tr trbull bullbull

tr tr Ibull bull bull

bull bull I Xtrl I bull I 16bulltr tr bull I I I I I bull I 11)7bull bull

I

Xtrlbull bull bull I I bull I 16- bull

t

trbulltr bulltr bull bull bull I I I I I bull I I 1)7

I XtrlI I I I 18bull bull bull bull bull I~- tr

bull bull I I I x bull I 19~-

I I~ bull ~r I I bull bull I bull Ibull [24J

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

y ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~

bull bull I bull 19

bull bullbull

bull bulltr

Ibull bull I I tr trbull bull bull bull I

trbull bull bull ~r I tr Jr I

tre----1 bull bull bull bull I bull bull

tr bull tr

Apply lower

tr tr tr

bull bull I

Xtrl Xtrl bull 19

bull bull I bull bull I

tr trbull bull X l bull 110

bull bull I bull I II

tr tr middot1 bull I I bull I II tr Jr Xtrlmiddot1 bull 110

Jr l XtrlI bull I 112

octave fingerings 13

~rl ~rl tr I bull 1 I bull I

~ Apply lower octave fingerings

~fJf 13

2 It is acceptable to trill only the G key for a PP level otherwise alternate the trilling of the G key with the 1st key RH

3 Use an intense air column to produce a more correct tone quality for Abull

4 Coordinate the action of both fingers to avoid lagging the response of the interval

5 For added facility trill only the 2nd key however the B will remain faulty bull

6 At a pp level this fingering may be acceptable

7 Although difficult to coordinate this fingering is preferred

8 Adequate breath support and directed inward will assist toward the production of a more appropriate tone quality for the D

9 As the upper note is faulty direct the air column inward to match the tone quality of the lower

10 This responds with ease and is suitable for app 11 The upper note will respond more readily as the interval

is played If 12 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to ensure clarity

13 Apply the fingerings given(See 1)

[25J

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritonesgt Cant

bull I I 11 21(+)

~ 8va--

tr tr bull lOX I bull I I I 22(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr bull I ~r I bull I I I I C) x I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va----

tr t tr tr bull I r I bull I I I I Craquo( I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr I I I I I I I I Ibull I I bullbull

~ 8va---

tr tr tr trbull I bulltr bull bull I bullbullx I 124 tr tr tr

~I x I 1(+) ~ bullbull8va---

tr tr I I bulltr bull bull bull I I x bull bullbull 125

~ 8va----

tr tr tr tr I I I I I I I 126bull I bull bull bull bull~

x tr xtrJ~rbullbull-+--+--I116(+) tr

l tr

)( I X I I 117

tr tr I I X 0 I I bull I I 1(+)

tr tr tr ~gt-+-If-X~I-e-ilr--+-il 19(+)

1--+1-i)(lrtr-tI-iXlrtr--+I-e-ilr--+-ll 20

11--+1-+-1-+I--+--+-bull-JI--+-I 14 t---drxtrl I I 115(+)

tr tr tr 117(+)bull bull bull bull bull I I xo I

bull tr tr Xtr Xtr bull bull bull I bull I I

tr tr tr 118(+)~ f-OX I X I bull I I

~ tr

bull I bullbull I I

bull I bullbull Jr I

[26]

I

8va---

~ 8va----

~ I_tr~x__t r+-I -+-+-1f-+-j--+-41 27 (+)

~ 8va-----

bull bull Jr ~29

~

14 Anticipate the action of the 1st key to avoid a lag in the response of the interval

15 In spite of this awkward fingering a ready response is afforded Alternate the use of the LH keys with those of the RH

16 This is purposeful for a ff

17 Apply this fingering for a pp

18 Control the action of the trill keys for a clearly defined interval Vent also one-half of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

19 Vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling to effect a pp bull

20 This is used for a ff

21 Vent approximately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH

22 For controllability concentrate on the use of an equal action with the RH fingers

23 The interval responds best when approximately one-half of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH is vented

24 This tremolo by necessity will be executed at a slower speed Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the thumb key and the right hand keys simultaneously

25 This tremolo will need to be executed quite slowly Altershynate the trilling of the G key with the use of the thumb and trill key together

26 Overblow the G~-C~2 fundamental at the 12th

27 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the use of the RH keys

28 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with the use of the RH keys

29 To correct an F that is faulty the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly while trilling

[27]

bull bull bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull

4(c)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

bulli I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I middot1 bull bullbull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 1 bullbull I

tr~ bull I bull bull bull bull I Jr I bull I bull I bull I II

~ trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 bull I I I I

bull tr trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 e e bull I 1 I

tr trbull bull I bull bull bull I Jr I el middot1

bull bulltr bull Ie I Jr I 12

tr trbull I bull bull bull I bull I e I 13 ~ tr tr tr I 1bull I bull bull bull bull I 1 4

bull ~

~ ~ -bull ~ bull

tr tr tr

I 1

bull I bull bull bull tr I

I

Ibull bull bull bulltr

I

tr tr II

tr tr II

e I bull bull Ibull tr tr tr

J

I bullbulltrx bullbull I

15

~rxtrl

xtr

xtr bull I

I I bull 16(+

17

I I Xtrl xtr bull 1

I tr tr Ibull I bull X bull I I 18

I bull I I Xtrl bull I I 19

I I I I I bull bull I I I

I ~r I tr tr bull I bull I bullbull 1

I I I I I I bull I I I

bull bull bull bull

bulltr bull bullbulltr

tr trbull bull bullbull I

tr trbull bull bulltr bull

bulltr bulltr bullbull

tr bulltr bulltr bullbull

bulltr bull bullbull I

bull bull bull o--e

e---jf-----bull-----

bullbull---1-----bull-0-0____

tr1- middotmiddot1 tr ~rl1-41-+1-----4---4----bull-11--+--11 II

bulltr I bull --+-iII~-+~1 12

tr bull I I - I

I - - I

ytrl tr 1--~7lr---+-+--4middotmiddotmiddot-4Imiddott---+-+---1113 I

114(+)

~ tr 115(+)

I bull trl bullbull 11516(+)

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

1 This fingering also applies to the octave above Alternate the use of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 The B is slightly flat

3 This fingering serves more appropriately for a pp bull

4 A more correct interval results with this fingering

5 Apply the use of a large aperture to produce a dispersed air column iQ using this fingering at a pp level The impurities in the C~ thus can be eliminated

6 This fingering is most appropriately used for a pp bull The D may be sharp in pitch

7 Use a strong air column to assist in the correction of a faulty D Alternate the use of the 1st key LH with the trill key

8 Avoid the sounding of extraneous notes in the interval by emshyphasizing control in the action of the RH fingers

9 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to secure coordinashytion with the LH keys being trilled

10 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the simulshytaneous action of the 3rd key LH and the 1st key RH

11 Avoid moving the flute thereby improving the coordination of the fingers

12 The B will respond clearly only if the action of the fingers is equalized

13 A slight accentuation of the G will assist in producing the interval with greater assurance Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with those of the RH

14 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightlyand about one-h~lf of the tone hole 1st key RH to adequately tune the G~ Avoid excessive closing of the embouchure

15 Accentuate the A throughout the tremolo to lend clarity

16 This fingering produces a controlled pp

~(c) TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths) Cont 17 Vent also one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH while

trilling

18 To ensure a tonal response accentuate the lower note

19 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH to properly tune the D This is more suited to playing pp bull

20 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with those of the RH

21 Apply a low B if available

22 An intense air column must be used for this interval Altershynate trilling the thumb key with the 2nd Although this finger- bull ing is awkward the interval responds readily and is enhanced further through the use of a low B

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

~

I Jr I ~r I~ bull bull bull bull I bulltr

I bullbullbull

~ bull I bull bull bull bulltr I Jr l bull I bull I bull bullbull 1

Jr I 1 bull I bull I bullbullbull 2~ bull bull bull tr

tr tr I~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull middot3 bull l

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull

bullbull1IIIIIIl~~~~

lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

~~~~

bull bulltr bullbull

tr trbullbullbullbullbull 111 bullbull 11

tr trbull I bull I bull I bullbull 12bull bull bull bull I

-i tr tr I I bull I bull I bull I bull bull I3

bull bull bull bulltr

tr tr tr I bulltr I bull I bullbull bullbull I

bulltr

I bull I bull I bull I I

bull I bull bull bull I tr I bullbull bull bull 14

~rl bull bull bull

bull I Jr I bull 16 Jr I bull I bull I

Jr I bull bull I 14

I ~r I bull I bull I I I I

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I j5

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I 15 tr trbull bullbullbull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

1 Alternate the trilling of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 Although this fingering demands coordination the tonal reshysponse is aided by the trilling of the 1st key RH

3 The A~ is slightly flat

4 This balan~ed hand position provides maneuverability howshyever the A~ remains flat in pitch

5 Direct the air column inward to achieve adequate response for the low C~

6 This fingering produces a lower pitch level for A~ bull

[31]

bull bull bull

--

I bull I I I I bull I I I

trxtrlI I Xmiddot bull I I 110

Xtr tr X bullbull III

Xtr Xtrl bull I 112

tr tr I bull I I I~r I X

Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 113

tr tr I JrXtrjbull bull I I 114

tr I Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 114

tr tr tr II tlr I bull I bull bull bullbull 15(+)

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)Cont

~ tr tr tr I bull I Ibull I bull bull bull I 17

tr tr I 1 bullbull I I~ - bull bull bull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull bullbull I I I

tr tr tr trbull I I I~ bull bullbull -I middotmiddot1

~ tr trbull I bull bullbull ~rl bull I I bull I I I

tr tr tr tr I~ bull I bull bullbull I middot1

__I tr tr ~8 ~ bull bull bull

tr bull bull Xtrl~ bull I bull bull I I middot1 I 19

[32J

~ ~ ~ V bullbull bull bull

tr tr Jr I

Ibull bull bull bull I

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull I

-1 bull bullbull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull bull

I I

r

I tr tr tr tr

I 115(+)bull bull bull bull bull I-laquogt bull I bull I bull I 13

bull ~ rdr r I bull I bullbull 113(+)

bull bull bull tr

~ bull bull I bull I 118(+)1

bull bull bulltr r I I bull Xtrl bull I 119

tr trbull bull bull bull ~ I bull bull bull bull 118(+)

tr tr 120(+)bull bull bull bull r--laquor-I bull I bull I bull I

1-1t-t-I-+--1-iI-+----+--+----11 21(+)

trbull bull bullbullbull

7 Avoid moving the flute during the tremolo Direct the air column inward to assure response for the D

8 Alternate the trilling of the LH key with the trill key The D is faulty Avoid the lag in response resulting from the LH reacting late This interval will prove to be difficult in sustaining a tremolo

9 The D is flat and requires added breath support Alternate the trilling of the thumb with the trill key [see 8J

10 This tremolo is more correct in pitch if played softly Use a slightly diffused air column to prevent the D from becoming sharp

11 This interval must be played louder than 10 for it to be near corr~ct in its intonation Intensify the air column for the Dli

12 Use greater breath support to raise the pitch level for D bull

13 This interval will be difficult to execute as a sustained tremolo

14 Use the ED key to raise the pitch for the upper note if needed Alternate the G key with the simultaneous trillshying of the RH keys

15 Alternate the G key with the trilling of the keys of the RU The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH This tremolo is difficult to coordinate due to the possishybility of certain tone holes not being covered adequately

16 Anticipate the action of the trill key to aid in the proper coordination

17 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH while trilling The clear response will depend upon this controlled venting

18 The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th A breath emphasis given to this note will assist in its response

19 Adequate breath support for the F may paTtially correct its faulty tone structure

20 Vent ~pproximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH The Gli is a harmonic at the 12th Venting the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling may add distinctness

21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

[33J

r

- - -

tr -I I I 121(+)- -shy

4(d) TREMOLOS ltSixthsSeventhsOctavesgt Cont

-~

tr ~

trbull I bull -

_I

tr r--o I

tr - I -

- 1 bull

-

I

I I

__

21(+)

118(+)

~ - I bull tr

- o----l ~r 1 -I _I __ 118(+)

~ - I tr

bull -~ tr- -I -I I I I 22(+)

-~

tr ~

tr- 1 bull -()-----1

tr I _I --I I-tr tr I -I I- shy

121(+)

122(+)

- ~ tr

j--() I _ I - I - - 12 3(+)

tr ~ -I -I - I I 124(+)

~

bull ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~

~

Jr I tr tr 0-1shy~

~

~

~

tr - shy-

tr trbull I - I- I

-tr I - II I

Jr 1 _I- I I

Jr I _ -- I

tr tr I-I I - I-Jr I I I - Ishy

I Jr II I - 1 shy

tr I tr I Il I

I 124(+)

I I 21(+)

I 125(+)

I 124(+)

1 121(+)

I 121(+)

- 126(+)

I 127

[34]

bull bull bull bull

2nd 3rd

l~~ tr

bull bull bull bull I bull~

bull r ~r bull I I Jr 1 ~r I bull bull I 127

~ tr tr tr tr rr I xI H27bull bull bull bull l bull I

~ r tr ~r Xtrbulltr bull bull I r-+- bull I 127

~ tr tr trbull bull bull bull I I Jr I XI bull I 127

~ tr tr tr

I XI -I 128

~ tr ~I X I

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull I

~ tr tr

Xbull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 129

~ tr tr Xtr bulle-----i bull bull bull bull I X bull bull 11330

~

B~

tr I bullbull 130bull bull bull bull bull

~ tr tr tr I

--I bull bull bull 1 bull 1 bull X I bull bull 11331

~ 21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper

note is a harmonic at the 12th

22 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

23 Vent approximately one-half of the tone holes 2nd key LH and 1st key RH while trilling This produces a G~ harshymonic at the 12th but on a low C fundamental (vented)

24 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

25 Vent one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The A is a harmonic at the 12th

26 Also vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

27 Favor the embouchure and direction of the air column used for the lower note throughout the tremolo

28 The D will be flat and demanding of full breath support

29 This interval may be cumbersome as it requires alternating the trilling of the 1st key LH with the trill key

30 Direct the air column outward and to further the responsiveshyness of the interval lend a breath accentuation to the upper note

31 Alternate the trilling in the LH with that of the RH

[35J

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

4(d)TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths OctavesgtCont

I I xtrI I 1 bull bull 113131

~ tr tr trbull I bull bull bull bull I I X I X bull I bull bull 113~

tr tr X bull bull I bull bull bull I I Xtrl I bull bull 113131

~ trbull I bull bull bull bull tr Xtr I Xtrl bullbull 113

~ tr tr tr

~ Jr Ibull I bull bull bull bull bull x I bull bull 13

pound tr tr trbull I bull bull bull I x I bull bull 11331bull

tr ~rXtrlbull I bull bull bull I I I bull bull 113 131

~ ~r I

tr tr tr I I bull bull 11332(+)[=~

X

[36 ]

bull I I Jr Jrxtr I 113 133bull~ ~ ~ 1tJ= ~va---

8va--bull 8va---bullyen bull

I

~

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bulltr bull

bulltr I I

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

tr trbull I bull bull bull bull

(+)

~rl Jr I I I bullbull 134

tr tr tr middot1 bull x I H 31(+)bull I

tr tr I I I C) )( I bull I H1335

(+)

~rl bull I I bull I I 136(+)

~rl ~r I I bull I I 137(+)

tr ~ I ~r I bull bull H13 138

(+)

~cirl I I 1(+)bulltrbull

140(+

I42(+)

I(+)

140(+

bull I

~~I-+-+-11-----+-1--+--JI 39

I tr tr

j Ll-J

~bull --Xlf-+-+---+-H I I 43 (+)

r-Jr I bull I bull I

i----()-4--I-+-1--+-+----+--J (+)

tr tr bull bull egt--e

tr tr

bull

tr trbull bull bullbullbull

trbullbull--I----(raquo)--+-~

bullbullr----I--r--~o--j

bull bullbull ~ bulltr ---+~-+--~

8va--

~ bull bulltr bull

32 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH Alternate trilling the G~ key with the simultaneous trillingof the RH keys

33 The 2nd key RH is vented imperceptibly while trilling Alternate the LH with the trilling in the RH

34 B~gin the tremolo by giving breath pulsations to the upper G~ to benefit the response of the interval

35 The 2nd key LH is alternated with the synchronized trilling of the 3rd key LH and the RH keys The 2nd key RH is vented slightly

36 Vent about one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

37 The 1st key LH is alternated with the trilling of the RH keys

38 Scarcely vent the 1st key RH The harmonic content of the G adds to the difficulty in its response Regular fingering for this interval might be appropriate

39 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd

40 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

41 Also vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling

42 The 3rd key LH and 1st key RH are vented slightly according to the dictates of the interval in its level of intonation and ease of response

43 Scarcely vent the 2nd key LH while trilling the 3rd key approximately one-half of the tone hole

[37J

bull bull bull bull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Seve-nthsOctaves) 5ALTECont Nearl

the Fren of the f

(a) A 8va~ (b) A

(c) A

bulltr bull bulltr bull (d) E

(e) A~ These tOnal ef

8va~ be most trastsbulltr tr tr I I Jr I 144 (I

1-1-+--+--X~-+-+--+-J -I I Altho

erally i ~ breath p pianissi sitively notes to check til imperati in balao tack tha44 Use the low B key when available

Alter45 Vent about one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH special Hence t with eas

46 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd A firm action by the 1st finger must be accompanied by a slight Howev breath accentuation for the B offering

er breat pitch Ie clined t

At ti use of a followin suggeste ness giv plish th mended t fingerill The adju to the t teristid duct ion dependcn tonal sl oughly t completlO dynamic~

illgS is essenti~

44(+)

trbullbull

tr tr

trbull I 144

I bull I I x tr I bull I I 145(+)

I Jr I I bull I I

trbull bull

trbull bull bull

trbull bullbull

tr Cgt

~r bull I

bull

bullbullbull Itrbull

trbull

trbull

bull

bull bull bull bull

5ALTERED FINGERINGS Nearly all of these altered fingerings will require the use of

the French model flute They produce notes possessing two or more of the following characteristics

(a) A transparent tone structure (b) A higher pitch level than with normal fingerings (c) A variation of timbre (d) Extreme pianissimo with sensitively posed adjustments (e) An added resistance factor for playing fortissimo

These notes retaining a transparency add a new dimension to the tonal effect and used with discretion this blending of sound can be most desirable in phrases that also call for greater dynamic conshytrasts

Although the amount of breath support needed for these notes genshyerally is less than for those played with normal fingerings the breath pressure should be maintained in the usual manner as for a pianissimo The resultant pitch level can be controlled more senshysitively with many of these fingerings and the usual tendency for notes to become flat while playing softly sometimes can be held in check through their application When executing these notes it is imperative that the tongue stroke for the individual attack be used in balance with the dynamic level This avoids an overbearing atshytack that can delay the tonal response of the note

Altered fingerings for the notes of the third octave will be of special interest since the breath support for these can be lessened Hence the adjustment in the level of intonation can be accomplished with ease and flexibility

However some of these fingerings produce an opposite effect By offering substantially more resistance they permit the use of greatshyer breath support in playing a fortissimo Consequently a lower pitch level can be attained for those notes that normally are inshyclined to be sharp These also possess a different timbre

At times it may be difficult or impossible to coordinate the use of an altered fingering with that of a preceding note or one following In each circumstance the fingering must be applied as suggested by the accompanying material and with equal attentiveshyness given to its resulting tone production In order to accomshyplish the maximum result with a degree of practicality it is recomshymended that the various possibilities as offered by more than one fingering for a particular note be explored as much as possible The adjustments for these varicolored notes must be made according to the treatment of the air column and the notes resulting characshyteristics Since each flutist by nature will approach tone proshyduction differently the ventin~ of the tone holes then will be dependent upon this phenomenon The performers capacity to hear tonal shadings nnd minute modificntions of intonntion will be thorshyoughly tested as he nttemllts to develop a technique for venting A complete understanding of this proceduJe for altering the pitch dynamics and tone quality is vital and the use of special fingershyings is a vnlued supplement to the interpretive skills that are essential in the flutists performance

This concentration of fingerings stressing the use of the French model flute will serve as an appropriate introduction to the SUbsequent charts in this book Many of these fingerings can be altered further to vent for a more exacting structure of a quarshyter-tone scale and because of their relationship with the function of the harmonic series they form a fundamental approach in the proshyduction of multiphonics

~ ~- bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 2bull bull bull bull bull 0-+-0 bull bull I 12

12~ bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull bull 12

~- bull bull bull o--i ~ bull bull bull bull 2

bull bull bull 0-1 f-o bull bull bull bull I 12

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull bull 12

0 bull bull bull 112~ bull bull bull bull bull bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull o-e bull bull bull bull bull I 12bull

bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull I 12 bull 0 0bull bull bull bull bull bull I 12

l Vent the tone holes completely Apply a wide aperture and use very little breath support This will lower the pitch signifishycantly and at the same time produce a light and transparent tone structure

2 Each of these fingerings offers a slightly varied tone quality Vent the tone hole(s) as indicated

[39J ALL FINGERINGS ARE USED FOR PIANISSIMO UNLESS DESIGNATED BY()

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cont)

()bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull I 17~-15bull bull bull bull I bull x I bull I

bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 12~- bull I bull bull bull Hgt I I I bull bull 18bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 12 ~- bull I bull bull bull 9

I H I I I bull 110~- bull I bull o-e bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 23 bull bull bull bull I o---e 123bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull bull bull I---igt I bull I bull bullbullbull8

I bull 0 I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull4tyenyent= bull bull ~-

bull I I Hgt I bull I bull I bull bull 18bull I ~ I I I I bull I I 13 bull bull bullbull ~-

I bullbullbull3bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull egt-e 10~ ~- bullbull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull egt--- bull I bull 1 bull I bullbullbull11 I bull () bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I 14 bull I bull bull o---e bull I I I bull I 112

() I I I I 110M- I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I 13 ~- bull I bull I I bull I bull I 13 I () bull I I bull I bull bull I I 113bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bullbull I bull I bull bull o---i I bull I bull bull I I I 1114

I I 0 I I I 17bull bull bull I bull I

bull I

I I 15sect2g bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull I ~- bull I bull () bull 1 I bull bull I bullbull j I 113 I bull X bull I bull I 15 bull bull bull I bull bull bullbull bull bull I o---e I I bullbull3

I 15~- bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull bull I bull I bull bull bull I bull I 0 I j 17

I bull bull bull bull I bull X bull I bull 15 ~- bull I bull 0 bull I bull [ bull bull I 115

bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I () bull I 16

[40J THESE ARE USED FOR FORTISSIMO ONLY

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

-

bull bull bull I bull () bull 17 ~- bull bull bull f-4gt bull bull bull bull bull 8

bullbull bull f--O bull bullbull 19

I bull I bull~- () Hgt I bull bull bull ~ I bull

f-ltgtbull bull bull I bull bull egt---i I Ibull~- I I bull bull bull I I I X 0

1--4gt I bull~

()

0pound- bull bull 0

0bull bull bull Ibulla- bull

8va---

bull bull bull I 0 ~- bull

0bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull ~

116

bull bull 1817

bull bull bull 18

bullbull 19bull bull 110

118

bull I 119

bull I bull bull 113

X I I 1820 bull

I bull I 113 X

I bull I bull I 118

818

bull 118

bull 110

3 This fingering makes possible a dynamic level that is louder than that produced with regular fingering

4 Vent the ~nd key LH slightly

3 Vent by using the trill key but only according to the desired level of intonation

6 Adjust the intonation by venting approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key RH

7 Scarcely vent the 2nd key ~H

8 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 The entire tone hole of the 1st key RIl is vented Use a sparse air column for the tone support to be used in maintainshying the level of intonation

10 Vent the tone hole according to the existing level of intonation while executing a diminuendo bull

II Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH

12 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH

13 Scarcely vent the tone hole of the ~nd key LH for added conshytrol of the pitch level This fingering noticeably produces an immediate tonal response nnd with tllis a veiled tone quality isproduced with ease

14 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH This produces a transparent tonal effect

15 Vent about three-fourths of the tone hole 2nd key LH If this is vented less the note may be played louder and a greater content of harmonics will result in its tone structure bull The note will be lower in pitch

16 Use an extremely soft attack to ensure greater sensitivity in the production of a light and clear tone structure

17 Gently raise the 1st key LH slightly This aids in eliminating the sound of the harmonic in the tone

18 The tone hole of the 2nd key RIl is vented completely

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality is desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch bull

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly bull

[41J Ij

I

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cant]

bull 0 bull bull 118~- bull ~ bullbull--+-__---+--__bull--1 0 bull bull 118bull

8va---- laquogt 119bull bull bull bull I bull I bull Isect==

bull bull bull bull I o----t-ltgt I I 21~-8va-----

~-~ t-----J-+I---t--+---~-+-11 10

I bullbull I I r-41~X~cgt-+--+--4It-+--+----i1 22

Ir--+I--X)f----jl-+I~bull-+-+---+-ll 23fiF=--bull middotbull -1---+---middotbull -1 1-0 X I X I I 924

~- bull bull I--t--A-X---t-I--JlX~~bull-lI--+-j1 8va----

~- bull bull bull bull middot1

~_~ bull j bullbull 1

8va---

bull 11-$shybull ~

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality ip desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly

21 TIle entire tone hole of each key 2nd and 3rd RH is vented Close a portion of the 2nd tone hole RH to adjust the pitch further if necessary

22 The (D) trill key is opened gently to raise the pitch At the same time vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key RH

23 Use a lip attack for added control of the pitch level

24 Depress the 0 trill key only slightly for the purpose of raising the pitch level if needed during the execution of a diminuendo

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute)

QUARTER-TONES To pursue the study of the quarter-tone scale one may wish to begin

by learning the notes in the chart on Altered Vingcrings When used apshypropriately they could establish n general background for the techniques that are related to this scale Altered fingerings can produce new timshybres that result from certain alterations of the physical properties of the air column Such alterations reveal multiple tube-lengths in the air column of the flute and are caused by the venting of various fingering combinations Tllis is noted wIlen using some of the fingerings for tremshyolos as well as altered lIotes As an acoustical phenomenon this emerges with greater prominence as tlw fingerings then arc vented further through the use of the French model flute It is by this modification of the finshygerings that the tonal responRe is transformed to produce a wide range of

[42J

tone colors Identifying these timbres and adjusting to their accompashynying physical sensations will enhance the performers adaptabilities in the development of embouchure control Also the application of a posishytive approach to the function of the air column will occur with greater sensitivity

To establish the scale of microtones(quarter-tones) it is necessary for these new sounds to be accepted in the traditional sense and played with firm conviction It is a known fact that when the flutist possesses a well developed tone structure for the semitones the prevailing intonashytion also will be appealing This same standard of performance would apshyply and hopefully should exist when developing the quarter-tone scale Therefore adjusting to the array of timbres that accompany the various notes of the quarter-tone scale should become natural and their tonal characteristics accepted as being ordinary

The fingerings included in this chart are based on an elaboration of the harmonic series The conventional response of the overtones is alshytered by venting certain tone holes which brings about the formation of the multiple tube-lengths This departure from the fixed overtone arshyrangement permits the sounding of the neighboring harmonics and with this occurrence a chromatic quarter-tone scale can evolve in an organshyized manner The use of these fingerings can bring about a greater flexshyibility when endeavoring to achieve absolute control of pitch

The listening required for the proper placement of the microtone inshytervals is indeed acute and becomes intensified with each effort This hopefully ought to assure the guiding of the intervals of semitones

As the quarter-tones are learned they must be treated as new fundashymental notes The tone control for these ought to be developed justas it has been for the regular semitones and an understanding of their placement in the schema will add immeasurably to their eventual evolushytion in the production of multiphonics ~Qqing of pitches normalshyly executed by the accepted practice of rolling the headJoint in or out to alter the direction of the air column need not be an exclusive apshyproach to the tempering of the pitches for the microtone scale Too ofshyten this technique seems unreliable although in a number of instances it can prove to be beneficial and will assist in the effectiveness of a particular fingering

Frequent adjustments of the embouchure in conjunction with the use of breath pressure and the directional change of the air column will be necessary for most of the notes Instructions for such treatment will be given for each note

The French model flute is an absolute necessity in the production of a great many of these notes since there is no way in which the closed-hole flute can tune quarter-tone~ as accurately The use of only the basic fingerings can become restrictive and will limit the degree of variation

A reeducation in tonal imagery and pitch relationships is vital to the development of a microtone scale This could eliminate the aleatory approach to tuning Therefore it is imperative that the player should determine the proper venting of the tone holes for these fingerings by seeking the correct pitch levels In fact as a result of the experience that was gained by the venting for the notes in the charts on tremolos and altered fingerings the flutist now must treat this as an accepted technique and consider the proper venting to be in balance with the emshybouchure habits in tone production Hence the text material in this chart will not dictate the amount that the tone hole is to be vented since each player varies the basic approach to tone production

The exclusive use of straight tone is not necessary for these notes and the application of vibrato certainly is in order Of course the

usual considerations would apply for its expression and it should be used with discretion

In most cases due to complexities that may be encountered with some of these fingerings there will be very little dexterity or facility for rapid passages Flutists must determine which fingerings will serve best in a given situation At the same time it is assumed that equal conshysideration will have been shown by composers in their compositional deshymands and that the musical structures can be clear of technical hazards

The notes of the chromatic scale of semi tones have been illustrated (in parentheses) with the quarter-tones in this chart To adjust for the tuning of each microtone properly the regular semi tone should be played first Following this each fingering for each quarter-tone ought to be tried in order to establish the correct interval as closely as possible At the same time one must be attentive to each fingerings tonal charshyacteristics With this the player then should react to the resistance factor which is set up in the flute This is resolved by recognizing a physical sensation that is demonstrated by the manner in which the tone responds At this time the embouchure should be adjusted accordingly Reshycalling this experience each time that the fingering is used should reshysult in the performer cultivating a familiarity with a more definitive approach to these tones and an anticipation of their prevailing pitch levels

Contemporary composers have used a variety of signs and symbols to indicate the sharps and flats for the quarter-tones In order to give this chart readability arrows extending from the stems of the convenshytional alterations have been used These denote that the pitch is raised or lowered a quarter-step Although only sharps have been used here the player must assume that the enharmonic notation would be used in performance

At same as 8~ Et same as ot etc

Also the enharmonic pitches apply as follows

A~ same as 8f or A1 ot or cl same as o~ etc

Unquestionably a great deal of experimentation with fingerings such as these will result in acquiring added facility in the manner in which all facets of tone production are studied Other fingerings may be conceived for notes of this scale However the criteria inshyvolving their adaptability will be similar to that already described in the preceding paragraphs

QUAIITER-TONE TIULLS

These fingerings create quarter-tone trills either ascending or descending Many of the notes include the possibility of a trill in either direction emanating from the principal note and are indicated as such by the text materials The instructions are given in an abbreshyviated form and are interpreted as follows

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The note this pro-letter identifying the to be activated duces and its tend-note ~ encies if any

Ex-( 4F C key DOWN to Q )

The flutist may wish to research these fingerings further in as much as they offer a seemingly limitless display of intervals of varshyious degrees Mini-microtones(sixth-tones or eighth-tones) also are possible and these will be referred to as pitch-pulsations in the subshysequent charts

[43]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

IPIO I C) 1 I 1 I I bull I 1 13~ bull I I I 14bull bull I bull I bull bull I bull I

~ I bull bull I bull I bullbull 15

0 I bull I I I I bull I bull I bullbullbull6- e-+ bull bull bull bull I bull bull 12 ~ bull bull I I f----o I bull 1 bull I bull bull 17Cgtbull bull I

iCO)~ IAIB I bull e bull I bull I 0 bull I I 13 IR I --0 I I I 14bull ~ bull bull bull bull I bullbull I bull bull bull bull I 0 I bull I bull bull middot12 I I bull I bull I bull bull I I 14

bull I bull bull f----o I bull I bull I bullbullbull4 ICIO I I 0 I I bull I I 13~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 4

bull I bull bull bull f----o I bull bull I bull bull 1I

~ IElFe I r-o 13 I (U)qgg ISIT I bull I bull I bullbull I I 14

IS I I bull () 1 I I I bull I I 141Ge---l bull bull bull r-o I bull 1 3

IS~ I I bull I --t-1 8

I (~~ bull I bull bull D---i I bull bull I bull I bull bull II IU I () bull I I bull bull 1 bull I bull 19~

I IV jIH bull D------i r-o bull I bull I bull I 14 I bull I bull x bull I bull bull I 15~ bull bull IVIW IIH bull bull o-------j I bull I bull I I bull bull 14 bull I 5bull

IJ e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 14 fXIY I e e bull I ex bull I bull I 13

IJ 5e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull 1 ~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I () I 110 I(e)~ IKIL bull ()----e I 1 I I I I bull I 13 IZ2A I I I 14bull bull bull X bull bull

IMIN~ If-O bull I bull bull 15

I bull bull o----e I bull I I ICia) M 2B2C bull bull bull I bull I bull I o bull 13bull bull bull bull bull 5 ~

bull I I bull I bull bull 15 I bull e bull bull I bull x bull I 311

[44J The preferred fingering for each note is illustrated first

bullbull bull bull 0 bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

~2F2 bull bull I 0 l_l I bullbull I 13bull -shy2H I I j 13bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 2J bull bull bull I f-cgt X I I bull bull la

~2~L bull bull o-j bull I bull bull 112 I X 0 I 112bull bull bull I bull

2M bull bull bull I I I bull bull bullbull1213

bull bull () bull I I I bull bullbull I 114

1 Apply a mlmmum amount of breath support using a wide apertureThis note lacks the usual tonal presence of the low register and its use is limited to extremely soft attacks

~ Direct the air column downward to adjust for the level of intoshynation This effort must be exaggerated when using a low C

3 This fingering produces a tonal response that is similar to that of the notes of the tempered chromatic scale of semitones A firm breath support may be applied and a resonance as well as a variation of dynamic levels are possible

4 Direct the air column downward in order for the note to attain as much tone center as possible and a proper adjustment for its intonation A light volume of air is applied but a medium dynamic level seems possible

5 Direct the air column upward in order to raise the pitch level A large aperture and the use of a dispersed air column will renshyder a distinct contrast in tone quality for some of the notes

6 Since there is no suitable fingering for a more accurate tuning of this note the air column must be aimed exaggeratedly downshyward However an interesting tone color emerges and a near correct level of pitch can be attained

7 If a split-E attachment is available this fingering may be alshytered to produce a correct pitch level Otherwise an unorthoshydox method of closing the 1st key RH is necessary to vent apshyproximately one-half of the B hole This seems impractical

8 This fingering effectively produces a subdued tone quality and is suitable for a soft dynamic level

9 The sounding of multiple harmonics in the tone must be elimishynated as the key is vented Attempt to favor the sounding of the upper pitch

10 A slight venting of the tone hole 3rd key RH will assist in the control of the intonation in a soft dynamic level

11 bull The 3rd finger RH should lean gently on the trill key in order to vent for the appropriate degree of intonationbull

12 bull This fingering serves best when playing loudly Apply an intense air column and use as wide an aperture as possible without altershying the tonal standard

10 The keys of the low B foot joint must be closed securely to preshyvent any unnecessary venting otherwise the F cannot be altered auequately Direct the air column upward

14 The tone holes as indicated are to be vented imperceptibly A translucent tonal structure is indigenous to most of these fingerings

lA I 3rd RH I UP to E

IB I E~ key I DOWN to Q(Sharp)

lC I 2nd RH I UP to I

ID I 3rd RH I DOWN to ~(sharp)

IE I 2nd Rff I DOWN to I

IF lIst RH I UP to 1

IG I 2nd amp 3rd RH I DOWN to F

IH I 1st ~nd UP t (( I )and (3rd) RII I 0 ~ S WIP

IJ lIst 2nd UP to G and 3rd RII I

lK I 3rd LH(vented) I UP to A

lL I G key I DOWN to ~~

1M I G key I UP to A

IN I 3rd RH DOWN to G(sharp)

IP I 2nd LH(vented) I UP to A

lQ I 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) I

lR I 2nd LH UP to C amp 1st RH I

IS I Thumb key I UP to ~

IT I 2nd amp 3rd LH DOWN to C (depress G~ key) I I

IV I 1st RH I DOWN to ~

IV I Thumb key I UP to Q

lW I 1st LH I UP to Q

lX I G~ key I DOWN to D

lY I E~ key I UP to J)

lZ I D Trill key I UP to D

2A I 2nd LH I DOWN to D(ring only)

2B I 3rd RH I UP to I

2C I E~key I DON to Q

2D I 2nd RH I UP to F

2E I 3rd RII I DOWN to (shllrp)

21 I 1st HH I UP to f

2G I 2nd RIl DOWN to f(half-vented) I 211 I 2nd RII I UP to r 2J I D Trill key I DOWN to I

(sharp)shy

2K I 2nd RH I UP to Q (sharp)

2L I )rd RII DOWN t ro (ring only) I a _

~-1 I )rd HII I UP to Q

[45]

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

8(a QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

2N bull 0---1 I bull I bull I 13bull 2P I I I bull 114- 2a bull 1 I bull 115bull I

4 m 2S2T I bull bull o--t f-o bull I bull I bull I 13

2T 1 bull bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I bull 13

bull I bull () bull bull I 1 I I bull 1 114

2S2U I bull bull o---e I I I I bull I 13rztt=22W bull I 0 I i I I I bull -t-+-3 2V2X~ I I 116bull I bull I bull I

(~)~ 2Y I bull I I bull I 0 I bull I I 116bullI 2Z~A I bull bull bull I I bull I bull I o bull I 13

f--(gt I 114bull I bullbullbull Ibull I bull bull bull I 38 I Q---j I 116bull I bull I bull I bullbull

I(n)qn ~ 3C I bull bull I I bull bull I bull I I I 116

bull I bull 0--+--1 f-ltgt I bull I bullbull 15 3D I bull bull bull I f---Cgt I bull I I I 114 3E I bull bull I I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

3E30 I 0 I I I 13bull bull bull I I bull I

f 1 t

bull bull 1

(~q~~ 3Fe

I bull bull middot1

I

3G

3H3J I

(~I~~ 3K I bull I I

I bull ()-e-j3L I

(0) qn ~3M3N I I I

bull ()I bull If

3P I bull 3Q

f (0) n ~~ 3R3S bull bull bull bull I 3S3Te

3T

3R3S3U

(~) ~-amp ~Q 3V

I 3W3X

bull 3Y

(0) ~o~ 3Z

1 4A

bull bull o--e ()

bull bull o--e

I bull bullbull I bull I bull I I o--+-Jbull I bull 0 bull I

I bull +---cr--l I bull bull I

tI I x I I bull 13

~ 115bull I bull I bull I I I I x I bull I I 118

1---0 I bull I bull I I I 1919

I 0 112 I bull I bull I bull I I I 317 r bull I bull I I bull I

j I bull I x bullbull 13 I

I bull I bull I bull bull 110 115I bull I bull I bullbull

1 I I x I bull 1310

13 I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

I bull x bull x I bull I I 116

I bull I () I bull I I 115

t---o I I I bull 1 bull 11920

I I I I I bull 119 bull X

[46J

B +

~ 48 bull bull bull bull I bull 112 4C

40 bull bull

bull bull bull

X bull I bull

bull 116

121 8va I

~4E4F bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13 4E4F bull bull bull bull 117 4G4F

middot8va 1rrplusmnt5=4H4J bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull I bull I bull

bull 0

0

bull bull

bull bull 119

112

bull 117

4JI bull () bull bull 1-0 bull bull bull 117 8va I (-Q)J-e- -eshy 4K4L I

I 4M4L I

4Me

bull ()

bullbull bull bull e

bull I X 1 bull X f---Q X

bullbull

114 11622 119

15 This is used advantageously for n pianissimo The intonation level is controllnble by venting the tone hole of the 2nd key L H slightly

16 A firm breath support with a vnrinble volume of air may be apshyplied to produce a reasonable range of dynamic coloring The intonation seems controllable as the flow of air iR directed upward

17 A relaxation of breath pressure seems possible ith this fingershying The tonal structure is altered nccordingly and at the same time a medium range of dynamic level can be controlled

18 This fingeringwill demand coordination when ascending from D and again to D The pitch level can be controlled by directshying the air coumn downward

19 The tone structure may become excessively airy but this as well as the intonation level can be corrected by adding subshystantially to its breath support

20 The use of the 3rd key RH aids only in the balanced hand position Thus the application of the fingering either in an ascending or descending paRsage is facilitnted

21 Overblow the low G at the 15th as softly as possible The harmonic content of the tone structure will be of contrasting quality The air column must be directed donward

22 To facilitate tuning this note ly vent the tone hole 2nd key

2N Low C key UP to ~~

2P 2ntl HII DOWN to ~

2Q )st I 2ntl HH UP to G~

2H 1 st HII UP to ~~

2S 1rtl LII UP t A (ring only) 0

2T 1st 2ntl DOWN to G~ anti 1rtl RH shy

2U G~ key DOWN to ~

2V 2nd LH UP to A~ (ring only)

2W 3rd LH (ring only) DOWN to A

2X Low C~ key DOWN to A

2Y Low C~ key DOWN to A~

2Z 3rd RH UP to 8

3A ED key DOWN to A~

38 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) shy

3C 1st RH UP to pound

3D 3rd RH DOWN to _8 (ring only)

3E 2nd RH UP to pound 3F 2nd amp 3rd RH DOWN to C

3G 1st Rn UP to C(flat)(ring only)

3H 1st RH DOWN to pound(ring only)

3J Thumb key UP to pound

3K 1st LH UP to Q

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

at a soft dynamic level scarceshyLH

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

3M 1st LH DOWN to 0

3N 0 Trill key UP to Q

3P Low C key UP to Q

3Q ED key liP to 1)

3R 1st RH DOWN to 0

35 3rd LH UP to E

3T 3rd RH UP to E

3U 1st amp 2nd RH UP to ~

3V 2nd RH UP to I

3W 2nd LH DOWN t E (ring only) 0 _

3X 2nd amp 3rd RH UP to I

3Y 3rd RH DOWN to ~

3Z 1st LH UP to I

4A 0 Trill key DOWN to F

48 G key UP to ~

4C D~ Trill key DOWN to I~

40 Thumb key UP to ~

4E jIst LH UP to G~

4F G~ key DOWN to G

4G 3rd RH UP to G

4H 1st amp 2nd RH DOWN to G~

4J 3rd LH UP to ~

4K 3rd LH(vented) DOWN to A

4L 0 Trill key DOWN to ~

4M 2nd LH UP to A~

[47J

II

1iibull bull bull

Sea) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

8va I_4N4PI bull r---ox x 123

40 I I X I 119

4N4R I 1317bull bull I X bull X 8va i

(o)~ft ~ I e19bull bull bull bull bull bull bull I 451 ()---1 x e e 119bull 8va i

(-e-)~-e- ~ 4Te bull bull bull I bull X I I 24

I bull e 0--- f-O I X bull bull 124

it

23 When descending from the regular B the 1st and 3rd keys LH may remain closed

24 This note may be played only at a loud dynamic level A firm breath pressure is vital to the control of the intonation alshythough the note tends to be sharp

4N D~ Trill key DOWN to ~

4P 1st HH(vented) UP to B

4Q 2nd LH UP to ~

4H D Trill key UP to _Band 2nd HH

45 2nd HH DOWN to ~

4T D Trill key DOWN to f

[48J

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo)

In this chart the fingerings for both the alto flute and picshycolo are combined The concepts of tone production and pitch disshycernment that were discussed in the preceding section on quartershytones for the C flute would apply to these instruments also Due to the limitations in venting the fingerings there will be less flexibility in the tuning of these notes In fact some noiesof the scale have been omitted because of unsuitable fingering comshybinations and a lack of control for the pitches However if an open-tone-hole model piccolo is available to the player other fingerings from the previous chart could be applied It will be noted that a great deal of emphasis is placed on the exaggerated change of direction of the air column for the purpose of tuning This will compensate for the lack of venting for most of these notes

QUARTER-TONE TRIllS

The text materials for these trills are presented here in the same manner as for those in the previous chart In some instances the direction of the air column has to be exaggerated either upward or downward in order to reach the proper intonashytion level for a single note in the quarter-tone scale This precludes the proper tuning of the quarter-tone trill When it occurs the smaller interval that results is termed a pitchshypulsation However prior to playing the trill special effort must be made to tune the quarter-tone from which the trill is to emanate otherwise even the small interval(pitch-pulsation) will be nonexistent Occasionally when only one fingering is given for both instruments the text will indicate the instrushyment for which the trill fingering is intended

bull bull e bull bull I bull I bull bull bull e I I~ e(o)~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull 12

reg - ALTO FLUTE

j ~

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull

f (e)~eF IA bull bull bull bull bull bull bull IA

Sb

+ l(ie)~ IQ I bull bull bull bull bull bullbull

I bull bull bull bull bull bull bull The little finger nlI must open the IP key and at the same

IS time close the footjoint keys The air column must be dishybull bull bull 30~ bull bull bull rected dowmarct to lower the pitch 1 eve IS bull bull bull bull bull bull 12reg

2 Exaggerate the ctowlllVilnl directioll of the njr column The apshyerture must relilain il~ opcn ttl possj) 1c otlerwjse the tone structure becomes sllpplcsilted This fi lIferinf i~ more appro-

IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13reg priate for il sort 1Ild subdued efrcct~ bull IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 14reg 3 Apply the techniques noS ill )- nlll u--( vcry I it tIc volume

of air This note milY lack ndeqllnte tOllnl projection

4 Using very little bleilth support direct the nil columnI(e)~ ID bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 120 dowmarct to Ilchieve the lIeceSiltary Jevel of pitch 1I0wever the tone qUilli ty of the lower register 01 the piccolo willIE bull bull bull bull bull 14reg project substllntiillly

5 Use a slightly victe Ilperture ilnd il direction of the air col-IF 140 umn that is similllr to that of the preceding note bull~ bull bull bull bull bull bull IG 14reg 6 Direct the air column downward but slightly for the evenshy

tual adjustment of intonAtion

7 The air column is directed upward~ IH bull bull bull bull bull bull I 150

8 It may be difficult to maneuver the fingers adequately butIJ bull bull bull I 14reg if the trill keys can be scarcely opened the note can be

properly tuned

I (ci)qng IK I bull bull bull bull bull 150 UP(pitch-pulsation) IJ I 2nd amp 3rd LH I UP to elA I 3rd RH I

IK I 14reg lK I Thumb key I UP to e~IB I 2nd RH I UP to F~ (flat)

lL I Thumb key I UP to D (Piccolo)Ie I 1st 2ndlIL 1 160 UP to G~ (sharp)3rd RIlFfft)~ bull bull bull X bull bull 1M I Thumb key I UP to D~10 I 3rd RH I UP(pitch-pulsation)IL bull bull I X bull 170

IN I 1st amp 2nd LH I DOWN to DIE I 1st 2nd amp 3rd RH I UP to A

IP I D Trill key I UP (pitchshy1M X X bull bull 150 IF I 2nd amp 3rd RII I UP to A~ Jlulsa t ion)(fla t)

INIP I I I X bull 16reg A~ lQ I 3rd LH I DOWN to D ~ bull bull bull

IG I 3rd LH I UP to (fla t)

0- PICCOLO IH I 2nd LII amp 1st RII I UP to e

bull bull bull bull bullbull

- IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull I I 124reg

IT 16bull bull bull I bull bull I bull~ IT bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14reg

l(~e)~ bull I bull bull bull X I bull bull IIOreg

IU 17g-QdegfO bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull IUIV bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull IGreg

~WX bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 17

bull bull bull bull bull I I x I bull I IIO IY bull bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull I 12reg

~ IZ bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull 6bull IZ2A 1 I I Iregbull I bull I I bull I

[50]

I(0) ~o ~e 2B bull bull bull I bull bull I 16middot0 2C20 16reg I bull

I(~~ Me 2E2F I I I I I bull 16middot0bull 2F2G I bull I I bull I bullbull 16reg

(~t~~ 2H I bull bull I 2J

(ft) ~n ~2K~L I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I Ibullbull 190 bullIR bull bull bull bull I bull I

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo) Cont

1 (Ito-) ~ ~-e- 2M2N 17

f

bull bull bull bull I bull I bull x bullbull 2P bull II bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull 16~P

(~) ~~ ~Q 2Q~R bull bull bull I bull I bull bullbull 16~I 2

(n) qn ~ 2T bull 1 bull 1 I bull 1I1

I bull 1 bull X

2U2V bull I bull bull I 11rreg 8 va 0i

~2~X bull bull I 1 bull bull I bull I 170

8va regI

I I I 1712rrplusmnyen==2~ bull bull bull I bull 8 va i

I I x bull 1110et-ECilDbull bull bull bull bull bull

reg

8 va I

(-amp)]-amp ~3E3F I I I bull 17I bull X 8va

I

I I bull I I I X bull X I I IIIO3H bull

9 Direct the air column as in 2 However the tone strucure will permit an acceptable projection at a medium dynamic level

10 Vent imperceptibly by opening the trill key gently The air colshyumn should be directed downward only slightly but the aperture is to be somewhat larger than for the preceding note Thisfinshygering serves best when ascending from the regular semitone

11 This is suitable only for a loud dynamic level The note deshymands full breath support and the air column should be directshyed upward slightly

12 The additional resistance that this fingering lends to the piccolo may cause undue forcing of the tone unless the performshyer displays control of the embouchure in this octave However the use of this fingering is not as problematical when applyshying it to the alto flute

lR 3rd RH UP to P

IS 1st LH UP(pitch-pulsation)

IT 2nd RH UP to r~ (Piccolo) (flat)

lU 1st RH UP to G~

IV 2nd amp 3rd RH

lW 1st RI DOW

IX 3rd LH L~ to

lyen 1st amp 2nd RH

lZ 3rd LH UP to

2A 2nd RH DOWN

DOWN to G (flat)

to G~ (flat)

A

UP to A

A

to A

2B 2nd RH UP to C

2C b Key DOWN to B

2D 3rd nH UP to C

2E 1st RH DOWN to C

2P Thumb key UP to C

2G 1st RH DOWN to C

2H 2nd LH DOWN to C

2J 1st LH UP to D

2K Eb key UP to D

2L G key DOWN to D(Alto flute)

2M 1st RH DOWN to D

2N 3rd LH

2P 3rd RH

2Q 3rd RH

2R 1st LH

2S Eb key

UP to E

UP to E UP to r (Piccolo)

UP to r(Alto flute)

DOWN(pitch-pulsation) (Piccolo)

2T D Trill key DOWN to r

2U 1st LH UP to P (flat)

2V 2nd RH DOWN to P

2W G key UP to G

2X Low C key DOWN to r

2Y 1st RH UP to G (Piccolo)

2Z 1st LH UP to G

3A 3rd RH DOWN to G(Piccolo)

3B 2nd RH DOWN to G (Alto flute)

3C G key DOWN to G

3D 1st LH UP to A (flat)

3~ 2nd LH UP to A

3P D Trill key DOWN to A

3G D Trill key DOWN to A

3H 2nd RH UP to B (flat)

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES MULTIPHONICS

No longer can the flutist expect that a traditional flute tone is the only attractive or acceptable sound structure Sound pheshynomenon must be valued as significant structure which the aspiring performer must embrace in order to add to the variety of musical exshypression in contemporary music In the various periods of music the goal of each generations performers has been to enrich and augment the sometimes restrictive character of the sound of the flute Hence with this standard of excellence in flute playing the evolution of compositional techniques has paralleled the instrumentalists develshyopment Accordingly more and more is expected of the flutists technical skills and resources

The or ani tion of many-voiced sounds is now a vital part of the f~ts technique ana for this all of the aspects of tone

-proouction are to be considered Rultiphonics involve the layerin ~ developin an understandin of the n use Q ere ones ~n e over one series of the flute~coustical the orma ionof _ muitiJHe tube-lengtns in the air column g e a number 0 requency vibrations with whic to produce added pitches simultaneously TOis affords an array of chord groups that are controllable Such pheshynomenon is observed when a short tube-length and a larger one are formed in the air column as additional keys are vented in a fingershying combination This causes a modification of the fixed overshytone arrangement of the flute

The composition of many of the fingerings for the multiphonics v ~can be traced directly to those presented for tremolos(especially

sixths sevenths and octaves) altered fingerings and quartershytones Interestingly many of the quarter-tones can be identified as fundamental tones for a number of these chords However the fingerings for these have been changed somewhat in order to facilshyitate the tonal response of the multiphonics

The tonal characteristics of these chords seem to fit into (3) different categories according to their timbres and dynamic levels They can be studied further by referring to these groups in part(B) of this section

The chords illustrated in this chart have included only the notes that possess a reasonable amount of prominence stableness and immediacy in tonal response Quite possibly some performers may be capable of elaborating on these structures to produce upto five tones However this would require considerable experience and a phenomenal control of techniques Except for those few inshydividuals who have such technical skill most flutists will need to devote some practice time to these peculiar techniques

~A flexible_~bnuchUI~_togetherwith sensitivit~ for the approshypriare use of the air column are an absolute must w en exper~mentshy~ng with new auditory experiences As the mUltiple tube-lengths are felt via the resistance of the flute the physical reaction to these must be repeated in virtually all of these chords The transformashytion of this resistance factor from its normal state in the flute tube must be recognized then the air column can be effectively used in balance with this

Those chords that react readily do so because the resistance is not posing a major hazard Thesetwo-note chords require little breath support with a slight alteration of the embouchure However

[51J

~the multiphonics that include1hr~~ or four notes offer muchgreatshyer resistance As a barrier this must be permeated by applying inshyensity to e breath pressure and at times with a large volume of

air Consequently more attention must be given to embouchure corshyrection for these Usin a w~ aEertur the air column needs to be directed so that a--segment of the flute range can be sounded in one air blast By diffusing the air column the tone is spread and thereby capable of including several notes at once These can sound simultaneously as a chord spanning more than one octave of the flute All of this is contradictory to the normal procedure that prevails for playing single-line notes For these the apershyture needs to decrease in size as the air pressure is increased

The volume of breath support for a multiphonic is an equally important matter The qeterminant is evidenced by the demands for each multiphonic and as the player adjusts to these the physical sensations that are to be recalled should be used as guides for the proper maneuvering of the embouchure

The text materials which accompany the fingering for each chord suggest the embouchure movements and technical modifications of the air column However the performance of these sounds cannot be achieved with only these directives More importantly the player must adapt to these sensitively by feel and become accustomed to reacting to the response of the chord with perceptiveness

Many of the chords can be sustained with reasonable success and sufficient duration However vibrato cannot be used because it would disturb the steadiness of the air flow Straight tone is the prime mover in establishing stability for the multiphonics

It is impossible to effect an instantaneous response from a chord Inorder to create the illusion that all of the notes are sounding at the same time the necessary corrections must occurat once These are realized by attacking the lowest note first or for some chords the highest This method assists in the use of the wide-angle aim of the air column for an equal response of the other notes of the tone-group The effect is one of a broken chord as is often played on a keyboard instrument or the harp If the response should lag and the notes of the chord are not soundingin balance with one another then those notes that are positioned at the opposite level from the attacking note either the lowest or highest of the chord must be favored This is done by directing the air column toward that level in the range that seems weakest

The chords have been placed according to their lower fundamenshytals in ascending order This is only approximate and in some inshystances when these pitches were the same the total effect of the chord was considered although the placement is purely arbitrary

The arrows on the alterations do not necessarily indicate quarter-tone pitches Some of these notes could be mini-microshytones In fact many of these notes may not always impart their ~itch levels as originally conceived in as much as the techniques of tone production are variable But this pitch discrepancy also can be extolled as a virtue since so many notes that have the same pitch level would also be capable of lending an impressive range of timbres When isolating the lowest or highest note of each chord and its intonation seems controllable a new dimension in tone coloring can be imagined for any single-line phrase

[52J

This arrangement of fingerings is not a complete collection of multiphonics Rather it is presented as a systematic study and a survey of possibilities for tone clusters There are fingerings which have not been included capable of producing virtually the same notes as some found in this chart Probably there are still other fingerings that may be ascertainable However those shown here seem to lend substantial control for a clear image of eachmulshytiphonic and are to be accepted only on this basis Therefore once the flutist has developed the technique for these additional finshygerings producing new chord structures could evolve through the efforts of individual research

The following points may be considered when the multiphonics are played for the first time As possible solutions to some probshylems that involved technical deficiencies these applications conshytributed to the learning process

(~) Do not isolate the individual tones of the chord as ~ the direction of the air column is adjusted

(b) Avoid an excessive covering of the embouchure hole on the flute and prohibit the forming of a small aperture A diffusion of the air column and a spreadshying of the tone structure should result

(c) A low B must be used when advisedotherwise the inshytervals may not respond with the same assuredness

(d) A wider than normal aperture must prevail for most chords

(e) The air column must be directed in favor of the opposshying note If the chord is attacked via the lower note then the air is to be directed slightly upward etc

(f) Learn to identify the resistance factor first to best judge the necessary breath support for a response

(g) Ascertain the proper venting of the fingerings

(h) Avoid moving the flute on the embouchure this ensures a functional application of straight tone

(j) Minimize the action of the embouchure when it becomes necessary to adjust the direction of the air column Extreme sensitivity is essential

(k) Avoid any exertion of external pressure of the flute against the lip Provide for mobility of the embouchure

(m) Adapt the embouchure and the air column to the sounds Do not attempt to alter the peculiarities of the timbres so radically otherwise the idea of having varieties of tone qualities at hand will be defeated These chords must be played convincingly or they will become repulsive

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-I

SPECIAL SONORITIES

When applying these fingeringsthe flutists and composers may wish to explore a variety of sonorities through the use of the chords Numerous effects are discussed in these sections that follow The position numbers and code numbers with letters have been assigned to the multiphonics These are to be referred to as each part is consulted for study

(A) Multiple Trills and Multiple Effects

Control of the multiphonic must be assured for the proper exshyecution of these effects The flute must be held steady to ensure the adequate dispersion of the air column so as not to obstruct the sounding of the multiphonic Practice by moving the fingers slowly at first in order to achieve a lightness in the action of the keys This will prevent a jarring of the flute on the embouchure

The following are possible using the illustrated fingerings

(a) MULTIPlE TRILLS UP or DOWN--- The lower and upper notes of a chord trill simultaneously and in the same direction

(b) MULTIPlE TRILL - CONVERGING -- One note trills upward while another trills in a downward direction This is created by the sounding of a common note onto which each trill converges

(c) Single trills in any direction are possible while other notes of the chord sustain

(d) MULTIPlE PITCH - PULSATIONS -- These account for trills of microtonessmaller than quarter-tones

(e) Together with multiple pitch-pulsations other tones can be sustained

The instructions for the above effects have been abbreviated(as in sections on quarter-tones) and the words lower upper and sometimes middle refer to the particular notes in the chord This is followed by the indication of the direction in which the trill is moving

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The resul tant letter identifying the to be activated effect note

Ex- ( IE 1st RH Multiple Trill-UP )

tJ) 0 A

~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull 1 0

(2) yen-- bull bull bull bull I 0 bull I bull bull 2

(3)~ IA bull bull bull bull I bull o bull 13 -eshy

(4) 0yen--IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 12 -fi

(5)~ IC 0 bull bull I 13

(6) ~-ICID bull bull f-o bull I bull bull bull 1bull

~--e-(7) fyen IE bull bull bull 1-0 bull bull 13

bull bull bull bull bull bullbull3 =--e- 10 (8) ~-IB bull bull bull f---O I bull bull bull 13

1 Using a wide aperture direct a dispersed air column downward Little breath support is needed Close the keys for low B with certainty

2 Direct the air column upward Intensify the breath pressure sufficiently to effect the response of the upper partials but allow for adequate openness of the aperture to permit an immeshydiate sounding of the lower note as well Only a minimum of breath support is necessary Close the keys for low Bsecurel~

3 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the lower notes Avoid changing the size of the aperture when adding to the breath support for the upper notes Close the keys for low B securely

lA

18

3rd RH Multiple Trill-UP

Thumb Upper sustains key Middle trills DOWN IE

ID

1st RH

3rd RH

Multiple Trill-UP

Multiple Trill Converging

lC 2nd RH MUltiple Trill-UP

[53]

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7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cont

~

(9) ~ e-

IEIF bull bull bull bull I bullbull middot2

1I0) ~-IE bull bull bull 3 (II) (f -IBIG bull bull bull I 0 I bullbull middot4

0 Ibull I bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14

(12) ~-IAH o-j bull I bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (I3)~ 15IAIJ~ bull I bull bull I bull I

eshy(14) ~ fA IK IL bull I 16Ibull bull 0-+

I bull bull I

(15)11 -IJILIM bull o-j I 16 bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I

IAIH(16) -0 I bull I bull I I 17IN~ bull bull 0-

(17 ~ -IMIP bull bull o---j ~I bull bullbull 178

l8) ~ ~-IAIJ 15bull 0 bull I I bull bull rmiddot

tt (l9)~--IQIR bull o----j bull I bull I I I bull bull 17bull

(20) _ -IEIS 0bull bull bull bull bull I I bull I 17

~ ~) I

bullbull I

f~ ~bull lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

8deg 8 ~ G+ + f-eshy

(21l~~IUIT I bullbull bullbull f-O I bull bull I I 17

(22)~ -IJIP~ 1-0 bull I bull I bull 15 ~n

(23)~ IV I bull bull o-l H bull I bullbull I 1-i98 e

(24) ~-ILIM~ 0bull I bull I I bull bull 15

(25)~- IMIWIX I bull 0 bull bull I 0 bull I bull I 15 ~Q

(26) ~ -IMIJ I I bull I I 0 I I 15bull 0 bull bull (27)rW-IJIQIYe--1 0 o bull I I l6bull bull bull I bull

(28) ~-IQIB bull bull I 01bull o bull I bull bull middot3 ~~~

(29)~-IQIZ bull 0 bull I bull I bull I bullbull 19

(30) ~~ ~ILIQ~ bull I 0 I bull bull 19IR2A

t-n (31) ~ -IMIN2S I bull 0 bull I Hgt I bull I 16

D (32) ~ IQIY~ 162C2D I bull I bull A

(33)~-IJIQlVIY~ I bull I 01 bullbull I 16

(34) ~_rNQbull I bull 0 bull I f-ltgt bull I bullbull 16IL [54]

~~~JI~~I

Isf Th Th 2nd 3rd

~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ (35)~ IDILIQ2C~

(361 ~-IL bullbull o--e ~~

t37J ~n ~-ILIQIW~

(38) 111~ IQIR~ 2C2D- I bull - I

(39) Qi ~-IMIV2E~

-eshy(40)~

~-2F2G bullbull~+-_--(O bull

(41) ui ~ - 2C2G2H bullbull--I-----(O bull

p-u (42) ~ 2~iH~ -amp

(43)~ -IQIR2L~ lB

44J ~ 2E2M~ (45)~--2D2N~

~1gt-+-o---+---+--+--+-----1 68

t--iI~I--tt-tI H__+-1-t---ll 9

r--laquogt I bull I I bull bull 178

r-o--t- bull I I bull bull III

bull I

t-o I

bull I

bull I

310

bull bullbull7

bullbull 19

f--o

bull bull I

bull I bull 19

bull bull 1912

bull bull bull

bull bull

I II

16

4 Direct the air column upward slightly and intensify the breath using an embouchure that favors the middle register

5 Adjust the aperture mainly for the lower note and direct the air column inward Use only a light tone support

6 The air column is to be directed upward very slightly with the embouchure favoring the upper note

7 Use a wide aperture with substantial breath support and direct the air column upward

8 Also vent approximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 Use an aperture more appropriately adapted to the upper notes but direct the air column downward slightly Only a medium amount of breath support is needed

10 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH imperceptibly

11 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the middle range This chord is to be supported robustly

12 Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd key LH also

IF 2nd RH MUltiple Trill- IX (ring only) DOWN

IG 1st RH Upper sustains lY (ring only) Lower trills DOWN

IH

IJ

lK

lL

1M

IN

IP

lQ

lR

IS

IT

lU

IV

lW

1st RH Upper sustains lZ Lower trills UP

1st RH MUltiple Trill 2A Converging

3rd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP 28

2nd LH Multiple Trill-UP 2C

3rd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2D

EP key Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2E

3rd LH MUltiple Trill-UP 2F

2nd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

2G Low C Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWNkey Upper trills DOWN

2H 1st RH Lower sustains2nd RH Upper sustains Upper trills UPLower trills UP 2K 2nd RH Multiple tones susshyLow C Multiple Pitchshy (ring only) tain Middle noteskey Pulsations Middle pulsatetrills UP 2L 3rd RH Upper sustains1st RH MUltiple Pitchshy Lower trills DOWNPulsations Upper

sustains 2M 1st RH Lower sustainsMulshytiple Trills ConshyEP key Lower sustains vergingmiddot

Upper trills DOWN 2N 3rd RH Multiple Trill-DOWN

G key Upper sustain~i Lower trills UP

[55]

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills UP

G key Multiple Trill Converging

1st RH Multiple Trill Converging

3rd RH MUltiple tones sustain middle notes pulsate

1st RH Lower sustains Upper trills DOWN

Thumb key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

Thumb key MUltiple Trill-UP (wide intervals)

2nd RH MUltiple Trill Converging

2nd RH Lower sustains

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bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES

07(

Cont

~

(46) 1 -IL 2P 20 19I I -0- bull bull bull I bull I bull bull

(47)~ IAIL2R 16

~ bull 0 bull bull bull I bull I bullbull (48) ~ __ 252T bull o-o--j bull I bull I I bull 17

~2X(49) IEIO 2U bull I bull I bull 1 bull bull 4

~A bull

(50)~ - -2U2V2W bull I bull I 0 I I I II bull

IE2U(51) It ~ 02X bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull3

(52)~-ICIE2U2Y 0--1 bull I bull I I 15I bull bull ~n

(53) ~ 2C2U 2Z bull 0---1 bull 1 0 I 1 bull III

n (54) ~ly2Z3A383C bull bull I bull 1 bull 1 16

(55) ii-lEI bull bull t--o bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (56) 11-amp

~-IH2T3D I f--o bull I bull I bull I 15 D

(57) ~_IHIP I bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I 152T3D I

(58) If --IEIY bull bull f--o I bull I bull bull bullbull3

[56]

( 1~(O~)~ 2Z I I bull I bull I I I bull bull 12I

~Q-6shy(60) ~-IYI2H I I bull bull I 1-0 I bull I bull I bull bull 15 =~

(61) ~--3C3E I I I

(62) t~ -3F I

~ (63)1~

( 3E I I laquogt---ebull (64) d-Qshy-0- ~-2H3G~

(65) ~ - IP3G3H I I I

(66) ~ - IMIP3KI

- bull bull bull bull (67) 0shy

lt1 ~ I P283L3M I I

-(68) ~~4l-~IM2BI Itba 3K bull

(69) = ~--IM3N1

=1l-6shy(70) ~ ~ I] II IP I I bullbullbull bull

(71) ~~ ~--(X3P~ (72) qA gIX2H~

1-0 I bull I bull I bull I 15

I bull I I I I 1 bull bull I II

bull I bull 1 I I I I 1113

f--O I I I I I bull bull 15

I I I I I I bull I I 15

L bull I bull I 0 I bull I 16

1 bull I I 15

bull I bull I o bull I I 16

914

I bull 0-+-----0 bull 1914

1---0 I bull I bull I bull I I 613

1-0 bull 1 bull J bull I ~16

bull bull

13 Approximately one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH is to be vented

14 Vent also one-fourth of the 2nd key RH~

~ ~o (73)~

E= - 3K3Q3R 1-1--I--~-4a--o---e

(74) ~ ~2G3K3RI bull 0 bull

~ a (75) ~2B2G3Q3R3Sr----t------oshy

(76) t~ ~ 3R3T3U 1-1--l-~-egt----J--1

(77)I~i - -- 2P3 L 1-1--I~~----4 --shy

n __

(78) g _ 1-1-+--+-~----3V ___ ~

t79)ff ~ - I B2Y3V 1-1--I--+--4a-4~bullbull

~-e-(80) ~ 2H 3L __-+ ----ia-+_~ ~ 3W bull 1

(811 _ 2H 2U bullbull~gt---~+-__

(82) 1- ~ - bull --shy2U3Xbullbull~-l---

(83) Qg ~- ILfQ30bullbulll--+--bull--0 bull

j~

qt (84) EQ IR zu ----1

EE 3W3Y bullbull~~~-l---I~----

t9 t85) ~

~~ 3Y3W3Xbullbullf------+--+-~o__1

bull I bull I bullbull 19

~~X--+-I-+--+-+-f----t---il 6

7

~x I I bull I

bull loX I I 13

x I bull I bullbull 14

I--+I---4-X~----+-1-+---+1 4

3L

3M

3N

3P

3Q

3R

35

3T

3U

3Y

D Trill MUltiple Trill-UP key

2nd LH Multiple Trill Converging

Thumb key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

1st RH ~ MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

3rd LH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

D Trill key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

G key Lower sustains Upper trills UP

3rd LH Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWN

D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills UP

1st LH MUltiple Trill-DOWN

3W D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills DOWN

3X 1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

3Y 2nd LH Multiple Pitchshy(ring only) Pulsations

2P

2Q

2R

25

2T

2U

2Y

2W

2X

2Y

2Z

3A

3B

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

3K

3rd LH

E~ key

1st RH

2nd RH

MUltiple Trill-DOWN

MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

Lower trills UP Upper and middle

interpose

Multiple notes sustain Middle trills DOWN

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills DOWN

2nd LH Multiple Trillshy(ring only) DOWN

Low C Multiple Pitch-key

3rd RH (vented)

3rd RH

3rd RH

1st LH

2nd LH (ring only)

2nd LH

3rd LH

Pulsations

Lower sustains Upper and Middle

interpose

Multiple Tones sustain Upper trills DOWN

Multiple PitchshyPulsations

Multiple Trill-UP

Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

Upper sustains Lower tremolo DOWN

Multiple Trill Converging

G key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd RH MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

D TrillHigh C sustains key Middle trill UP

D and D MUltiple Trill-UP Trill keys

D Trill key MUltiple Trill-UP

1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

[57J

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7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cant

0bullI X I bull 1 2

bull bull I bull X bull 1 19

bull bull bull X bull I 17

bull bull I I bull X 19

bull bull e- r-oX I I bull I 15

bull bull I bull I X 16

bull r--o X I I 15bull bull I bull I bull X 1 15bull ()----j X bullbull middot11015bull o---j X I bull I 11315bull

o-ebull r-o-I I X bull bull 17

0--1 I I X I X I I 16

t-e-D

19S) It II -3P3Qbull I Ibullb6shy

199) 11~

0shy~-2H4E bull egt---l

lIOO)~ IE bull bull bull

1I01l

U-eshy1I02)~

~-~

-eshy

-2C

JO IPJQ4F I

bull bull bull bull bull bull bullbull bull bull bull

1I03)~ -2Y4G bull bull o-----e

UA1I04)fshy

-1L2H30 bull () bull lI05) ~

~ ~-IL2P I bull bull I bull II06I~r~

-2H3H4A~n lion xx

IBJR3H I~ I bull bull bull qn 1I0S)rD

-- IL3K l----+-----o-shyt-e

1I09)r 2U3K3L I I I e-bull

I I x x I I 115

rox X I bull 1913

2

I--cgt bull I bull I bullbullbull78

I I I I 17 I bull 0 I bull I I I II

1-0 I bull bull I 1713

-o bull I bull I bullbull 1712

7 8

f-I bull I I 115

I bull I I bull bull 14 shy

4

4

15 Approach the attack for this chord via the top note but widen the aperture sufficiently to accommodate the placement of the lowest note Direct the air column downward and apply a sUbshystantial amount of breath support

4D I 2nd LH Lower sustains3Z I D Trill I Multiple Trill-DOWN (ring only) IUpper trills DOWN

4A I G~ key I Lower sustain~i

key

4E I D~ Trill I MUltiple Trill-DOWN Uppertrills uuWN key

4F I 3rd RH I Lower sustains46 I D~ Trill I Upper sustains Upper trills DOWNkey Lower trills DOWN

4G I G~ key I Upper sustains4C lIst RH I Multiple Tri1lshy Lower trills DOWN(ring only) DOWN

3PECJAL SONORITIES

(B) The Tonal Characteristics And Dynamic Ranges

of multiphonics are shown here as three predominant effects Each chord-group possesses a built-in quality of tone and the player should permit this to subsist according to the resistance that is evidenced As the control of the embouchure improves those chords capable of sounding with a full dynamic range may alsobe controllable using a lighter tone quality and played at a softer dynamic level For this reason some chords have been listed in more than one category The numbers used toidenshytify the multiphonics in the main chart appear here in the approshypriate categories

(1) Subdued Quality of Tone Reasonably Soft Dynamics

1 15 34 65

2 18 37 73

24 54 6 25 55 80

12 26 56 90

13 27 57 91

14 33 64 92

(2) Some Degree of Resonance (3) Blaring or Strident Tone Medium Dynamic Range Fairly Loud Dynamics

4 27 57 74 2 37 60 89

5 28 58 75 3 39 62 93

7 29 60 5 94

8 31 61 76 9 41 63 95

9 32 62 80 11 42 70 96

10 33 64 83 16 43 71 97

14 34 65 86 17 44 72 98

15 35 66 90 19 45 77 99

18 36 67 91 20 46 78 100

20 37 68 92 21 47 79 101

22 38 69 93 23 48 80 102

23 40 71 97 26 49 81 103

25 41 72 103 27 50 82 104

26 54 73 106 28 51 84 105

30 52 85 107

32 53 87 108

36 59 88 109

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(C) Suppressed Chords

Often the term smorzato has been used to signify the effect of diminishing or extinguishing tones As is described here a controlled suppressing of tones in the chord can occur while the lowest note continues to sustain This can be accomplished withshyout altering the fingering

By releasing the firmness of the embouchure slightly and pershymitting the breath support to diminish the upper partials can be made to disappear When in some cases this does not produce the effect completely then a directional change of the air column must implement this technique Since the modification of the air column can be regulated voluntarily the suppression of the chords can be realized in any desired rhythmic pattern

In a few instancesanother note of the chord can be sustained simultaneously with the fundamental while the higher one is diminshyishing In other chords certain notes can be suppressed intershychangeably These variables have been indicated in the listingbelow As a result of this added peculiarity these other notes too can be sustained either prior to or following the suppression of the chord This effect is related to that described in part(D) of this section

[59]

In this list the fundamental note is illustrated together with the number that applies to its multiphonic The arrows on the altershyations have been omitted Attention is drawn to the fact that as an added advantage these tones for their distinctive timbres may be used also as single-line notes

The following multiphonics are the most responsive and easiest to control for this effect Two-note multiphonics are listed first and are the most facile

Two-note Chords

6 E 27 G 65 C 91 D

12 G 32 G 66 C 92 D

13 - G 33 - G 67 - C 93 - D

14 - G 34 - G 71 - C 97 - EO 15 - G 52 - So 72 - C 102 - G 22 - G 54 - So 73 - C 104 - G 24 - G 58 - S 76 - C 107 - S 25 - G 60 - C 80 - C 108 - S

26 - G 61 - C 90 - D 109 C

Three and Four-note Chords

36 - Low and middle Gs will sustain as the upper note

2 - E

3 - E is suppressed Alter the 5 - E air columns direction

8 - F (Middle G and possibly 37 - AO middle E can be altershy 38 - AO (The C or G may benated with d) interchanged with the

9 - F sounding of F by altershying the direction of air)10 - F (C can be alternated

with F) 40 - A (C alternates with G) 11 - F 41 - A (F alternates with C) 16 - G 42 - A

17 - G 43 - A

19 - G (E can be alternated 45 - A with F) 46 - A

20 - G 47 - A 21 G

48 - A 23 - G 49 - So (A and B sound simultashy28 Low and middle Gs will neously as the chord is

sustain to~ethet as the suppressed) upper note is suppressed

50 - BO and A sustain as the 29 - G top note is suppressed 30 - G 53 - BO 35 - G 57 - B

[60J

70 - C 87 - D (A can be alternated with E by releasing the breath74 - C pressure interchangeably)

75 - C 88 - D 77 - C 89 - D 78 - C 94 EO (B can be alternated 79 - C with GO) 82 - d 98 - EO

99 - E83 - C (E alternates with C) 100 - F84 - D 105 - A85 - D 106 - B86 - D (f can be alternated with

C~ by changing the direcshytion of the air column)

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(D) Connecting Single Notes to MUltiphonics

The suppressing of chords (part C) indicates that it is posshysible to sustain a single note and connect this to a chordassumshying of course that the fingering being used initially is that of the multiphonic A flexibility in this procedure results from the fact that either the lowest or highest note in each multiphonic can be sustained when going into or coming out of the chord This occurs without any perceptible interruption of the sound oraltershyation of the fingering However it will be found that some chords do not lend themselves to a controllable responsiveness when they are approached via the highest note This can only be determined by trial and error

The middle note in many of the three-note chords can also be sustained The chords listed below have been selected as thosehavshying this characteristic and a few added effects have been noted with several others The letter after each number applies to the middle note of the multiphonic In the case of four-note chords then the note from the middle octave which may lend the easiest response is listed As mentioned previously it is automatically assumed that the lowest and highest notes from each chord can be isolated and sustained without difficulty

In some instances a radical change in the direction of the air column and a simultaneous release of the breath pressure may be necessary to effect the linking of tones to chords portions of which are then to be suppressed Only by experimenting with the process of isolating the tones can the player acquire a famshyiliarization with the physical sensation involved This will dicshytate any modifying of the air columns direction and maneuvershying of the embouchure

The two-note chords are quite simple to execute in this proshyduction and either note can be sustained with ease

Page 3: A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the Flute

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

HOW TO READ THE CHARTS

1 BASIC FINGERINGS bull 6

2 (a) HARMONICS bull 10

(b) FRENCH MODEL FWTE 11

3 TRILLS (Half Step and Whole Step) bull 12

4 TREMOWS (a) Major and Minor Thirds 18

(b) Perfect Fourths and Tritones bull bull 23

(c) Perfect Fifths bull 28 (d) Sixths Sevenths and Octaves 30

5 ALTERED FINGERINGS 39

6 QUARTER-TONES and QUARTER-TONE TRILLS bull bull 42

(a) C Flute 44

(b) Alto Flute and Piccolo bull bull 48

7 MULTIPHONICSand SPECIAL SONORITIES bull 51 (A) Multiple Trills and Multiple Effects bull bull 53

(B) Tonal Characteristics and Dynamic Ranges bull bull 59

(C) Suppressed Chords bull 59 (D) Connecting Single Notes to Multiphonics bull 60 (E) Fluttering-Multiphonics bull 61 (F) Singing or Humming Sustained-Multiphonics 61

[3J

Special recognition must be accorded to Harvey R Frye Supervisor of Graphic Arts Audio-Visual Center Indiana

University for his organizational planning expert guidshyance and aesthetically excellent designing and drawing

of these charts

-- James JPellerite

[4J

bull bull bull

1 BASIC FINGERINGS

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~-- I bullbullbull I

~- I bullbullbull I

~~

~- I bullbullbull I

W-- bull I bullbullbull I

~_ I bullbullbull I

m~ --+--bull--4It-4~1 r-t-----Ir--tt-t-+---I---I--+-~I I

bull I bullbullbull I I I bull I I I

~ __ bullf---i--~---__bull I I bull A~~ ---- bull__-t--tI~---i I I I 1 I 11 ~_ ~--+----+---l bull I 12bull

I I 12 bull I bull bull I bull 12

~ bullbull I I I I I I bull

~ bull --1-I---i---i~t---J I I I I I I I I I

I I I I 3 fti----- bull bull bull I bullbullbullI I I

bull I bull I bull

bullbull I

I bull bullbull bull bullbull bull I bull I bull bull

[6 ] ---~-) Basic fingerings(These should be learned first)

bull bull bull bullbull

bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull

bull bull

~---- ~ bullbullf--_t__--4__J--I

~ ~ f--_t___J--I---I

~--

~ ~ --__I------bull----1i---li---li---I

bull

bull bull bull I

I--I----l---+I---+-ef--I-_+--+I 4 1--I----l---4llbull ---I-1-41~_+---j1 5

bull I I

bull I I

I bull I I I

bullbull--+-_+_+_+-+---ibull-t-t--tl 2

1---f---If-----1f-----1--+ t--I--+-1 2 ~__t--t--+__~_ _t__+---il 2

bull I I

I bull I

I bull I I I

I bull I

I bullbull bullbull I I

~~I---t______+--+---I--+_+--tl 6 bull

BASIC FINGERINGS

1 This fingering produces a slighily lower level of pitch However its use in extremely technical passages is inshyvaluable

2 Each fingering must be learned with equal facility and applied interchangeably The control of various technical passages and added dexterity will be dependent upon this flexibility When possible emphasize the use of the BIever RH

3 The fa~lty intonation and thin tone structure of the open C~ can be corrected partially through the use of this fingering When using a French model flute deshypress the key-ring 2nd LH and vent approximately one-half of the tone hole This offers more control in a crescendo

4 To maintain the proper pitch level when playing PP depress the 2nd trill key(D~) gently as is needed

5 See item 1 In this octave the F is more noticeably flat in pitch This fingering is equally useful when sustaining the note in a ff to adjust the intonation

6 A controll~d level of pitch can be achieved in a ff when the EP key remains closed However the tone quality becomes muffled at this lower level of pitch and will necessitate embouchure adjustments

[7J

BASIC FINGERINGS (CONTJ

bull I bull I I I I I I bull I I I

~------I

If~-- I I bull bull I

bull Ibull bull Ibull

I I I I I

I

bull I

I bull

bullbull I bull

I I I

I

15

bull bullbull~~--I ~II----+--+--4~

I

bull I

I

bullbull

I

I

I

I)

~ I bull bull I

bull I 1 bull I I I I bull I I I

~-~ bull bull I

bull I

bull X

I X

I I

I

bull

I

1

I 8

19

I ~

8va 8v bull I bull bull I I X I 1

bull I bull I X X 110bullf I bull I X bull ~bull I 110 bull8va---

I bull bull bull I bull I I I middot11~--- I I 12

-shy

bull bull bull bull bull I bull 1 I 7 WI I 0

I I I I 1 I 14 8 T bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bull bull 113

bull bull bull bull bull bull I k

8va--

f 9 TII I bull I bull I I I bullbull 115

iJ I til1 I bull bull bull I I bull I bull bull 115

TI I bull I bull I I I I I I 15 10

11 W I I I I f

8va bull bull bull I bull bull bull

12 T S~

13 T8va-- fI I I Ibull I X bull~_I bullr

I I bull I I bull bull 114 14 Tbull middot)( n I I bull bull 114 vbull bull I middot)(

I 15 bullbull I X

I bullbull Tbull bull bull bull bull 08va

bull I bull o---j I X 116 16 W

bull I bull bull I X bull bull bull 117 17 T

h~ X

I

s

i

8va----- 1-+--+--middotmiddot--+- f-----+-+-IXl(---+I-+---+-H 15

7 When playing If this fingering produces a lower level of pitch and an altered tone quality as well

8 To facilitate the execution of rapid passages the ED key may remain open

9 This alternate fingering will aid the adjustment of the intonation for a PP Avoid the use of an excessive volshyume of air as the note responds with ease

10 This lowers the pitch level for alf bull

11 When using a flute with a iow C foot joint the little fingerRH is raised

12 This fingering affords a slightly lower level of pitch See item 11

13 This fingering demands added breath support but the resulting pitch level is lower Use this Blso on a flute with a low C foot joint

14 This fingering produces a lower level of pitch but the note lacks an immediate response However this may vary on different flutes

15 These fingerings are applicable when using a low C or low B foot joint

16 When possible vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightly This may improve the response of the note

17 This fingering as well as 16 will respond on flutes having a low C or B foot joint

A SECURE PLAYING POSITION

The basic elements involving position and balance in holding the flute properly are of ultimate importanceat all levels of performance Much has been written onthis subject by many prominent flutists Therefore only the salient features relevant to fingerings are repeated now

1 Develop a secure hand position with the arms remaining free from tension to form an equalshyization of balance for the flute

2 Avoid any cramping of the musculature in hands wrists and arms which could bring about stiffshyactioned fingers

3 Encourage the use of a light action with the finshygers remainlng on the keys at all times Added inflections or accentuations in the music are the only occasions for which the fingers may be raised slightly higher on the keys

4 Permit the keys to lower and raise with all of the sensitivity possible The keys must be lifted not the fingers

5 Maintain a naturally arched position of the fingers This signifies the existence of freedom from any tension A flexibility and maneuverability of the fingers should be the result

Security in a playing position when achieved will bring controllabilitYand a solid technique with dexterity This must be available at any tempo

[9J

INTRODUCTION

An advanced flutist has reached that performance level because of the extreme sensitivity with which all facets of flute technique have been applied Certainly one of the most important of these instrumental techniques has to be the disciplined approach to the use of proper finshygerings It is assumed that this is a major concern of the professional performer but it should be equally so of each developing flutist

Too often due to negligence undesirable fingerings become firmly implanted in the playing habits of the young performers Correcting these faults in the early stages of their careers can result in a functional use of fingershyings as the flutists progress into the higher levels of proficiency This can be evidenced in their execution of extremely technical passages as well as the production of exotic tonal effects

Learning to use the appropriate fingerings for various situations ought to be considered a vi tal segment of basic musicianship since the application of the correct or corshyrective fingerings parallels the importance of other flute techniques This concept should become a part of each flutists daily routine and hopefully will guide the playshyer in the aspiration of becoming a sensitive musician

This compilation is presented as a methodology for finshygerings by offering a wide range of selected fingerings for the flutist and directing their use in diverse techshyniques It is hoped that this reference guide will encourshyage an exploitation of the flutes potentialities which should be the ultimate goal of every ambitious student of the flute

James J Pellerite Professor of Flute Indiana University

HOW TO READ THE CHARTS

These fing~rings apply to the Boehm system flute with the closed G~ key In many instances a low B foot joint is necessary although a low C will be acceptable for many of these fingerings Auxiliary keys that are someshytimes found on specially made flutes have not been conshysidered However the French model flute will be essenshytial for those charts in which the fingerings call for venting the various tone holes

A number appearing next to the illustration for each fingering will refer to the text material The correshysponding number is followed by a brief statement which relates to the fingerings purposefulness

The fingerings have been illustrated using the symbol ( ) and will indicate only that the keys are depressed For this reason it is not necessary to give considerashytion to whether or not a key remains open

The other familiar symbol (0) will apply exclusiveshyly to the use of the French model flute and be used solely to signify that a key is to be vented in its enshytirety

bull The key is depressed

C) The tone hole is vented accordingly

0 Vent the tone hole in its entirety

Apply the French model flute+ X Use the D or D Trill key

PI Pianissimo

If Fortissimo

R H Right Hand

L H Left Hand

[5J

2(a) HARMONICS

The production of overtones is a basic technique with which all flutists must become familiar Not only does -it represent the foundation for proper tone production but also it offers additional opportunities to simplify many complex technical passhysages which occur in the 3rd octave of the flute The fingering combinations for such phrases become moderately easy by using the fingerings for the fundamental notes to produce the harmonshyics Created by overblowing the fundamentals these are generally indicated as follows

0 g0 a 0 12

0 8 0 amp

To produce D3 (2nd overtone) use the fin~ering for fundamental Gl for E3 AI for F3 B l etc

To overblow the fundamental tone an intense air column must be applied This can be formed by diminishing the size of the aperture and increasing the breath pressure(subsequently the air speed) The air column needs to be directed more horishyzontally across the embouchure plate as one progresses into the higher harmonics Treating the fundamental tones in this manner will produce the following overtones in succession

[see Overtone Series chart (first measure)]

(a) 1st overtone - octave (b) 2nd - 12th (octave and a fifth) (c) 3rd - 15th (double octave) (d) 4th 17th (two octaves and a third) (e) 5th 19th (two octaves and a fifth)(0 6th 21st (two octaves and a seventh)

Frequently students find it difficult to reach the full gamshyut of overtones that are shown here This stems from the fact that sometimes they lack proper control of the embouchure and the air column However should this not be the case then the source of the problem may be the existing properties of the headshyjoint It is an accepted fact that no two headjoints ever will respond alike(even made by the same manufacturer) This varishyance means that one flute may possess either more or less resistshyance in its bloWing characteristics It is this added resistance that often may deter the production of the extremely high harshymonics However further development of the embouchure is asshysured as the production of these overtones is attempted and pracshyticed The resultant physical capability enables the flutist to create a greater number of overtones for each fundamental With this facility extremely technical passages in the upper ocshytaves are simplified by the use of left-hand-fingerings eg low G and A overblown can produce the overtone which would afford easier performance in a rapid passage of the 3rd octave

[10]

Due to the acoustical construction of the flute these harshymonics in the 3rd octave possess a rather veiled character of tone quality and a somewhat lower level of intonation than that produced when the regular fingerings are used The presence of the lower fundamental note causes this phenomenon since the reshyquired vent hole which is normally open in the regular fingershying is closed For example the regular fingering for D2 i properly vented by raising the 1st key LH ~he ton~ qoa11ty is muffled and its pitch level lowered when th1s key 1S closed In fact so many students accidentally produce this tone quality by using the incorrect fingerings and are not aware of the resultshying faulty tone structure One must discriminate and exercise discretion as to the use of these nshort cut fingerings Often the tonal beauty of a melodic passage is impaired by the obtuse sound of harmonics Their use in performance should be limitshyed to the most difficult passages in orchestral or band litershyature and even then only in rapidly moving phrases where it will ~ot be detected that harmonic assist has been applied

On the other hand there may be a desire for moments of tonal coloring in isolated cases Thus using the tone quality of some of these notes the harmonics become a purposeful and effecshytive display They can be used advantageously so long as the notes are played with conviction and will sou~dcorrect In actushyality many compositions now call for ~he add1t10nal tonal shadshyings that are possible when the harmon1cs are properly managed

The low register fingerings presented in thechart on Basic Fingerings are applied to the fundamental notes 1n the Overtone Series chart As the flutist progresses and studies the charts for trills tremolos etc he will discover that the application of the harmonic series will appear inexhaustible

Overtone Series 0)

Q it0Q ao ~ ~ e ~ ~ A

Q

- L g

2~ (0) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

~~ ltIi D ~

A ~ ~ ~

0 ~ IA 11amp I ~ IT 21 ~I

0 0 i~ lI- j- (2)

0 ltIi b b Q ~ ~ A shy1J ~ -amp - -- ~ = r ~ oa t ~ t 9 k

(2)1bullbull 1 v bullbull I

(3) (5)(6)(4)

Q

bull amp ~ ~Q Q

e- a Q ~

~ 6shy

~ ~Q ~v if Rk iv P V t v ~ I (2)

QQ ~ 6shy0 ~ ~

~o Q ~ -amp e

8 8 bull V R V 0 9J lit lit a 0~ ~

Note The following alterations may be applied when practicing from this chart These will assist in performing the upper harmonics with greater ease and their physical placement in the ocshytave would be identified more readily Followshying a degree of proficiency in the execution of the harmonic series these intervals should be practiced legato[slurred]

1 Vent the 2nd key RH 2 Use the Gn ~ey 3 Close the EP key 4 Use the low B key if available 5 Close the C key 6 Close the Cn key

2(b) FRENCH MODEL FLUTE Also referred to as the open tone hole model this flute is

identified by its perforations in the centers of the five keys that are activated by the fingers The relevancy of the French model flute is noteworthy Its prominence in the flutists career has been brought about by a variety of technical applications through which its advantages seem compounded

A substantial number of fingerings specifically for this instrushyment can be learned from these charts that follow The special finshygerings are for purposes of varying the pitch dynamics or tone quality or any of these in combination They also will effect a more realistic pitch relationship in the intervals for trills or tremolos according to the instructions as may be directed by the numbered comments There are some fingerings that are traditionally for the closed hole flute For these the use of the French model possibly could be supplemental to improve upon some of the original fingerings

The technique of venting the various tone holes is one that ought to be introduced to the lesser experienced flutist as soon as practicable The astute professional always has recognized the value of this application To develop the technique of sliding over the tone holes one must emphasize a subtle movement of the fingers with utmost sensitivity and vent cautiously for absolute control Almost immediately this reveals the ease with which it is possible to exeshycute a glissando of the scale bull

or a slide[portamento] to or from various notes

The left hand fingers should glide away from the flute in an outshyward motion while the right hand fingers move in the opposite direcshytion and towards the key mechanism This seems to be the most adaptshyable approach to venting However since each individuals hand position is subject to a mUltiformity due to basic differences in musculature other methods may be devised and considered equally successful The expertise of an artist teacher will be vital in considering each situation that is problematical To vent the hole by a fraction the finger is to be moved in a calculative fashion The pitch is raised according to the amount of the hole exposed The opposite is true when the desired pitch level is to be lowered By depressing the key ring by its edge it is possible to vent the enshytire tone hole The numbered comments accompanying each chart will suggest the appropriate venting combinations for each fingering

The acoustical principle applied to the vented fingerings is based upon the production of the harmonic series The overtones (see Overtone Series chart) can be altered conveniently by ventshying the fingerings for their fundamental tones This produces an array of pitches in a composite of overtones and results in total flexibility for the ensuing techniques that are to be applied By gliding these pitches the notes are altered to possess a wider range of intonation as well as a broad spectrum of tone content This development takes place as the fingerings alter the tubeshylengthsCdistance air column travels] for tone production These are either extended or contracted depending upon the location of the key being activated and the amount that its tone hole is to be vented Also with these fingerings the resistance factor of the instrument sometimes is transformed from its traditional response to an entirely different sensation in the production of certain notes Examples of this condition will be discovered when reading from the charts on tremolos altered notes quarter-tones etc

These modifications as provided by the use of the French model flute are beneficial in all facets of musical performance not only in contemporary music but in the standard repertoire as well

[llJ

bull bull

I TRILLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step)

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I bull bull bull I

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tr tr I bull I bull I bull I bullbull I

I bull I bull I bull I bulltr I I

bull I bull I tr bull II 0 I I 1(+)

tr I bull I bull I bullbull I I I

tr I I Ibull I bull I bull I

bull I bull I bulltr bull II I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull bull I I I

I I Ibull bull bull I bull I bulltr I bull I

bull bull bull I I bulltr I bull I I bull I I I 2

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

~-~ _ a--f----=-________

~_~----J

~-~ _ trtr ---------bull-bull- I bull I I

tr tr bull I bull bull bull bull bullbull-+--+--+-+-+-1-iIJ-+I-+---t1

bull bull I ~r I - I 4

~ tr j~ - bullbull--+-1---eillE-la--j---j I bull I bull

bulltr I bull I I bull bull I bull

bulltr I I I

(+) Applicable to the French model flute

I bull I

tr I bull I bull

bull f---1f--l--+-+-+--af-+-+--l1 5

f--tt-+-+-+------r---ilbull-t-+--ll 6

bullbull-+-1--t---t--+--+-f-+--t---11 6

tr Ibull I bull I

bull I

1--+---+---1a--t ---1bull--+---+---I1 7 (+)

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XtrI I I 181bull

Xtr II bull I 1---4~XE--tr--l--+-----tIt-+-+---l1 9

1---4a-l--l--4llXctr-+I_-+-+--11 9bull

I bull I bull I bullbull~--I bull bull bull tr

trFR=--() bullbullbull 1--iIIbull --+-__t---tIIt-+--+---+---I1 10

EUI= 1-1-+---~a-bull-+ bull bull ~r I I

TRILLS [Half-step and Whole-step]

1 This is possible only with the use of the French model flute Depress the 3rd key-ring RH by hooking the thumbnail underneath and behind the key trilling the tone hole Adequate time is necessary for the preparation of this unshynatural hand position

2 When possible begin the trill by using regular F fingering (3rd RH) to establish the proper level of intonation

3 This may be used for added facility when the trill is followed by the note E However the F~ is slightly flat in pitch

4 This fingering produces a flat BP(A) It is acceptable in a If and its use may facilitate technical passages

5 Appropriately used for a PP this fingering produces a higher level of pitch for C2 and C3 bull

6 Use this fingering for a ff since a lower pitch level for C2and C will result3 7 The intonation for C(DP) is lowered by venting approximately

one-half of tbe tone hole of the 3rd key LH

8 When possible begin the trill by using the regular D fingering to establish the proper pitch level for the interval

9 This lowers the C for a near correct interval

10 When possible lower the 1st key L4H~ slightly until the intoshynation and tone quality for D and Di(EP) is improved

x- Use Trill Key [l3]

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3 TRILLSltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

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I trbull middot1 bull bull I

I middot1 tr

Ibull bullbull I 110

~--bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull I Jr

J ~r I Jr I

Ibullbull III I 1112

M---1 bull bull bull bull I Jr l I 1

~--e-j bull bull bull ~ 2

~-- I bull bull bull I Jr I I I bullbull I I I

~--_I bull bull bull tr ~

~-- bull bull bull ~

~-- tr

bull bull bull bull ~

~--e-j tr

bull bull bull bull [14J

bull bull Jr I~-

~ I bull bull tr bullbull tr tr

~_ bull bull bull bull tr tr

I Jr bullbull bull I

I Jr l-i~_ bull ~r I Ibull bull I

bull bull bulltr I II

~-- bull bulltr H

~-- bull

tr I~_ I bull

bull I tr Ibull

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t-rl I I I bull I I I I

H-+++-e-+-+-t--

I I I I I I 1 I Ibull -+-1 I I bull I I I I H--+--++-+++-1 4

~ f--I I I I bull I ~-H

H-+-++e-++-H

Jr- I I I I I Ibull I ~r I I bull H---H

1-+--1 f==1 bull 5 I ~ 1--1 6

bull I II- I bull 16

Smiddot +

bulltr I I bull I I I

I I bull I

1------l----il)(e--tr+1--+-~-tIt-t--+-I1 13

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I------l--+-+I-Xlrt---jrIr--tIbull -+1-+1-II 14

I I

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tr I Xtrj 15(+)

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O-Depress the key by its edge

I I I Ibull bull bulltr bull

bull bull J--i 1--0 bull bull 116(+)

bull bull bull tr bull bull I bull I bullbull I I I

bull bull I I

1----tbull -+-CgtIgt--+--i-+-+----I117 (+)

tr trbullbullbullbull 1 bullbull 111

II Begin the trill by using the 1st key LH open for E~(D)

12 F2 is lower in pitch when this fingering is applied 13 While using the trill key apply proper tone support to simulate

the tone quality of regular C Adjust the direction of the air column downward

14 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for D Then apply the trill key and proper tone support to sustain a more correct interval

15 Depress the 3rd key LH venting the entire tone hole This assists in correcting the intonation level for a ff

16 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for E then apply the trill fingering venting the entire tone hole of the 1st key RH When playing PP the 3rd key LH is to be vented slightly during the trill

17 Almost the entire tone hole of the 2nd key R H is to be vented In a pp the tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be slightly vented while trilling

[15]

8va---

3TRilLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

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f--(gt I bull I bull bull I I 27(+)~~ I I bullbullbull

tr I I II e I 1

8va--- bull I I bull bull I I Jr Xtr I I I bull I I 28

~ ~I Imiddotmiddotmiddottr Xtr I I bull I I I bull () bullbull 1--+1--+-1-+-1~ -~I-+--II 29(+)

8va-

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f-I- bull -+-~bull-bull- bull I bullbull ~ 8va---

1---e~1+1~XF-tr+1 -bull-r---i--tl 30~ ---H bullbull I I I ~r I bull I I I I bull I

bull tr 1---e~1+-1lh a---fI-+--+--J1 31bull I bull bull bull8va--- tr

r4--~ bullbullbull I~J~r f-I+-1lhbullbull=-+I-+-1-+1--1 32(+)

~ bull I Jr l bull 11----+-1~II---+-I -tI~1 -+1=-11 33

~ tr

1~-l)(If-+~11---+-1-+1-1bull-+1--1 34(+)

8va---- bull I bullbulltr

0-1 ~r I I I I I I 135(+)

t---eJ--r)(If-tr-+I-l)(1E-+-1-+1-+1-+I---li 36(+)

~~ Jr )(trI I I I I I I 1---a~JrX-+rI~IeA----4l-+r-+1-1 37

bull I bull I bull ~rX I I I I I I Ibull I bull I bull

8va---

I bullbull I~~

bull I bull

gt--+---+I~o

I bull

I ~r I tr ~ I I

I Jr I bull I I Jr 1

bull

I f--+----t--lto

I I Xtrl

I I bull I I bull bull I

X bull I I

I bullbull I

118

119(+)

120

I I

I I 1121

I bullbull I I

I I bull I I I Jr I bull I

I bullbull I I I I bull I I

I 122 I 23(+)

I 124

I bullbull I I I I bull I bull I I 25(+)

I I bull I I I

-[16]

__========-==========~~========~=====~ ~-_ 1

8va---

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8va--D- tr x bull ~--bullbull-+--jo-r-+-tJ-I X oJ-+---f---+--1 39(+)

8va---

~ tr I tr bull I ~__-+--- ---t---e--i I )( I 140

8va-- tr tr

bull bullbull bull -I )(1---4a-+--e-4--+--+-+-+--e 4 O ~--IJgt-r-III---1----lt~ 1----41-+-+---+---+--+--+-+--4140bull bull bull bull I

8va--- tr tr

1---4~-+--+--+-1 -lt+--+-+-1-- 40~_ bull bull bull bull bull I

18 Although a basic fingering this does produce a faulty F

19 Vent the entire tone hole of the 2nd key RH If necessary the interval can be adjusted further by venting the 2nd key LH while trilling

20 The tone quality and pitch level of this interval is inadequate but in a ff this trill is acceptable

21 This fingering is appropriately applied in a PP On French model flutes vent the 1st tone hole RH while trilling to execute a secure diminuendo

22 To adjust the intonation for a more correct interval apply proper tone support

23 This fingering is useful in a PP bull Vent the tone hole of the 2nd key LH according to the desired level of pitch

24 Although the F is flat this fingering is acceptable in a ff 25 Depress the 2nd key RH to lower the level of pitch for

a If 26 Fundamental tones G] and A] are overblown in the production

of this trill HenCe a greater amount of tone support is necessary

27 Vent approximately one-third of the tone holes of the 2nd key LH and the 1st keyRH The intonation for G may be imshyproved by venting the 3rd key LH slightly during the trill

28 The A is faulty Throughout the trill apply firm tone supshyport to improve upon its tone structure

29 Begin the trill by using regular fingerings for G and A Then vent the 2nd key LH approximatell one-third of the tone hole [appropriately used for a PP J

30 This fingering offers suitable control for a PP bull

31 Use this fingering in a ff bull 32 The tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly to

provide for an immediate tonal response in a pp bull

33 Fundamental tones A] and Bl are overblown to produce this trill It is recommended fOr a ff level only

34 This fingering is applicable for a softer dynamic level Vent the 2nd key LH approximately one-third of the tone hole bull

35 The problem of coordinating this fingering may effect the tonal production Avoid moving the flute while blowing Vent approxshyimately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH and one-half of the tone hole of the 1st key RH or as may be needed to adjust the intonation for A

36 The 1st key RH may be vented slightly while trilling to raise the pitch level of the BP in a PP bull

37 This is appropriate for a 17 bull 38 The note C is lower in pitch 39 The intonation can be improved by vegting the entire tone hole

of the 3rd key RH 40 This trill demands substantial breath support Apply low C for

flutes without a low B foot joint

[17]

bull bullbull

bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull

bull

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

I bull I bull I ~I bull bull I 1(+)

bull I bull bullbull I bull I bull I Jr I bullbull 1 2

I bull I bull bulltr II bull I 12

I bull tr tr

I bull I bull I bull I I 2

trbull I I ~rl I H2

bull I bull bullbull

bull I bullbullbull I ~r I Jr I bull bull I I I 2

[18J

bull bull ~ Jr I I bull I 12

bull bull ~r I bull I bull I I bull I Imiddot I 23

trbull bullbull I I I I I bull I I 123

bull ~r I I I I I r bull 1--+-1 2

I I I I bullbull I I 12bull bull bull tr I

bulltr bullbullI ~1---I---+-----lI---+---+---1124 ~I-J--+----JI~ t-+---+--i1 2

tr tr I ---11-+-11--+-1-4-+---+----11 2

Jr ~r I ~I-J--+----J--t--J-t-I---+--il 2 bull--~tr tr--1I bull I bull I 12

f--i--j-+-t--t--j-l-t----+--il 24 tr tr I 1--+-4--+--1-+1l-t---t--il 2

bull I bull

bullbull I

bullbull I

bull I bull

Ibull

bull I

bull bull I bull__-+---

bull

I

~ trbull bull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull bull bull bull

124

12 ~ --+---+-H I xtrl xtrl bull I I I

~ tr trbull bull bullbull bull bull tr bull bulltr bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bullbull

12

15

16 ~ e---+-+-+--+--1

-i tr tr Ibull bull bull ~I Xtrl xtrl bull f-e-I bull I bullbull

16

19

~

~ ~

~

bull 4rbull I tr trbull bull bull I

tr tr trbull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr Ibull I tr bullbull I tr I I tr bullbull tr I I Ibullbull I ()----jbull bull bullbullbull bull

I tr

l

X 1

bull I

bull I I I I 1 I Xtr

Jr I Xtrl

I I Xtrl

bullbull

bullbull bull bullbull bull bull bull

124

127

127

16

12

12

12 18(+)

I 16

TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

1 Firm the hand position by anchoring the little fingerLH against the flute and underneath thi G lever Then apply the technique as described for the C -D trill [See TRILLS]

2 This fingering also applies to the octave above

3 Firm the hand position to avoid unnecessary movement of the flute against the embouchure The interval will sound more correct if it is produced with a less intense air column

4 This fingering affords a secure hand position The interval is faulty but may be acceptable at a ff level

5 The Cmiddot is flat and will demand the use of greater breath support

6 This is appropriately used for a PP level

7 To achieve a balanced ~and position while executing the tremolo depress the G lever

~ bull bull

bull bull

XtrlI ~r I 1

I I bull Xtrl bull

I 16

8 Apply this fingering at a PP level only When using a French model flute vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH

9 Begin the interval with the use of regular fingering for the lower note then proceed with the fingering as shown

[19]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

1

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

~ bull I tr trbull bull bull I bull middot1 I middot1 I 19

~ trbull tr bullbullbull I I I 19middot

~ Jr tr trbull bull bull I middot1 I I I bull 1 1 19

~fJf ~

bull

Apply lower octave fingerings

Jr I Jr II bull bull bull I I bullbull I I 110

~ bull I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I trbull bull I I I II

bull I bull I I Xtr Xtrj middot1 112bull

~r I Jr 1 I bull I 113bull I bull bull I~ bull

~ a ~ ~

~

~

bull bulltr bull bull

bull

bull I

bull bull bull bulltr I1

bull I bull bull Jr I ~r I tr bullbull I I

bullfr I bulltr 1 bull I tr tr I

I

tr tr I tr tr

tr trbull I bull bull bull I

x tr I I I bull I

xtr I Xtrl bull I

I I X tr

I Xtr 1

I Jr 1 1 I I bull I

I bullbull tr I bullX

19

114

I I

I 115(+)

116

19

I bull I bull J9

I bullbull 117

bull I I bull I 18

I I 118

I I I I I I I 119

[20J

bull bull tr tr I f------1-+--+--+--+-e_f-t-i1 25

~--+-__+_-+-----1I__-II-+-l1 24

tr f----tt-+I--bullI---iIII~e-f-t-i1 20

~--+-I__+_-+-----1If--agt-+-+-1 22

f-+-+---+--+----If--agt-t--+---11 23

~a___+__f--+----+--+---ll 20

1--1-+---+---+--+1---+---+-11 21

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull bull bull trbull bull bullbull

tr trbull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull

bull

bull

bull

trbull

bull

bull

8va-----

~(lt

8va----

~

r~~t-rXt-1--+--t-+1~I-+I-I 26(+)

f----4III~-rX--1r 1--+--11--+-1~I-+---li 27(+)~ tr t

bull 1 bullbullbull 1 1----1--t--+-+--it-r-+I-e-t--ll 28

10 Overblow the fundamentals(D-F) at the 12th

11 Overblow the fundamentals(E~-G) at the 12th

12 The D is better in tune as the tremolo is played pp bull

13 The fundamentals (E-G) are overblown at the 12th

14 Apply this fingering at a ff level

15 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown at the 12th When using the French model flute vent the 2nd keyLU and the 1st keyRU slightly while trilling This improves the intonation and affords control at a pp level

16 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

17 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

18 The fundamentals(G-BP) are overblown at the 12th

19 The fundamentals(G-B) are overblown at the 12th

20 This fingering is more difficult to coordinate however it produces a more correct interval

21 Overblow the fundamentals(G-B) at the 12th

22 Overblow the fundamentals(AP-C) at the 12th

23 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

24 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

25 Overblow the fundamentals (BP-DP) at the 12th

26 These harmonics are produced by overblowing BP at the 12th and F at the 17th This fingering is applicable also when using a closed-hole flute however the French model will produce the tremolo with clarity The tone holes of the 2nd and 3rd keys LU are vented slightly

27 Same as 26 but apply the harmonics B at the 12th and F at the 17th

28 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown to produce the harmonics at the 15th

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

8va------

~ bull bull trbull r-cirxtr I I I I bull I I 29(+)

8va-

~

8va----

~fit bull

bullbull

trbulltrbull

tr trbullbull I I

I I tr

X I

I I I

I bull I 131

bull 1 I 130

8va----

~ bull I bull

tr tr bull bull bull I I I I bull I I 132

8va----

bull bull bull bull I Jr l I I I I I 133

8va--

bull tr trbull bull bull I I I I I I bullbull 134

[22J

8va----

~r bull o--e I bull I I I I I M 35(+)

f

29 Overblow B2 to produce the harmonic at the 12th On French model flut~s the response of the interval is improved by depressing the 1st key ring RH

30 Overblow the fundamentals (G-BP) at the 15th

31 Overblow C2 at the 12th to produce Gbull

32 The fundamentals (G-B) are overblown at the 15th

33 When using a flute with a B foot joint depress the low B key only

34 Overblow the fundamentals (A-C) at the 15th

35 On French model flutes depress the 3rd key ring LH The tonal response when using this fingering may vary with some flutes if so use the EP key instead of low C

I I

These charts include as many fingerings as are pracshyticable in the execution of tremolos involving intershyvalsinfourths fifths sixths sevenths and octaves Those intervals which have been omitted lacked acceptshyable fingerings that would offer adequate facility with the necessary tonal response Probably these intervals could be played with a degree of proficiency by using the regular fingerings resulting in a superior effect

Tremolos other than thirds or fourths are used inshyfrequently but being knowledgeable in their technical production would prove most beneficial to the performer Their physical demands would add a totally new dimenshysion to the flutists technique Embouchure flexibilishyty and the coordination of the fingers are the initial benefits that accrue from the execution of these wide intervals

It will be noted that a resemblance to the regular fingerings will exist in some of these and the addishytion of the G~ or thumb or trill keys serving as vents lend an added distinctness to the intervals In many instances these keys bring about a response as efshyfectively as would an octave key on other woodwind inshystruments

Apart from their function as tremolos there are nushymerous advantages which these fingerings offer The conshytrol of technical passages by applying these as short cut fingerings the production of tonal effects in lyrshyical phrases or the purposeful application of tone coloring simply by reiterating these intervals slowly are all distinct merits that would contribute to a pershyformers technical skills However the individual situations in present-day repertoire must be researched experimentally in order to apply the various fingerings These will promulgate a more comprehensible approach to the application of the harmonic series as well as provide for an extended view in the use of the French model flute

4(b) TREMOLOSCPerfectFourths and Tritones

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

tr1middot1middot bullbullbull I bull I Jr I Jr I bull bullbull

tr trI bull I bull I I bullbull II

tr tr ~ bull I bull I bullbull II

II

I tr I tr I tr I I I1---iIbull-I--iIIIIr--+-ja-t-1IIbull-+------1 I

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones)

1 Apply these fingerings one octave above

[23)

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones) Cant

tr tr trbull I bull I bull 1 I I IIbull bullbull I

bull bull tr

bullbull I tr

bull I bull I bull I I I 11)2

tr tr bull bull bullbull bull I bull I bullbull I I 11)2

tr bull bull bull I I I bull I bullbull I I 11 1 3

trbullbullbull I 11 I 1 I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I bull I I bull I I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I I I I bull I I II

I 1 I I I bullbull I 1 11)5

I I I I I I bull Jshy 1L

I I I I I bullbull I I II

bull ~r bull I I Jr I I I I bull I I 114

tr trbull bull bull

tr trbull bullbull

tr tr Ibull bull bull

bull bull I Xtrl I bull I 16bulltr tr bull I I I I I bull I 11)7bull bull

I

Xtrlbull bull bull I I bull I 16- bull

t

trbulltr bulltr bull bull bull I I I I I bull I I 1)7

I XtrlI I I I 18bull bull bull bull bull I~- tr

bull bull I I I x bull I 19~-

I I~ bull ~r I I bull bull I bull Ibull [24J

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

y ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~

bull bull I bull 19

bull bullbull

bull bulltr

Ibull bull I I tr trbull bull bull bull I

trbull bull bull ~r I tr Jr I

tre----1 bull bull bull bull I bull bull

tr bull tr

Apply lower

tr tr tr

bull bull I

Xtrl Xtrl bull 19

bull bull I bull bull I

tr trbull bull X l bull 110

bull bull I bull I II

tr tr middot1 bull I I bull I II tr Jr Xtrlmiddot1 bull 110

Jr l XtrlI bull I 112

octave fingerings 13

~rl ~rl tr I bull 1 I bull I

~ Apply lower octave fingerings

~fJf 13

2 It is acceptable to trill only the G key for a PP level otherwise alternate the trilling of the G key with the 1st key RH

3 Use an intense air column to produce a more correct tone quality for Abull

4 Coordinate the action of both fingers to avoid lagging the response of the interval

5 For added facility trill only the 2nd key however the B will remain faulty bull

6 At a pp level this fingering may be acceptable

7 Although difficult to coordinate this fingering is preferred

8 Adequate breath support and directed inward will assist toward the production of a more appropriate tone quality for the D

9 As the upper note is faulty direct the air column inward to match the tone quality of the lower

10 This responds with ease and is suitable for app 11 The upper note will respond more readily as the interval

is played If 12 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to ensure clarity

13 Apply the fingerings given(See 1)

[25J

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritonesgt Cant

bull I I 11 21(+)

~ 8va--

tr tr bull lOX I bull I I I 22(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr bull I ~r I bull I I I I C) x I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va----

tr t tr tr bull I r I bull I I I I Craquo( I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr I I I I I I I I Ibull I I bullbull

~ 8va---

tr tr tr trbull I bulltr bull bull I bullbullx I 124 tr tr tr

~I x I 1(+) ~ bullbull8va---

tr tr I I bulltr bull bull bull I I x bull bullbull 125

~ 8va----

tr tr tr tr I I I I I I I 126bull I bull bull bull bull~

x tr xtrJ~rbullbull-+--+--I116(+) tr

l tr

)( I X I I 117

tr tr I I X 0 I I bull I I 1(+)

tr tr tr ~gt-+-If-X~I-e-ilr--+-il 19(+)

1--+1-i)(lrtr-tI-iXlrtr--+I-e-ilr--+-ll 20

11--+1-+-1-+I--+--+-bull-JI--+-I 14 t---drxtrl I I 115(+)

tr tr tr 117(+)bull bull bull bull bull I I xo I

bull tr tr Xtr Xtr bull bull bull I bull I I

tr tr tr 118(+)~ f-OX I X I bull I I

~ tr

bull I bullbull I I

bull I bullbull Jr I

[26]

I

8va---

~ 8va----

~ I_tr~x__t r+-I -+-+-1f-+-j--+-41 27 (+)

~ 8va-----

bull bull Jr ~29

~

14 Anticipate the action of the 1st key to avoid a lag in the response of the interval

15 In spite of this awkward fingering a ready response is afforded Alternate the use of the LH keys with those of the RH

16 This is purposeful for a ff

17 Apply this fingering for a pp

18 Control the action of the trill keys for a clearly defined interval Vent also one-half of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

19 Vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling to effect a pp bull

20 This is used for a ff

21 Vent approximately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH

22 For controllability concentrate on the use of an equal action with the RH fingers

23 The interval responds best when approximately one-half of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH is vented

24 This tremolo by necessity will be executed at a slower speed Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the thumb key and the right hand keys simultaneously

25 This tremolo will need to be executed quite slowly Altershynate the trilling of the G key with the use of the thumb and trill key together

26 Overblow the G~-C~2 fundamental at the 12th

27 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the use of the RH keys

28 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with the use of the RH keys

29 To correct an F that is faulty the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly while trilling

[27]

bull bull bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull

4(c)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

bulli I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I middot1 bull bullbull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 1 bullbull I

tr~ bull I bull bull bull bull I Jr I bull I bull I bull I II

~ trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 bull I I I I

bull tr trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 e e bull I 1 I

tr trbull bull I bull bull bull I Jr I el middot1

bull bulltr bull Ie I Jr I 12

tr trbull I bull bull bull I bull I e I 13 ~ tr tr tr I 1bull I bull bull bull bull I 1 4

bull ~

~ ~ -bull ~ bull

tr tr tr

I 1

bull I bull bull bull tr I

I

Ibull bull bull bulltr

I

tr tr II

tr tr II

e I bull bull Ibull tr tr tr

J

I bullbulltrx bullbull I

15

~rxtrl

xtr

xtr bull I

I I bull 16(+

17

I I Xtrl xtr bull 1

I tr tr Ibull I bull X bull I I 18

I bull I I Xtrl bull I I 19

I I I I I bull bull I I I

I ~r I tr tr bull I bull I bullbull 1

I I I I I I bull I I I

bull bull bull bull

bulltr bull bullbulltr

tr trbull bull bullbull I

tr trbull bull bulltr bull

bulltr bulltr bullbull

tr bulltr bulltr bullbull

bulltr bull bullbull I

bull bull bull o--e

e---jf-----bull-----

bullbull---1-----bull-0-0____

tr1- middotmiddot1 tr ~rl1-41-+1-----4---4----bull-11--+--11 II

bulltr I bull --+-iII~-+~1 12

tr bull I I - I

I - - I

ytrl tr 1--~7lr---+-+--4middotmiddotmiddot-4Imiddott---+-+---1113 I

114(+)

~ tr 115(+)

I bull trl bullbull 11516(+)

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

1 This fingering also applies to the octave above Alternate the use of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 The B is slightly flat

3 This fingering serves more appropriately for a pp bull

4 A more correct interval results with this fingering

5 Apply the use of a large aperture to produce a dispersed air column iQ using this fingering at a pp level The impurities in the C~ thus can be eliminated

6 This fingering is most appropriately used for a pp bull The D may be sharp in pitch

7 Use a strong air column to assist in the correction of a faulty D Alternate the use of the 1st key LH with the trill key

8 Avoid the sounding of extraneous notes in the interval by emshyphasizing control in the action of the RH fingers

9 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to secure coordinashytion with the LH keys being trilled

10 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the simulshytaneous action of the 3rd key LH and the 1st key RH

11 Avoid moving the flute thereby improving the coordination of the fingers

12 The B will respond clearly only if the action of the fingers is equalized

13 A slight accentuation of the G will assist in producing the interval with greater assurance Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with those of the RH

14 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightlyand about one-h~lf of the tone hole 1st key RH to adequately tune the G~ Avoid excessive closing of the embouchure

15 Accentuate the A throughout the tremolo to lend clarity

16 This fingering produces a controlled pp

~(c) TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths) Cont 17 Vent also one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH while

trilling

18 To ensure a tonal response accentuate the lower note

19 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH to properly tune the D This is more suited to playing pp bull

20 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with those of the RH

21 Apply a low B if available

22 An intense air column must be used for this interval Altershynate trilling the thumb key with the 2nd Although this finger- bull ing is awkward the interval responds readily and is enhanced further through the use of a low B

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

~

I Jr I ~r I~ bull bull bull bull I bulltr

I bullbullbull

~ bull I bull bull bull bulltr I Jr l bull I bull I bull bullbull 1

Jr I 1 bull I bull I bullbullbull 2~ bull bull bull tr

tr tr I~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull middot3 bull l

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull

bullbull1IIIIIIl~~~~

lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

~~~~

bull bulltr bullbull

tr trbullbullbullbullbull 111 bullbull 11

tr trbull I bull I bull I bullbull 12bull bull bull bull I

-i tr tr I I bull I bull I bull I bull bull I3

bull bull bull bulltr

tr tr tr I bulltr I bull I bullbull bullbull I

bulltr

I bull I bull I bull I I

bull I bull bull bull I tr I bullbull bull bull 14

~rl bull bull bull

bull I Jr I bull 16 Jr I bull I bull I

Jr I bull bull I 14

I ~r I bull I bull I I I I

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I j5

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I 15 tr trbull bullbullbull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

1 Alternate the trilling of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 Although this fingering demands coordination the tonal reshysponse is aided by the trilling of the 1st key RH

3 The A~ is slightly flat

4 This balan~ed hand position provides maneuverability howshyever the A~ remains flat in pitch

5 Direct the air column inward to achieve adequate response for the low C~

6 This fingering produces a lower pitch level for A~ bull

[31]

bull bull bull

--

I bull I I I I bull I I I

trxtrlI I Xmiddot bull I I 110

Xtr tr X bullbull III

Xtr Xtrl bull I 112

tr tr I bull I I I~r I X

Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 113

tr tr I JrXtrjbull bull I I 114

tr I Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 114

tr tr tr II tlr I bull I bull bull bullbull 15(+)

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)Cont

~ tr tr tr I bull I Ibull I bull bull bull I 17

tr tr I 1 bullbull I I~ - bull bull bull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull bullbull I I I

tr tr tr trbull I I I~ bull bullbull -I middotmiddot1

~ tr trbull I bull bullbull ~rl bull I I bull I I I

tr tr tr tr I~ bull I bull bullbull I middot1

__I tr tr ~8 ~ bull bull bull

tr bull bull Xtrl~ bull I bull bull I I middot1 I 19

[32J

~ ~ ~ V bullbull bull bull

tr tr Jr I

Ibull bull bull bull I

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull I

-1 bull bullbull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull bull

I I

r

I tr tr tr tr

I 115(+)bull bull bull bull bull I-laquogt bull I bull I bull I 13

bull ~ rdr r I bull I bullbull 113(+)

bull bull bull tr

~ bull bull I bull I 118(+)1

bull bull bulltr r I I bull Xtrl bull I 119

tr trbull bull bull bull ~ I bull bull bull bull 118(+)

tr tr 120(+)bull bull bull bull r--laquor-I bull I bull I bull I

1-1t-t-I-+--1-iI-+----+--+----11 21(+)

trbull bull bullbullbull

7 Avoid moving the flute during the tremolo Direct the air column inward to assure response for the D

8 Alternate the trilling of the LH key with the trill key The D is faulty Avoid the lag in response resulting from the LH reacting late This interval will prove to be difficult in sustaining a tremolo

9 The D is flat and requires added breath support Alternate the trilling of the thumb with the trill key [see 8J

10 This tremolo is more correct in pitch if played softly Use a slightly diffused air column to prevent the D from becoming sharp

11 This interval must be played louder than 10 for it to be near corr~ct in its intonation Intensify the air column for the Dli

12 Use greater breath support to raise the pitch level for D bull

13 This interval will be difficult to execute as a sustained tremolo

14 Use the ED key to raise the pitch for the upper note if needed Alternate the G key with the simultaneous trillshying of the RH keys

15 Alternate the G key with the trilling of the keys of the RU The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH This tremolo is difficult to coordinate due to the possishybility of certain tone holes not being covered adequately

16 Anticipate the action of the trill key to aid in the proper coordination

17 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH while trilling The clear response will depend upon this controlled venting

18 The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th A breath emphasis given to this note will assist in its response

19 Adequate breath support for the F may paTtially correct its faulty tone structure

20 Vent ~pproximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH The Gli is a harmonic at the 12th Venting the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling may add distinctness

21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

[33J

r

- - -

tr -I I I 121(+)- -shy

4(d) TREMOLOS ltSixthsSeventhsOctavesgt Cont

-~

tr ~

trbull I bull -

_I

tr r--o I

tr - I -

- 1 bull

-

I

I I

__

21(+)

118(+)

~ - I bull tr

- o----l ~r 1 -I _I __ 118(+)

~ - I tr

bull -~ tr- -I -I I I I 22(+)

-~

tr ~

tr- 1 bull -()-----1

tr I _I --I I-tr tr I -I I- shy

121(+)

122(+)

- ~ tr

j--() I _ I - I - - 12 3(+)

tr ~ -I -I - I I 124(+)

~

bull ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~

~

Jr I tr tr 0-1shy~

~

~

~

tr - shy-

tr trbull I - I- I

-tr I - II I

Jr 1 _I- I I

Jr I _ -- I

tr tr I-I I - I-Jr I I I - Ishy

I Jr II I - 1 shy

tr I tr I Il I

I 124(+)

I I 21(+)

I 125(+)

I 124(+)

1 121(+)

I 121(+)

- 126(+)

I 127

[34]

bull bull bull bull

2nd 3rd

l~~ tr

bull bull bull bull I bull~

bull r ~r bull I I Jr 1 ~r I bull bull I 127

~ tr tr tr tr rr I xI H27bull bull bull bull l bull I

~ r tr ~r Xtrbulltr bull bull I r-+- bull I 127

~ tr tr trbull bull bull bull I I Jr I XI bull I 127

~ tr tr tr

I XI -I 128

~ tr ~I X I

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull I

~ tr tr

Xbull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 129

~ tr tr Xtr bulle-----i bull bull bull bull I X bull bull 11330

~

B~

tr I bullbull 130bull bull bull bull bull

~ tr tr tr I

--I bull bull bull 1 bull 1 bull X I bull bull 11331

~ 21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper

note is a harmonic at the 12th

22 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

23 Vent approximately one-half of the tone holes 2nd key LH and 1st key RH while trilling This produces a G~ harshymonic at the 12th but on a low C fundamental (vented)

24 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

25 Vent one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The A is a harmonic at the 12th

26 Also vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

27 Favor the embouchure and direction of the air column used for the lower note throughout the tremolo

28 The D will be flat and demanding of full breath support

29 This interval may be cumbersome as it requires alternating the trilling of the 1st key LH with the trill key

30 Direct the air column outward and to further the responsiveshyness of the interval lend a breath accentuation to the upper note

31 Alternate the trilling in the LH with that of the RH

[35J

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

4(d)TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths OctavesgtCont

I I xtrI I 1 bull bull 113131

~ tr tr trbull I bull bull bull bull I I X I X bull I bull bull 113~

tr tr X bull bull I bull bull bull I I Xtrl I bull bull 113131

~ trbull I bull bull bull bull tr Xtr I Xtrl bullbull 113

~ tr tr tr

~ Jr Ibull I bull bull bull bull bull x I bull bull 13

pound tr tr trbull I bull bull bull I x I bull bull 11331bull

tr ~rXtrlbull I bull bull bull I I I bull bull 113 131

~ ~r I

tr tr tr I I bull bull 11332(+)[=~

X

[36 ]

bull I I Jr Jrxtr I 113 133bull~ ~ ~ 1tJ= ~va---

8va--bull 8va---bullyen bull

I

~

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bulltr bull

bulltr I I

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

tr trbull I bull bull bull bull

(+)

~rl Jr I I I bullbull 134

tr tr tr middot1 bull x I H 31(+)bull I

tr tr I I I C) )( I bull I H1335

(+)

~rl bull I I bull I I 136(+)

~rl ~r I I bull I I 137(+)

tr ~ I ~r I bull bull H13 138

(+)

~cirl I I 1(+)bulltrbull

140(+

I42(+)

I(+)

140(+

bull I

~~I-+-+-11-----+-1--+--JI 39

I tr tr

j Ll-J

~bull --Xlf-+-+---+-H I I 43 (+)

r-Jr I bull I bull I

i----()-4--I-+-1--+-+----+--J (+)

tr tr bull bull egt--e

tr tr

bull

tr trbull bull bullbullbull

trbullbull--I----(raquo)--+-~

bullbullr----I--r--~o--j

bull bullbull ~ bulltr ---+~-+--~

8va--

~ bull bulltr bull

32 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH Alternate trilling the G~ key with the simultaneous trillingof the RH keys

33 The 2nd key RH is vented imperceptibly while trilling Alternate the LH with the trilling in the RH

34 B~gin the tremolo by giving breath pulsations to the upper G~ to benefit the response of the interval

35 The 2nd key LH is alternated with the synchronized trilling of the 3rd key LH and the RH keys The 2nd key RH is vented slightly

36 Vent about one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

37 The 1st key LH is alternated with the trilling of the RH keys

38 Scarcely vent the 1st key RH The harmonic content of the G adds to the difficulty in its response Regular fingering for this interval might be appropriate

39 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd

40 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

41 Also vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling

42 The 3rd key LH and 1st key RH are vented slightly according to the dictates of the interval in its level of intonation and ease of response

43 Scarcely vent the 2nd key LH while trilling the 3rd key approximately one-half of the tone hole

[37J

bull bull bull bull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Seve-nthsOctaves) 5ALTECont Nearl

the Fren of the f

(a) A 8va~ (b) A

(c) A

bulltr bull bulltr bull (d) E

(e) A~ These tOnal ef

8va~ be most trastsbulltr tr tr I I Jr I 144 (I

1-1-+--+--X~-+-+--+-J -I I Altho

erally i ~ breath p pianissi sitively notes to check til imperati in balao tack tha44 Use the low B key when available

Alter45 Vent about one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH special Hence t with eas

46 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd A firm action by the 1st finger must be accompanied by a slight Howev breath accentuation for the B offering

er breat pitch Ie clined t

At ti use of a followin suggeste ness giv plish th mended t fingerill The adju to the t teristid duct ion dependcn tonal sl oughly t completlO dynamic~

illgS is essenti~

44(+)

trbullbull

tr tr

trbull I 144

I bull I I x tr I bull I I 145(+)

I Jr I I bull I I

trbull bull

trbull bull bull

trbull bullbull

tr Cgt

~r bull I

bull

bullbullbull Itrbull

trbull

trbull

bull

bull bull bull bull

5ALTERED FINGERINGS Nearly all of these altered fingerings will require the use of

the French model flute They produce notes possessing two or more of the following characteristics

(a) A transparent tone structure (b) A higher pitch level than with normal fingerings (c) A variation of timbre (d) Extreme pianissimo with sensitively posed adjustments (e) An added resistance factor for playing fortissimo

These notes retaining a transparency add a new dimension to the tonal effect and used with discretion this blending of sound can be most desirable in phrases that also call for greater dynamic conshytrasts

Although the amount of breath support needed for these notes genshyerally is less than for those played with normal fingerings the breath pressure should be maintained in the usual manner as for a pianissimo The resultant pitch level can be controlled more senshysitively with many of these fingerings and the usual tendency for notes to become flat while playing softly sometimes can be held in check through their application When executing these notes it is imperative that the tongue stroke for the individual attack be used in balance with the dynamic level This avoids an overbearing atshytack that can delay the tonal response of the note

Altered fingerings for the notes of the third octave will be of special interest since the breath support for these can be lessened Hence the adjustment in the level of intonation can be accomplished with ease and flexibility

However some of these fingerings produce an opposite effect By offering substantially more resistance they permit the use of greatshyer breath support in playing a fortissimo Consequently a lower pitch level can be attained for those notes that normally are inshyclined to be sharp These also possess a different timbre

At times it may be difficult or impossible to coordinate the use of an altered fingering with that of a preceding note or one following In each circumstance the fingering must be applied as suggested by the accompanying material and with equal attentiveshyness given to its resulting tone production In order to accomshyplish the maximum result with a degree of practicality it is recomshymended that the various possibilities as offered by more than one fingering for a particular note be explored as much as possible The adjustments for these varicolored notes must be made according to the treatment of the air column and the notes resulting characshyteristics Since each flutist by nature will approach tone proshyduction differently the ventin~ of the tone holes then will be dependent upon this phenomenon The performers capacity to hear tonal shadings nnd minute modificntions of intonntion will be thorshyoughly tested as he nttemllts to develop a technique for venting A complete understanding of this proceduJe for altering the pitch dynamics and tone quality is vital and the use of special fingershyings is a vnlued supplement to the interpretive skills that are essential in the flutists performance

This concentration of fingerings stressing the use of the French model flute will serve as an appropriate introduction to the SUbsequent charts in this book Many of these fingerings can be altered further to vent for a more exacting structure of a quarshyter-tone scale and because of their relationship with the function of the harmonic series they form a fundamental approach in the proshyduction of multiphonics

~ ~- bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 2bull bull bull bull bull 0-+-0 bull bull I 12

12~ bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull bull 12

~- bull bull bull o--i ~ bull bull bull bull 2

bull bull bull 0-1 f-o bull bull bull bull I 12

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull bull 12

0 bull bull bull 112~ bull bull bull bull bull bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull o-e bull bull bull bull bull I 12bull

bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull I 12 bull 0 0bull bull bull bull bull bull I 12

l Vent the tone holes completely Apply a wide aperture and use very little breath support This will lower the pitch signifishycantly and at the same time produce a light and transparent tone structure

2 Each of these fingerings offers a slightly varied tone quality Vent the tone hole(s) as indicated

[39J ALL FINGERINGS ARE USED FOR PIANISSIMO UNLESS DESIGNATED BY()

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cont)

()bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull I 17~-15bull bull bull bull I bull x I bull I

bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 12~- bull I bull bull bull Hgt I I I bull bull 18bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 12 ~- bull I bull bull bull 9

I H I I I bull 110~- bull I bull o-e bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 23 bull bull bull bull I o---e 123bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull bull bull I---igt I bull I bull bullbullbull8

I bull 0 I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull4tyenyent= bull bull ~-

bull I I Hgt I bull I bull I bull bull 18bull I ~ I I I I bull I I 13 bull bull bullbull ~-

I bullbullbull3bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull egt-e 10~ ~- bullbull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull egt--- bull I bull 1 bull I bullbullbull11 I bull () bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I 14 bull I bull bull o---e bull I I I bull I 112

() I I I I 110M- I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I 13 ~- bull I bull I I bull I bull I 13 I () bull I I bull I bull bull I I 113bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bullbull I bull I bull bull o---i I bull I bull bull I I I 1114

I I 0 I I I 17bull bull bull I bull I

bull I

I I 15sect2g bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull I ~- bull I bull () bull 1 I bull bull I bullbull j I 113 I bull X bull I bull I 15 bull bull bull I bull bull bullbull bull bull I o---e I I bullbull3

I 15~- bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull bull I bull I bull bull bull I bull I 0 I j 17

I bull bull bull bull I bull X bull I bull 15 ~- bull I bull 0 bull I bull [ bull bull I 115

bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I () bull I 16

[40J THESE ARE USED FOR FORTISSIMO ONLY

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

-

bull bull bull I bull () bull 17 ~- bull bull bull f-4gt bull bull bull bull bull 8

bullbull bull f--O bull bullbull 19

I bull I bull~- () Hgt I bull bull bull ~ I bull

f-ltgtbull bull bull I bull bull egt---i I Ibull~- I I bull bull bull I I I X 0

1--4gt I bull~

()

0pound- bull bull 0

0bull bull bull Ibulla- bull

8va---

bull bull bull I 0 ~- bull

0bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull ~

116

bull bull 1817

bull bull bull 18

bullbull 19bull bull 110

118

bull I 119

bull I bull bull 113

X I I 1820 bull

I bull I 113 X

I bull I bull I 118

818

bull 118

bull 110

3 This fingering makes possible a dynamic level that is louder than that produced with regular fingering

4 Vent the ~nd key LH slightly

3 Vent by using the trill key but only according to the desired level of intonation

6 Adjust the intonation by venting approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key RH

7 Scarcely vent the 2nd key ~H

8 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 The entire tone hole of the 1st key RIl is vented Use a sparse air column for the tone support to be used in maintainshying the level of intonation

10 Vent the tone hole according to the existing level of intonation while executing a diminuendo bull

II Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH

12 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH

13 Scarcely vent the tone hole of the ~nd key LH for added conshytrol of the pitch level This fingering noticeably produces an immediate tonal response nnd with tllis a veiled tone quality isproduced with ease

14 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH This produces a transparent tonal effect

15 Vent about three-fourths of the tone hole 2nd key LH If this is vented less the note may be played louder and a greater content of harmonics will result in its tone structure bull The note will be lower in pitch

16 Use an extremely soft attack to ensure greater sensitivity in the production of a light and clear tone structure

17 Gently raise the 1st key LH slightly This aids in eliminating the sound of the harmonic in the tone

18 The tone hole of the 2nd key RIl is vented completely

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality is desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch bull

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly bull

[41J Ij

I

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cant]

bull 0 bull bull 118~- bull ~ bullbull--+-__---+--__bull--1 0 bull bull 118bull

8va---- laquogt 119bull bull bull bull I bull I bull Isect==

bull bull bull bull I o----t-ltgt I I 21~-8va-----

~-~ t-----J-+I---t--+---~-+-11 10

I bullbull I I r-41~X~cgt-+--+--4It-+--+----i1 22

Ir--+I--X)f----jl-+I~bull-+-+---+-ll 23fiF=--bull middotbull -1---+---middotbull -1 1-0 X I X I I 924

~- bull bull I--t--A-X---t-I--JlX~~bull-lI--+-j1 8va----

~- bull bull bull bull middot1

~_~ bull j bullbull 1

8va---

bull 11-$shybull ~

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality ip desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly

21 TIle entire tone hole of each key 2nd and 3rd RH is vented Close a portion of the 2nd tone hole RH to adjust the pitch further if necessary

22 The (D) trill key is opened gently to raise the pitch At the same time vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key RH

23 Use a lip attack for added control of the pitch level

24 Depress the 0 trill key only slightly for the purpose of raising the pitch level if needed during the execution of a diminuendo

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute)

QUARTER-TONES To pursue the study of the quarter-tone scale one may wish to begin

by learning the notes in the chart on Altered Vingcrings When used apshypropriately they could establish n general background for the techniques that are related to this scale Altered fingerings can produce new timshybres that result from certain alterations of the physical properties of the air column Such alterations reveal multiple tube-lengths in the air column of the flute and are caused by the venting of various fingering combinations Tllis is noted wIlen using some of the fingerings for tremshyolos as well as altered lIotes As an acoustical phenomenon this emerges with greater prominence as tlw fingerings then arc vented further through the use of the French model flute It is by this modification of the finshygerings that the tonal responRe is transformed to produce a wide range of

[42J

tone colors Identifying these timbres and adjusting to their accompashynying physical sensations will enhance the performers adaptabilities in the development of embouchure control Also the application of a posishytive approach to the function of the air column will occur with greater sensitivity

To establish the scale of microtones(quarter-tones) it is necessary for these new sounds to be accepted in the traditional sense and played with firm conviction It is a known fact that when the flutist possesses a well developed tone structure for the semitones the prevailing intonashytion also will be appealing This same standard of performance would apshyply and hopefully should exist when developing the quarter-tone scale Therefore adjusting to the array of timbres that accompany the various notes of the quarter-tone scale should become natural and their tonal characteristics accepted as being ordinary

The fingerings included in this chart are based on an elaboration of the harmonic series The conventional response of the overtones is alshytered by venting certain tone holes which brings about the formation of the multiple tube-lengths This departure from the fixed overtone arshyrangement permits the sounding of the neighboring harmonics and with this occurrence a chromatic quarter-tone scale can evolve in an organshyized manner The use of these fingerings can bring about a greater flexshyibility when endeavoring to achieve absolute control of pitch

The listening required for the proper placement of the microtone inshytervals is indeed acute and becomes intensified with each effort This hopefully ought to assure the guiding of the intervals of semitones

As the quarter-tones are learned they must be treated as new fundashymental notes The tone control for these ought to be developed justas it has been for the regular semitones and an understanding of their placement in the schema will add immeasurably to their eventual evolushytion in the production of multiphonics ~Qqing of pitches normalshyly executed by the accepted practice of rolling the headJoint in or out to alter the direction of the air column need not be an exclusive apshyproach to the tempering of the pitches for the microtone scale Too ofshyten this technique seems unreliable although in a number of instances it can prove to be beneficial and will assist in the effectiveness of a particular fingering

Frequent adjustments of the embouchure in conjunction with the use of breath pressure and the directional change of the air column will be necessary for most of the notes Instructions for such treatment will be given for each note

The French model flute is an absolute necessity in the production of a great many of these notes since there is no way in which the closed-hole flute can tune quarter-tone~ as accurately The use of only the basic fingerings can become restrictive and will limit the degree of variation

A reeducation in tonal imagery and pitch relationships is vital to the development of a microtone scale This could eliminate the aleatory approach to tuning Therefore it is imperative that the player should determine the proper venting of the tone holes for these fingerings by seeking the correct pitch levels In fact as a result of the experience that was gained by the venting for the notes in the charts on tremolos and altered fingerings the flutist now must treat this as an accepted technique and consider the proper venting to be in balance with the emshybouchure habits in tone production Hence the text material in this chart will not dictate the amount that the tone hole is to be vented since each player varies the basic approach to tone production

The exclusive use of straight tone is not necessary for these notes and the application of vibrato certainly is in order Of course the

usual considerations would apply for its expression and it should be used with discretion

In most cases due to complexities that may be encountered with some of these fingerings there will be very little dexterity or facility for rapid passages Flutists must determine which fingerings will serve best in a given situation At the same time it is assumed that equal conshysideration will have been shown by composers in their compositional deshymands and that the musical structures can be clear of technical hazards

The notes of the chromatic scale of semi tones have been illustrated (in parentheses) with the quarter-tones in this chart To adjust for the tuning of each microtone properly the regular semi tone should be played first Following this each fingering for each quarter-tone ought to be tried in order to establish the correct interval as closely as possible At the same time one must be attentive to each fingerings tonal charshyacteristics With this the player then should react to the resistance factor which is set up in the flute This is resolved by recognizing a physical sensation that is demonstrated by the manner in which the tone responds At this time the embouchure should be adjusted accordingly Reshycalling this experience each time that the fingering is used should reshysult in the performer cultivating a familiarity with a more definitive approach to these tones and an anticipation of their prevailing pitch levels

Contemporary composers have used a variety of signs and symbols to indicate the sharps and flats for the quarter-tones In order to give this chart readability arrows extending from the stems of the convenshytional alterations have been used These denote that the pitch is raised or lowered a quarter-step Although only sharps have been used here the player must assume that the enharmonic notation would be used in performance

At same as 8~ Et same as ot etc

Also the enharmonic pitches apply as follows

A~ same as 8f or A1 ot or cl same as o~ etc

Unquestionably a great deal of experimentation with fingerings such as these will result in acquiring added facility in the manner in which all facets of tone production are studied Other fingerings may be conceived for notes of this scale However the criteria inshyvolving their adaptability will be similar to that already described in the preceding paragraphs

QUAIITER-TONE TIULLS

These fingerings create quarter-tone trills either ascending or descending Many of the notes include the possibility of a trill in either direction emanating from the principal note and are indicated as such by the text materials The instructions are given in an abbreshyviated form and are interpreted as follows

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The note this pro-letter identifying the to be activated duces and its tend-note ~ encies if any

Ex-( 4F C key DOWN to Q )

The flutist may wish to research these fingerings further in as much as they offer a seemingly limitless display of intervals of varshyious degrees Mini-microtones(sixth-tones or eighth-tones) also are possible and these will be referred to as pitch-pulsations in the subshysequent charts

[43]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

IPIO I C) 1 I 1 I I bull I 1 13~ bull I I I 14bull bull I bull I bull bull I bull I

~ I bull bull I bull I bullbull 15

0 I bull I I I I bull I bull I bullbullbull6- e-+ bull bull bull bull I bull bull 12 ~ bull bull I I f----o I bull 1 bull I bull bull 17Cgtbull bull I

iCO)~ IAIB I bull e bull I bull I 0 bull I I 13 IR I --0 I I I 14bull ~ bull bull bull bull I bullbull I bull bull bull bull I 0 I bull I bull bull middot12 I I bull I bull I bull bull I I 14

bull I bull bull f----o I bull I bull I bullbullbull4 ICIO I I 0 I I bull I I 13~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 4

bull I bull bull bull f----o I bull bull I bull bull 1I

~ IElFe I r-o 13 I (U)qgg ISIT I bull I bull I bullbull I I 14

IS I I bull () 1 I I I bull I I 141Ge---l bull bull bull r-o I bull 1 3

IS~ I I bull I --t-1 8

I (~~ bull I bull bull D---i I bull bull I bull I bull bull II IU I () bull I I bull bull 1 bull I bull 19~

I IV jIH bull D------i r-o bull I bull I bull I 14 I bull I bull x bull I bull bull I 15~ bull bull IVIW IIH bull bull o-------j I bull I bull I I bull bull 14 bull I 5bull

IJ e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 14 fXIY I e e bull I ex bull I bull I 13

IJ 5e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull 1 ~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I () I 110 I(e)~ IKIL bull ()----e I 1 I I I I bull I 13 IZ2A I I I 14bull bull bull X bull bull

IMIN~ If-O bull I bull bull 15

I bull bull o----e I bull I I ICia) M 2B2C bull bull bull I bull I bull I o bull 13bull bull bull bull bull 5 ~

bull I I bull I bull bull 15 I bull e bull bull I bull x bull I 311

[44J The preferred fingering for each note is illustrated first

bullbull bull bull 0 bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

~2F2 bull bull I 0 l_l I bullbull I 13bull -shy2H I I j 13bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 2J bull bull bull I f-cgt X I I bull bull la

~2~L bull bull o-j bull I bull bull 112 I X 0 I 112bull bull bull I bull

2M bull bull bull I I I bull bull bullbull1213

bull bull () bull I I I bull bullbull I 114

1 Apply a mlmmum amount of breath support using a wide apertureThis note lacks the usual tonal presence of the low register and its use is limited to extremely soft attacks

~ Direct the air column downward to adjust for the level of intoshynation This effort must be exaggerated when using a low C

3 This fingering produces a tonal response that is similar to that of the notes of the tempered chromatic scale of semitones A firm breath support may be applied and a resonance as well as a variation of dynamic levels are possible

4 Direct the air column downward in order for the note to attain as much tone center as possible and a proper adjustment for its intonation A light volume of air is applied but a medium dynamic level seems possible

5 Direct the air column upward in order to raise the pitch level A large aperture and the use of a dispersed air column will renshyder a distinct contrast in tone quality for some of the notes

6 Since there is no suitable fingering for a more accurate tuning of this note the air column must be aimed exaggeratedly downshyward However an interesting tone color emerges and a near correct level of pitch can be attained

7 If a split-E attachment is available this fingering may be alshytered to produce a correct pitch level Otherwise an unorthoshydox method of closing the 1st key RH is necessary to vent apshyproximately one-half of the B hole This seems impractical

8 This fingering effectively produces a subdued tone quality and is suitable for a soft dynamic level

9 The sounding of multiple harmonics in the tone must be elimishynated as the key is vented Attempt to favor the sounding of the upper pitch

10 A slight venting of the tone hole 3rd key RH will assist in the control of the intonation in a soft dynamic level

11 bull The 3rd finger RH should lean gently on the trill key in order to vent for the appropriate degree of intonationbull

12 bull This fingering serves best when playing loudly Apply an intense air column and use as wide an aperture as possible without altershying the tonal standard

10 The keys of the low B foot joint must be closed securely to preshyvent any unnecessary venting otherwise the F cannot be altered auequately Direct the air column upward

14 The tone holes as indicated are to be vented imperceptibly A translucent tonal structure is indigenous to most of these fingerings

lA I 3rd RH I UP to E

IB I E~ key I DOWN to Q(Sharp)

lC I 2nd RH I UP to I

ID I 3rd RH I DOWN to ~(sharp)

IE I 2nd Rff I DOWN to I

IF lIst RH I UP to 1

IG I 2nd amp 3rd RH I DOWN to F

IH I 1st ~nd UP t (( I )and (3rd) RII I 0 ~ S WIP

IJ lIst 2nd UP to G and 3rd RII I

lK I 3rd LH(vented) I UP to A

lL I G key I DOWN to ~~

1M I G key I UP to A

IN I 3rd RH DOWN to G(sharp)

IP I 2nd LH(vented) I UP to A

lQ I 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) I

lR I 2nd LH UP to C amp 1st RH I

IS I Thumb key I UP to ~

IT I 2nd amp 3rd LH DOWN to C (depress G~ key) I I

IV I 1st RH I DOWN to ~

IV I Thumb key I UP to Q

lW I 1st LH I UP to Q

lX I G~ key I DOWN to D

lY I E~ key I UP to J)

lZ I D Trill key I UP to D

2A I 2nd LH I DOWN to D(ring only)

2B I 3rd RH I UP to I

2C I E~key I DON to Q

2D I 2nd RH I UP to F

2E I 3rd RII I DOWN to (shllrp)

21 I 1st HH I UP to f

2G I 2nd RIl DOWN to f(half-vented) I 211 I 2nd RII I UP to r 2J I D Trill key I DOWN to I

(sharp)shy

2K I 2nd RH I UP to Q (sharp)

2L I )rd RII DOWN t ro (ring only) I a _

~-1 I )rd HII I UP to Q

[45]

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

8(a QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

2N bull 0---1 I bull I bull I 13bull 2P I I I bull 114- 2a bull 1 I bull 115bull I

4 m 2S2T I bull bull o--t f-o bull I bull I bull I 13

2T 1 bull bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I bull 13

bull I bull () bull bull I 1 I I bull 1 114

2S2U I bull bull o---e I I I I bull I 13rztt=22W bull I 0 I i I I I bull -t-+-3 2V2X~ I I 116bull I bull I bull I

(~)~ 2Y I bull I I bull I 0 I bull I I 116bullI 2Z~A I bull bull bull I I bull I bull I o bull I 13

f--(gt I 114bull I bullbullbull Ibull I bull bull bull I 38 I Q---j I 116bull I bull I bull I bullbull

I(n)qn ~ 3C I bull bull I I bull bull I bull I I I 116

bull I bull 0--+--1 f-ltgt I bull I bullbull 15 3D I bull bull bull I f---Cgt I bull I I I 114 3E I bull bull I I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

3E30 I 0 I I I 13bull bull bull I I bull I

f 1 t

bull bull 1

(~q~~ 3Fe

I bull bull middot1

I

3G

3H3J I

(~I~~ 3K I bull I I

I bull ()-e-j3L I

(0) qn ~3M3N I I I

bull ()I bull If

3P I bull 3Q

f (0) n ~~ 3R3S bull bull bull bull I 3S3Te

3T

3R3S3U

(~) ~-amp ~Q 3V

I 3W3X

bull 3Y

(0) ~o~ 3Z

1 4A

bull bull o--e ()

bull bull o--e

I bull bullbull I bull I bull I I o--+-Jbull I bull 0 bull I

I bull +---cr--l I bull bull I

tI I x I I bull 13

~ 115bull I bull I bull I I I I x I bull I I 118

1---0 I bull I bull I I I 1919

I 0 112 I bull I bull I bull I I I 317 r bull I bull I I bull I

j I bull I x bullbull 13 I

I bull I bull I bull bull 110 115I bull I bull I bullbull

1 I I x I bull 1310

13 I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

I bull x bull x I bull I I 116

I bull I () I bull I I 115

t---o I I I bull 1 bull 11920

I I I I I bull 119 bull X

[46J

B +

~ 48 bull bull bull bull I bull 112 4C

40 bull bull

bull bull bull

X bull I bull

bull 116

121 8va I

~4E4F bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13 4E4F bull bull bull bull 117 4G4F

middot8va 1rrplusmnt5=4H4J bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull I bull I bull

bull 0

0

bull bull

bull bull 119

112

bull 117

4JI bull () bull bull 1-0 bull bull bull 117 8va I (-Q)J-e- -eshy 4K4L I

I 4M4L I

4Me

bull ()

bullbull bull bull e

bull I X 1 bull X f---Q X

bullbull

114 11622 119

15 This is used advantageously for n pianissimo The intonation level is controllnble by venting the tone hole of the 2nd key L H slightly

16 A firm breath support with a vnrinble volume of air may be apshyplied to produce a reasonable range of dynamic coloring The intonation seems controllable as the flow of air iR directed upward

17 A relaxation of breath pressure seems possible ith this fingershying The tonal structure is altered nccordingly and at the same time a medium range of dynamic level can be controlled

18 This fingeringwill demand coordination when ascending from D and again to D The pitch level can be controlled by directshying the air coumn downward

19 The tone structure may become excessively airy but this as well as the intonation level can be corrected by adding subshystantially to its breath support

20 The use of the 3rd key RH aids only in the balanced hand position Thus the application of the fingering either in an ascending or descending paRsage is facilitnted

21 Overblow the low G at the 15th as softly as possible The harmonic content of the tone structure will be of contrasting quality The air column must be directed donward

22 To facilitate tuning this note ly vent the tone hole 2nd key

2N Low C key UP to ~~

2P 2ntl HII DOWN to ~

2Q )st I 2ntl HH UP to G~

2H 1 st HII UP to ~~

2S 1rtl LII UP t A (ring only) 0

2T 1st 2ntl DOWN to G~ anti 1rtl RH shy

2U G~ key DOWN to ~

2V 2nd LH UP to A~ (ring only)

2W 3rd LH (ring only) DOWN to A

2X Low C~ key DOWN to A

2Y Low C~ key DOWN to A~

2Z 3rd RH UP to 8

3A ED key DOWN to A~

38 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) shy

3C 1st RH UP to pound

3D 3rd RH DOWN to _8 (ring only)

3E 2nd RH UP to pound 3F 2nd amp 3rd RH DOWN to C

3G 1st Rn UP to C(flat)(ring only)

3H 1st RH DOWN to pound(ring only)

3J Thumb key UP to pound

3K 1st LH UP to Q

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

at a soft dynamic level scarceshyLH

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

3M 1st LH DOWN to 0

3N 0 Trill key UP to Q

3P Low C key UP to Q

3Q ED key liP to 1)

3R 1st RH DOWN to 0

35 3rd LH UP to E

3T 3rd RH UP to E

3U 1st amp 2nd RH UP to ~

3V 2nd RH UP to I

3W 2nd LH DOWN t E (ring only) 0 _

3X 2nd amp 3rd RH UP to I

3Y 3rd RH DOWN to ~

3Z 1st LH UP to I

4A 0 Trill key DOWN to F

48 G key UP to ~

4C D~ Trill key DOWN to I~

40 Thumb key UP to ~

4E jIst LH UP to G~

4F G~ key DOWN to G

4G 3rd RH UP to G

4H 1st amp 2nd RH DOWN to G~

4J 3rd LH UP to ~

4K 3rd LH(vented) DOWN to A

4L 0 Trill key DOWN to ~

4M 2nd LH UP to A~

[47J

II

1iibull bull bull

Sea) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

8va I_4N4PI bull r---ox x 123

40 I I X I 119

4N4R I 1317bull bull I X bull X 8va i

(o)~ft ~ I e19bull bull bull bull bull bull bull I 451 ()---1 x e e 119bull 8va i

(-e-)~-e- ~ 4Te bull bull bull I bull X I I 24

I bull e 0--- f-O I X bull bull 124

it

23 When descending from the regular B the 1st and 3rd keys LH may remain closed

24 This note may be played only at a loud dynamic level A firm breath pressure is vital to the control of the intonation alshythough the note tends to be sharp

4N D~ Trill key DOWN to ~

4P 1st HH(vented) UP to B

4Q 2nd LH UP to ~

4H D Trill key UP to _Band 2nd HH

45 2nd HH DOWN to ~

4T D Trill key DOWN to f

[48J

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo)

In this chart the fingerings for both the alto flute and picshycolo are combined The concepts of tone production and pitch disshycernment that were discussed in the preceding section on quartershytones for the C flute would apply to these instruments also Due to the limitations in venting the fingerings there will be less flexibility in the tuning of these notes In fact some noiesof the scale have been omitted because of unsuitable fingering comshybinations and a lack of control for the pitches However if an open-tone-hole model piccolo is available to the player other fingerings from the previous chart could be applied It will be noted that a great deal of emphasis is placed on the exaggerated change of direction of the air column for the purpose of tuning This will compensate for the lack of venting for most of these notes

QUARTER-TONE TRIllS

The text materials for these trills are presented here in the same manner as for those in the previous chart In some instances the direction of the air column has to be exaggerated either upward or downward in order to reach the proper intonashytion level for a single note in the quarter-tone scale This precludes the proper tuning of the quarter-tone trill When it occurs the smaller interval that results is termed a pitchshypulsation However prior to playing the trill special effort must be made to tune the quarter-tone from which the trill is to emanate otherwise even the small interval(pitch-pulsation) will be nonexistent Occasionally when only one fingering is given for both instruments the text will indicate the instrushyment for which the trill fingering is intended

bull bull e bull bull I bull I bull bull bull e I I~ e(o)~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull 12

reg - ALTO FLUTE

j ~

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull

f (e)~eF IA bull bull bull bull bull bull bull IA

Sb

+ l(ie)~ IQ I bull bull bull bull bull bullbull

I bull bull bull bull bull bull bull The little finger nlI must open the IP key and at the same

IS time close the footjoint keys The air column must be dishybull bull bull 30~ bull bull bull rected dowmarct to lower the pitch 1 eve IS bull bull bull bull bull bull 12reg

2 Exaggerate the ctowlllVilnl directioll of the njr column The apshyerture must relilain il~ opcn ttl possj) 1c otlerwjse the tone structure becomes sllpplcsilted This fi lIferinf i~ more appro-

IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13reg priate for il sort 1Ild subdued efrcct~ bull IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 14reg 3 Apply the techniques noS ill )- nlll u--( vcry I it tIc volume

of air This note milY lack ndeqllnte tOllnl projection

4 Using very little bleilth support direct the nil columnI(e)~ ID bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 120 dowmarct to Ilchieve the lIeceSiltary Jevel of pitch 1I0wever the tone qUilli ty of the lower register 01 the piccolo willIE bull bull bull bull bull 14reg project substllntiillly

5 Use a slightly victe Ilperture ilnd il direction of the air col-IF 140 umn that is similllr to that of the preceding note bull~ bull bull bull bull bull bull IG 14reg 6 Direct the air column downward but slightly for the evenshy

tual adjustment of intonAtion

7 The air column is directed upward~ IH bull bull bull bull bull bull I 150

8 It may be difficult to maneuver the fingers adequately butIJ bull bull bull I 14reg if the trill keys can be scarcely opened the note can be

properly tuned

I (ci)qng IK I bull bull bull bull bull 150 UP(pitch-pulsation) IJ I 2nd amp 3rd LH I UP to elA I 3rd RH I

IK I 14reg lK I Thumb key I UP to e~IB I 2nd RH I UP to F~ (flat)

lL I Thumb key I UP to D (Piccolo)Ie I 1st 2ndlIL 1 160 UP to G~ (sharp)3rd RIlFfft)~ bull bull bull X bull bull 1M I Thumb key I UP to D~10 I 3rd RH I UP(pitch-pulsation)IL bull bull I X bull 170

IN I 1st amp 2nd LH I DOWN to DIE I 1st 2nd amp 3rd RH I UP to A

IP I D Trill key I UP (pitchshy1M X X bull bull 150 IF I 2nd amp 3rd RII I UP to A~ Jlulsa t ion)(fla t)

INIP I I I X bull 16reg A~ lQ I 3rd LH I DOWN to D ~ bull bull bull

IG I 3rd LH I UP to (fla t)

0- PICCOLO IH I 2nd LII amp 1st RII I UP to e

bull bull bull bull bullbull

- IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull I I 124reg

IT 16bull bull bull I bull bull I bull~ IT bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14reg

l(~e)~ bull I bull bull bull X I bull bull IIOreg

IU 17g-QdegfO bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull IUIV bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull IGreg

~WX bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 17

bull bull bull bull bull I I x I bull I IIO IY bull bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull I 12reg

~ IZ bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull 6bull IZ2A 1 I I Iregbull I bull I I bull I

[50]

I(0) ~o ~e 2B bull bull bull I bull bull I 16middot0 2C20 16reg I bull

I(~~ Me 2E2F I I I I I bull 16middot0bull 2F2G I bull I I bull I bullbull 16reg

(~t~~ 2H I bull bull I 2J

(ft) ~n ~2K~L I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I Ibullbull 190 bullIR bull bull bull bull I bull I

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo) Cont

1 (Ito-) ~ ~-e- 2M2N 17

f

bull bull bull bull I bull I bull x bullbull 2P bull II bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull 16~P

(~) ~~ ~Q 2Q~R bull bull bull I bull I bull bullbull 16~I 2

(n) qn ~ 2T bull 1 bull 1 I bull 1I1

I bull 1 bull X

2U2V bull I bull bull I 11rreg 8 va 0i

~2~X bull bull I 1 bull bull I bull I 170

8va regI

I I I 1712rrplusmnyen==2~ bull bull bull I bull 8 va i

I I x bull 1110et-ECilDbull bull bull bull bull bull

reg

8 va I

(-amp)]-amp ~3E3F I I I bull 17I bull X 8va

I

I I bull I I I X bull X I I IIIO3H bull

9 Direct the air column as in 2 However the tone strucure will permit an acceptable projection at a medium dynamic level

10 Vent imperceptibly by opening the trill key gently The air colshyumn should be directed downward only slightly but the aperture is to be somewhat larger than for the preceding note Thisfinshygering serves best when ascending from the regular semitone

11 This is suitable only for a loud dynamic level The note deshymands full breath support and the air column should be directshyed upward slightly

12 The additional resistance that this fingering lends to the piccolo may cause undue forcing of the tone unless the performshyer displays control of the embouchure in this octave However the use of this fingering is not as problematical when applyshying it to the alto flute

lR 3rd RH UP to P

IS 1st LH UP(pitch-pulsation)

IT 2nd RH UP to r~ (Piccolo) (flat)

lU 1st RH UP to G~

IV 2nd amp 3rd RH

lW 1st RI DOW

IX 3rd LH L~ to

lyen 1st amp 2nd RH

lZ 3rd LH UP to

2A 2nd RH DOWN

DOWN to G (flat)

to G~ (flat)

A

UP to A

A

to A

2B 2nd RH UP to C

2C b Key DOWN to B

2D 3rd nH UP to C

2E 1st RH DOWN to C

2P Thumb key UP to C

2G 1st RH DOWN to C

2H 2nd LH DOWN to C

2J 1st LH UP to D

2K Eb key UP to D

2L G key DOWN to D(Alto flute)

2M 1st RH DOWN to D

2N 3rd LH

2P 3rd RH

2Q 3rd RH

2R 1st LH

2S Eb key

UP to E

UP to E UP to r (Piccolo)

UP to r(Alto flute)

DOWN(pitch-pulsation) (Piccolo)

2T D Trill key DOWN to r

2U 1st LH UP to P (flat)

2V 2nd RH DOWN to P

2W G key UP to G

2X Low C key DOWN to r

2Y 1st RH UP to G (Piccolo)

2Z 1st LH UP to G

3A 3rd RH DOWN to G(Piccolo)

3B 2nd RH DOWN to G (Alto flute)

3C G key DOWN to G

3D 1st LH UP to A (flat)

3~ 2nd LH UP to A

3P D Trill key DOWN to A

3G D Trill key DOWN to A

3H 2nd RH UP to B (flat)

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES MULTIPHONICS

No longer can the flutist expect that a traditional flute tone is the only attractive or acceptable sound structure Sound pheshynomenon must be valued as significant structure which the aspiring performer must embrace in order to add to the variety of musical exshypression in contemporary music In the various periods of music the goal of each generations performers has been to enrich and augment the sometimes restrictive character of the sound of the flute Hence with this standard of excellence in flute playing the evolution of compositional techniques has paralleled the instrumentalists develshyopment Accordingly more and more is expected of the flutists technical skills and resources

The or ani tion of many-voiced sounds is now a vital part of the f~ts technique ana for this all of the aspects of tone

-proouction are to be considered Rultiphonics involve the layerin ~ developin an understandin of the n use Q ere ones ~n e over one series of the flute~coustical the orma ionof _ muitiJHe tube-lengtns in the air column g e a number 0 requency vibrations with whic to produce added pitches simultaneously TOis affords an array of chord groups that are controllable Such pheshynomenon is observed when a short tube-length and a larger one are formed in the air column as additional keys are vented in a fingershying combination This causes a modification of the fixed overshytone arrangement of the flute

The composition of many of the fingerings for the multiphonics v ~can be traced directly to those presented for tremolos(especially

sixths sevenths and octaves) altered fingerings and quartershytones Interestingly many of the quarter-tones can be identified as fundamental tones for a number of these chords However the fingerings for these have been changed somewhat in order to facilshyitate the tonal response of the multiphonics

The tonal characteristics of these chords seem to fit into (3) different categories according to their timbres and dynamic levels They can be studied further by referring to these groups in part(B) of this section

The chords illustrated in this chart have included only the notes that possess a reasonable amount of prominence stableness and immediacy in tonal response Quite possibly some performers may be capable of elaborating on these structures to produce upto five tones However this would require considerable experience and a phenomenal control of techniques Except for those few inshydividuals who have such technical skill most flutists will need to devote some practice time to these peculiar techniques

~A flexible_~bnuchUI~_togetherwith sensitivit~ for the approshypriare use of the air column are an absolute must w en exper~mentshy~ng with new auditory experiences As the mUltiple tube-lengths are felt via the resistance of the flute the physical reaction to these must be repeated in virtually all of these chords The transformashytion of this resistance factor from its normal state in the flute tube must be recognized then the air column can be effectively used in balance with this

Those chords that react readily do so because the resistance is not posing a major hazard Thesetwo-note chords require little breath support with a slight alteration of the embouchure However

[51J

~the multiphonics that include1hr~~ or four notes offer muchgreatshyer resistance As a barrier this must be permeated by applying inshyensity to e breath pressure and at times with a large volume of

air Consequently more attention must be given to embouchure corshyrection for these Usin a w~ aEertur the air column needs to be directed so that a--segment of the flute range can be sounded in one air blast By diffusing the air column the tone is spread and thereby capable of including several notes at once These can sound simultaneously as a chord spanning more than one octave of the flute All of this is contradictory to the normal procedure that prevails for playing single-line notes For these the apershyture needs to decrease in size as the air pressure is increased

The volume of breath support for a multiphonic is an equally important matter The qeterminant is evidenced by the demands for each multiphonic and as the player adjusts to these the physical sensations that are to be recalled should be used as guides for the proper maneuvering of the embouchure

The text materials which accompany the fingering for each chord suggest the embouchure movements and technical modifications of the air column However the performance of these sounds cannot be achieved with only these directives More importantly the player must adapt to these sensitively by feel and become accustomed to reacting to the response of the chord with perceptiveness

Many of the chords can be sustained with reasonable success and sufficient duration However vibrato cannot be used because it would disturb the steadiness of the air flow Straight tone is the prime mover in establishing stability for the multiphonics

It is impossible to effect an instantaneous response from a chord Inorder to create the illusion that all of the notes are sounding at the same time the necessary corrections must occurat once These are realized by attacking the lowest note first or for some chords the highest This method assists in the use of the wide-angle aim of the air column for an equal response of the other notes of the tone-group The effect is one of a broken chord as is often played on a keyboard instrument or the harp If the response should lag and the notes of the chord are not soundingin balance with one another then those notes that are positioned at the opposite level from the attacking note either the lowest or highest of the chord must be favored This is done by directing the air column toward that level in the range that seems weakest

The chords have been placed according to their lower fundamenshytals in ascending order This is only approximate and in some inshystances when these pitches were the same the total effect of the chord was considered although the placement is purely arbitrary

The arrows on the alterations do not necessarily indicate quarter-tone pitches Some of these notes could be mini-microshytones In fact many of these notes may not always impart their ~itch levels as originally conceived in as much as the techniques of tone production are variable But this pitch discrepancy also can be extolled as a virtue since so many notes that have the same pitch level would also be capable of lending an impressive range of timbres When isolating the lowest or highest note of each chord and its intonation seems controllable a new dimension in tone coloring can be imagined for any single-line phrase

[52J

This arrangement of fingerings is not a complete collection of multiphonics Rather it is presented as a systematic study and a survey of possibilities for tone clusters There are fingerings which have not been included capable of producing virtually the same notes as some found in this chart Probably there are still other fingerings that may be ascertainable However those shown here seem to lend substantial control for a clear image of eachmulshytiphonic and are to be accepted only on this basis Therefore once the flutist has developed the technique for these additional finshygerings producing new chord structures could evolve through the efforts of individual research

The following points may be considered when the multiphonics are played for the first time As possible solutions to some probshylems that involved technical deficiencies these applications conshytributed to the learning process

(~) Do not isolate the individual tones of the chord as ~ the direction of the air column is adjusted

(b) Avoid an excessive covering of the embouchure hole on the flute and prohibit the forming of a small aperture A diffusion of the air column and a spreadshying of the tone structure should result

(c) A low B must be used when advisedotherwise the inshytervals may not respond with the same assuredness

(d) A wider than normal aperture must prevail for most chords

(e) The air column must be directed in favor of the opposshying note If the chord is attacked via the lower note then the air is to be directed slightly upward etc

(f) Learn to identify the resistance factor first to best judge the necessary breath support for a response

(g) Ascertain the proper venting of the fingerings

(h) Avoid moving the flute on the embouchure this ensures a functional application of straight tone

(j) Minimize the action of the embouchure when it becomes necessary to adjust the direction of the air column Extreme sensitivity is essential

(k) Avoid any exertion of external pressure of the flute against the lip Provide for mobility of the embouchure

(m) Adapt the embouchure and the air column to the sounds Do not attempt to alter the peculiarities of the timbres so radically otherwise the idea of having varieties of tone qualities at hand will be defeated These chords must be played convincingly or they will become repulsive

bull bull bull bull

-I

SPECIAL SONORITIES

When applying these fingeringsthe flutists and composers may wish to explore a variety of sonorities through the use of the chords Numerous effects are discussed in these sections that follow The position numbers and code numbers with letters have been assigned to the multiphonics These are to be referred to as each part is consulted for study

(A) Multiple Trills and Multiple Effects

Control of the multiphonic must be assured for the proper exshyecution of these effects The flute must be held steady to ensure the adequate dispersion of the air column so as not to obstruct the sounding of the multiphonic Practice by moving the fingers slowly at first in order to achieve a lightness in the action of the keys This will prevent a jarring of the flute on the embouchure

The following are possible using the illustrated fingerings

(a) MULTIPlE TRILLS UP or DOWN--- The lower and upper notes of a chord trill simultaneously and in the same direction

(b) MULTIPlE TRILL - CONVERGING -- One note trills upward while another trills in a downward direction This is created by the sounding of a common note onto which each trill converges

(c) Single trills in any direction are possible while other notes of the chord sustain

(d) MULTIPlE PITCH - PULSATIONS -- These account for trills of microtonessmaller than quarter-tones

(e) Together with multiple pitch-pulsations other tones can be sustained

The instructions for the above effects have been abbreviated(as in sections on quarter-tones) and the words lower upper and sometimes middle refer to the particular notes in the chord This is followed by the indication of the direction in which the trill is moving

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The resul tant letter identifying the to be activated effect note

Ex- ( IE 1st RH Multiple Trill-UP )

tJ) 0 A

~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull 1 0

(2) yen-- bull bull bull bull I 0 bull I bull bull 2

(3)~ IA bull bull bull bull I bull o bull 13 -eshy

(4) 0yen--IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 12 -fi

(5)~ IC 0 bull bull I 13

(6) ~-ICID bull bull f-o bull I bull bull bull 1bull

~--e-(7) fyen IE bull bull bull 1-0 bull bull 13

bull bull bull bull bull bullbull3 =--e- 10 (8) ~-IB bull bull bull f---O I bull bull bull 13

1 Using a wide aperture direct a dispersed air column downward Little breath support is needed Close the keys for low B with certainty

2 Direct the air column upward Intensify the breath pressure sufficiently to effect the response of the upper partials but allow for adequate openness of the aperture to permit an immeshydiate sounding of the lower note as well Only a minimum of breath support is necessary Close the keys for low Bsecurel~

3 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the lower notes Avoid changing the size of the aperture when adding to the breath support for the upper notes Close the keys for low B securely

lA

18

3rd RH Multiple Trill-UP

Thumb Upper sustains key Middle trills DOWN IE

ID

1st RH

3rd RH

Multiple Trill-UP

Multiple Trill Converging

lC 2nd RH MUltiple Trill-UP

[53]

bull bullbull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cont

~

(9) ~ e-

IEIF bull bull bull bull I bullbull middot2

1I0) ~-IE bull bull bull 3 (II) (f -IBIG bull bull bull I 0 I bullbull middot4

0 Ibull I bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14

(12) ~-IAH o-j bull I bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (I3)~ 15IAIJ~ bull I bull bull I bull I

eshy(14) ~ fA IK IL bull I 16Ibull bull 0-+

I bull bull I

(15)11 -IJILIM bull o-j I 16 bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I

IAIH(16) -0 I bull I bull I I 17IN~ bull bull 0-

(17 ~ -IMIP bull bull o---j ~I bull bullbull 178

l8) ~ ~-IAIJ 15bull 0 bull I I bull bull rmiddot

tt (l9)~--IQIR bull o----j bull I bull I I I bull bull 17bull

(20) _ -IEIS 0bull bull bull bull bull I I bull I 17

~ ~) I

bullbull I

f~ ~bull lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

8deg 8 ~ G+ + f-eshy

(21l~~IUIT I bullbull bullbull f-O I bull bull I I 17

(22)~ -IJIP~ 1-0 bull I bull I bull 15 ~n

(23)~ IV I bull bull o-l H bull I bullbull I 1-i98 e

(24) ~-ILIM~ 0bull I bull I I bull bull 15

(25)~- IMIWIX I bull 0 bull bull I 0 bull I bull I 15 ~Q

(26) ~ -IMIJ I I bull I I 0 I I 15bull 0 bull bull (27)rW-IJIQIYe--1 0 o bull I I l6bull bull bull I bull

(28) ~-IQIB bull bull I 01bull o bull I bull bull middot3 ~~~

(29)~-IQIZ bull 0 bull I bull I bull I bullbull 19

(30) ~~ ~ILIQ~ bull I 0 I bull bull 19IR2A

t-n (31) ~ -IMIN2S I bull 0 bull I Hgt I bull I 16

D (32) ~ IQIY~ 162C2D I bull I bull A

(33)~-IJIQlVIY~ I bull I 01 bullbull I 16

(34) ~_rNQbull I bull 0 bull I f-ltgt bull I bullbull 16IL [54]

~~~JI~~I

Isf Th Th 2nd 3rd

~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ (35)~ IDILIQ2C~

(361 ~-IL bullbull o--e ~~

t37J ~n ~-ILIQIW~

(38) 111~ IQIR~ 2C2D- I bull - I

(39) Qi ~-IMIV2E~

-eshy(40)~

~-2F2G bullbull~+-_--(O bull

(41) ui ~ - 2C2G2H bullbull--I-----(O bull

p-u (42) ~ 2~iH~ -amp

(43)~ -IQIR2L~ lB

44J ~ 2E2M~ (45)~--2D2N~

~1gt-+-o---+---+--+--+-----1 68

t--iI~I--tt-tI H__+-1-t---ll 9

r--laquogt I bull I I bull bull 178

r-o--t- bull I I bull bull III

bull I

t-o I

bull I

bull I

310

bull bullbull7

bullbull 19

f--o

bull bull I

bull I bull 19

bull bull 1912

bull bull bull

bull bull

I II

16

4 Direct the air column upward slightly and intensify the breath using an embouchure that favors the middle register

5 Adjust the aperture mainly for the lower note and direct the air column inward Use only a light tone support

6 The air column is to be directed upward very slightly with the embouchure favoring the upper note

7 Use a wide aperture with substantial breath support and direct the air column upward

8 Also vent approximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 Use an aperture more appropriately adapted to the upper notes but direct the air column downward slightly Only a medium amount of breath support is needed

10 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH imperceptibly

11 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the middle range This chord is to be supported robustly

12 Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd key LH also

IF 2nd RH MUltiple Trill- IX (ring only) DOWN

IG 1st RH Upper sustains lY (ring only) Lower trills DOWN

IH

IJ

lK

lL

1M

IN

IP

lQ

lR

IS

IT

lU

IV

lW

1st RH Upper sustains lZ Lower trills UP

1st RH MUltiple Trill 2A Converging

3rd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP 28

2nd LH Multiple Trill-UP 2C

3rd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2D

EP key Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2E

3rd LH MUltiple Trill-UP 2F

2nd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

2G Low C Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWNkey Upper trills DOWN

2H 1st RH Lower sustains2nd RH Upper sustains Upper trills UPLower trills UP 2K 2nd RH Multiple tones susshyLow C Multiple Pitchshy (ring only) tain Middle noteskey Pulsations Middle pulsatetrills UP 2L 3rd RH Upper sustains1st RH MUltiple Pitchshy Lower trills DOWNPulsations Upper

sustains 2M 1st RH Lower sustainsMulshytiple Trills ConshyEP key Lower sustains vergingmiddot

Upper trills DOWN 2N 3rd RH Multiple Trill-DOWN

G key Upper sustain~i Lower trills UP

[55]

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills UP

G key Multiple Trill Converging

1st RH Multiple Trill Converging

3rd RH MUltiple tones sustain middle notes pulsate

1st RH Lower sustains Upper trills DOWN

Thumb key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

Thumb key MUltiple Trill-UP (wide intervals)

2nd RH MUltiple Trill Converging

2nd RH Lower sustains

bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES

07(

Cont

~

(46) 1 -IL 2P 20 19I I -0- bull bull bull I bull I bull bull

(47)~ IAIL2R 16

~ bull 0 bull bull bull I bull I bullbull (48) ~ __ 252T bull o-o--j bull I bull I I bull 17

~2X(49) IEIO 2U bull I bull I bull 1 bull bull 4

~A bull

(50)~ - -2U2V2W bull I bull I 0 I I I II bull

IE2U(51) It ~ 02X bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull3

(52)~-ICIE2U2Y 0--1 bull I bull I I 15I bull bull ~n

(53) ~ 2C2U 2Z bull 0---1 bull 1 0 I 1 bull III

n (54) ~ly2Z3A383C bull bull I bull 1 bull 1 16

(55) ii-lEI bull bull t--o bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (56) 11-amp

~-IH2T3D I f--o bull I bull I bull I 15 D

(57) ~_IHIP I bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I 152T3D I

(58) If --IEIY bull bull f--o I bull I bull bull bullbull3

[56]

( 1~(O~)~ 2Z I I bull I bull I I I bull bull 12I

~Q-6shy(60) ~-IYI2H I I bull bull I 1-0 I bull I bull I bull bull 15 =~

(61) ~--3C3E I I I

(62) t~ -3F I

~ (63)1~

( 3E I I laquogt---ebull (64) d-Qshy-0- ~-2H3G~

(65) ~ - IP3G3H I I I

(66) ~ - IMIP3KI

- bull bull bull bull (67) 0shy

lt1 ~ I P283L3M I I

-(68) ~~4l-~IM2BI Itba 3K bull

(69) = ~--IM3N1

=1l-6shy(70) ~ ~ I] II IP I I bullbullbull bull

(71) ~~ ~--(X3P~ (72) qA gIX2H~

1-0 I bull I bull I bull I 15

I bull I I I I 1 bull bull I II

bull I bull 1 I I I I 1113

f--O I I I I I bull bull 15

I I I I I I bull I I 15

L bull I bull I 0 I bull I 16

1 bull I I 15

bull I bull I o bull I I 16

914

I bull 0-+-----0 bull 1914

1---0 I bull I bull I bull I I 613

1-0 bull 1 bull J bull I ~16

bull bull

13 Approximately one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH is to be vented

14 Vent also one-fourth of the 2nd key RH~

~ ~o (73)~

E= - 3K3Q3R 1-1--I--~-4a--o---e

(74) ~ ~2G3K3RI bull 0 bull

~ a (75) ~2B2G3Q3R3Sr----t------oshy

(76) t~ ~ 3R3T3U 1-1--l-~-egt----J--1

(77)I~i - -- 2P3 L 1-1--I~~----4 --shy

n __

(78) g _ 1-1-+--+-~----3V ___ ~

t79)ff ~ - I B2Y3V 1-1--I--+--4a-4~bullbull

~-e-(80) ~ 2H 3L __-+ ----ia-+_~ ~ 3W bull 1

(811 _ 2H 2U bullbull~gt---~+-__

(82) 1- ~ - bull --shy2U3Xbullbull~-l---

(83) Qg ~- ILfQ30bullbulll--+--bull--0 bull

j~

qt (84) EQ IR zu ----1

EE 3W3Y bullbull~~~-l---I~----

t9 t85) ~

~~ 3Y3W3Xbullbullf------+--+-~o__1

bull I bull I bullbull 19

~~X--+-I-+--+-+-f----t---il 6

7

~x I I bull I

bull loX I I 13

x I bull I bullbull 14

I--+I---4-X~----+-1-+---+1 4

3L

3M

3N

3P

3Q

3R

35

3T

3U

3Y

D Trill MUltiple Trill-UP key

2nd LH Multiple Trill Converging

Thumb key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

1st RH ~ MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

3rd LH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

D Trill key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

G key Lower sustains Upper trills UP

3rd LH Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWN

D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills UP

1st LH MUltiple Trill-DOWN

3W D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills DOWN

3X 1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

3Y 2nd LH Multiple Pitchshy(ring only) Pulsations

2P

2Q

2R

25

2T

2U

2Y

2W

2X

2Y

2Z

3A

3B

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

3K

3rd LH

E~ key

1st RH

2nd RH

MUltiple Trill-DOWN

MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

Lower trills UP Upper and middle

interpose

Multiple notes sustain Middle trills DOWN

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills DOWN

2nd LH Multiple Trillshy(ring only) DOWN

Low C Multiple Pitch-key

3rd RH (vented)

3rd RH

3rd RH

1st LH

2nd LH (ring only)

2nd LH

3rd LH

Pulsations

Lower sustains Upper and Middle

interpose

Multiple Tones sustain Upper trills DOWN

Multiple PitchshyPulsations

Multiple Trill-UP

Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

Upper sustains Lower tremolo DOWN

Multiple Trill Converging

G key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd RH MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

D TrillHigh C sustains key Middle trill UP

D and D MUltiple Trill-UP Trill keys

D Trill key MUltiple Trill-UP

1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

[57J

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7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cant

0bullI X I bull 1 2

bull bull I bull X bull 1 19

bull bull bull X bull I 17

bull bull I I bull X 19

bull bull e- r-oX I I bull I 15

bull bull I bull I X 16

bull r--o X I I 15bull bull I bull I bull X 1 15bull ()----j X bullbull middot11015bull o---j X I bull I 11315bull

o-ebull r-o-I I X bull bull 17

0--1 I I X I X I I 16

t-e-D

19S) It II -3P3Qbull I Ibullb6shy

199) 11~

0shy~-2H4E bull egt---l

lIOO)~ IE bull bull bull

1I01l

U-eshy1I02)~

~-~

-eshy

-2C

JO IPJQ4F I

bull bull bull bull bull bull bullbull bull bull bull

1I03)~ -2Y4G bull bull o-----e

UA1I04)fshy

-1L2H30 bull () bull lI05) ~

~ ~-IL2P I bull bull I bull II06I~r~

-2H3H4A~n lion xx

IBJR3H I~ I bull bull bull qn 1I0S)rD

-- IL3K l----+-----o-shyt-e

1I09)r 2U3K3L I I I e-bull

I I x x I I 115

rox X I bull 1913

2

I--cgt bull I bull I bullbullbull78

I I I I 17 I bull 0 I bull I I I II

1-0 I bull bull I 1713

-o bull I bull I bullbull 1712

7 8

f-I bull I I 115

I bull I I bull bull 14 shy

4

4

15 Approach the attack for this chord via the top note but widen the aperture sufficiently to accommodate the placement of the lowest note Direct the air column downward and apply a sUbshystantial amount of breath support

4D I 2nd LH Lower sustains3Z I D Trill I Multiple Trill-DOWN (ring only) IUpper trills DOWN

4A I G~ key I Lower sustain~i

key

4E I D~ Trill I MUltiple Trill-DOWN Uppertrills uuWN key

4F I 3rd RH I Lower sustains46 I D~ Trill I Upper sustains Upper trills DOWNkey Lower trills DOWN

4G I G~ key I Upper sustains4C lIst RH I Multiple Tri1lshy Lower trills DOWN(ring only) DOWN

3PECJAL SONORITIES

(B) The Tonal Characteristics And Dynamic Ranges

of multiphonics are shown here as three predominant effects Each chord-group possesses a built-in quality of tone and the player should permit this to subsist according to the resistance that is evidenced As the control of the embouchure improves those chords capable of sounding with a full dynamic range may alsobe controllable using a lighter tone quality and played at a softer dynamic level For this reason some chords have been listed in more than one category The numbers used toidenshytify the multiphonics in the main chart appear here in the approshypriate categories

(1) Subdued Quality of Tone Reasonably Soft Dynamics

1 15 34 65

2 18 37 73

24 54 6 25 55 80

12 26 56 90

13 27 57 91

14 33 64 92

(2) Some Degree of Resonance (3) Blaring or Strident Tone Medium Dynamic Range Fairly Loud Dynamics

4 27 57 74 2 37 60 89

5 28 58 75 3 39 62 93

7 29 60 5 94

8 31 61 76 9 41 63 95

9 32 62 80 11 42 70 96

10 33 64 83 16 43 71 97

14 34 65 86 17 44 72 98

15 35 66 90 19 45 77 99

18 36 67 91 20 46 78 100

20 37 68 92 21 47 79 101

22 38 69 93 23 48 80 102

23 40 71 97 26 49 81 103

25 41 72 103 27 50 82 104

26 54 73 106 28 51 84 105

30 52 85 107

32 53 87 108

36 59 88 109

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(C) Suppressed Chords

Often the term smorzato has been used to signify the effect of diminishing or extinguishing tones As is described here a controlled suppressing of tones in the chord can occur while the lowest note continues to sustain This can be accomplished withshyout altering the fingering

By releasing the firmness of the embouchure slightly and pershymitting the breath support to diminish the upper partials can be made to disappear When in some cases this does not produce the effect completely then a directional change of the air column must implement this technique Since the modification of the air column can be regulated voluntarily the suppression of the chords can be realized in any desired rhythmic pattern

In a few instancesanother note of the chord can be sustained simultaneously with the fundamental while the higher one is diminshyishing In other chords certain notes can be suppressed intershychangeably These variables have been indicated in the listingbelow As a result of this added peculiarity these other notes too can be sustained either prior to or following the suppression of the chord This effect is related to that described in part(D) of this section

[59]

In this list the fundamental note is illustrated together with the number that applies to its multiphonic The arrows on the altershyations have been omitted Attention is drawn to the fact that as an added advantage these tones for their distinctive timbres may be used also as single-line notes

The following multiphonics are the most responsive and easiest to control for this effect Two-note multiphonics are listed first and are the most facile

Two-note Chords

6 E 27 G 65 C 91 D

12 G 32 G 66 C 92 D

13 - G 33 - G 67 - C 93 - D

14 - G 34 - G 71 - C 97 - EO 15 - G 52 - So 72 - C 102 - G 22 - G 54 - So 73 - C 104 - G 24 - G 58 - S 76 - C 107 - S 25 - G 60 - C 80 - C 108 - S

26 - G 61 - C 90 - D 109 C

Three and Four-note Chords

36 - Low and middle Gs will sustain as the upper note

2 - E

3 - E is suppressed Alter the 5 - E air columns direction

8 - F (Middle G and possibly 37 - AO middle E can be altershy 38 - AO (The C or G may benated with d) interchanged with the

9 - F sounding of F by altershying the direction of air)10 - F (C can be alternated

with F) 40 - A (C alternates with G) 11 - F 41 - A (F alternates with C) 16 - G 42 - A

17 - G 43 - A

19 - G (E can be alternated 45 - A with F) 46 - A

20 - G 47 - A 21 G

48 - A 23 - G 49 - So (A and B sound simultashy28 Low and middle Gs will neously as the chord is

sustain to~ethet as the suppressed) upper note is suppressed

50 - BO and A sustain as the 29 - G top note is suppressed 30 - G 53 - BO 35 - G 57 - B

[60J

70 - C 87 - D (A can be alternated with E by releasing the breath74 - C pressure interchangeably)

75 - C 88 - D 77 - C 89 - D 78 - C 94 EO (B can be alternated 79 - C with GO) 82 - d 98 - EO

99 - E83 - C (E alternates with C) 100 - F84 - D 105 - A85 - D 106 - B86 - D (f can be alternated with

C~ by changing the direcshytion of the air column)

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(D) Connecting Single Notes to MUltiphonics

The suppressing of chords (part C) indicates that it is posshysible to sustain a single note and connect this to a chordassumshying of course that the fingering being used initially is that of the multiphonic A flexibility in this procedure results from the fact that either the lowest or highest note in each multiphonic can be sustained when going into or coming out of the chord This occurs without any perceptible interruption of the sound oraltershyation of the fingering However it will be found that some chords do not lend themselves to a controllable responsiveness when they are approached via the highest note This can only be determined by trial and error

The middle note in many of the three-note chords can also be sustained The chords listed below have been selected as thosehavshying this characteristic and a few added effects have been noted with several others The letter after each number applies to the middle note of the multiphonic In the case of four-note chords then the note from the middle octave which may lend the easiest response is listed As mentioned previously it is automatically assumed that the lowest and highest notes from each chord can be isolated and sustained without difficulty

In some instances a radical change in the direction of the air column and a simultaneous release of the breath pressure may be necessary to effect the linking of tones to chords portions of which are then to be suppressed Only by experimenting with the process of isolating the tones can the player acquire a famshyiliarization with the physical sensation involved This will dicshytate any modifying of the air columns direction and maneuvershying of the embouchure

The two-note chords are quite simple to execute in this proshyduction and either note can be sustained with ease

Page 4: A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the Flute

Special recognition must be accorded to Harvey R Frye Supervisor of Graphic Arts Audio-Visual Center Indiana

University for his organizational planning expert guidshyance and aesthetically excellent designing and drawing

of these charts

-- James JPellerite

[4J

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1 BASIC FINGERINGS

~-~ bull I bullbullbull 1 1111 bullbullbull

~-- I bullbullbull I

~- I bullbullbull I

~~

~- I bullbullbull I

W-- bull I bullbullbull I

~_ I bullbullbull I

m~ --+--bull--4It-4~1 r-t-----Ir--tt-t-+---I---I--+-~I I

bull I bullbullbull I I I bull I I I

~ __ bullf---i--~---__bull I I bull A~~ ---- bull__-t--tI~---i I I I 1 I 11 ~_ ~--+----+---l bull I 12bull

I I 12 bull I bull bull I bull 12

~ bullbull I I I I I I bull

~ bull --1-I---i---i~t---J I I I I I I I I I

I I I I 3 fti----- bull bull bull I bullbullbullI I I

bull I bull I bull

bullbull I

I bull bullbull bull bullbull bull I bull I bull bull

[6 ] ---~-) Basic fingerings(These should be learned first)

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bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull

bull bull

~---- ~ bullbullf--_t__--4__J--I

~ ~ f--_t___J--I---I

~--

~ ~ --__I------bull----1i---li---li---I

bull

bull bull bull I

I--I----l---+I---+-ef--I-_+--+I 4 1--I----l---4llbull ---I-1-41~_+---j1 5

bull I I

bull I I

I bull I I I

bullbull--+-_+_+_+-+---ibull-t-t--tl 2

1---f---If-----1f-----1--+ t--I--+-1 2 ~__t--t--+__~_ _t__+---il 2

bull I I

I bull I

I bull I I I

I bull I

I bullbull bullbull I I

~~I---t______+--+---I--+_+--tl 6 bull

BASIC FINGERINGS

1 This fingering produces a slighily lower level of pitch However its use in extremely technical passages is inshyvaluable

2 Each fingering must be learned with equal facility and applied interchangeably The control of various technical passages and added dexterity will be dependent upon this flexibility When possible emphasize the use of the BIever RH

3 The fa~lty intonation and thin tone structure of the open C~ can be corrected partially through the use of this fingering When using a French model flute deshypress the key-ring 2nd LH and vent approximately one-half of the tone hole This offers more control in a crescendo

4 To maintain the proper pitch level when playing PP depress the 2nd trill key(D~) gently as is needed

5 See item 1 In this octave the F is more noticeably flat in pitch This fingering is equally useful when sustaining the note in a ff to adjust the intonation

6 A controll~d level of pitch can be achieved in a ff when the EP key remains closed However the tone quality becomes muffled at this lower level of pitch and will necessitate embouchure adjustments

[7J

BASIC FINGERINGS (CONTJ

bull I bull I I I I I I bull I I I

~------I

If~-- I I bull bull I

bull Ibull bull Ibull

I I I I I

I

bull I

I bull

bullbull I bull

I I I

I

15

bull bullbull~~--I ~II----+--+--4~

I

bull I

I

bullbull

I

I

I

I)

~ I bull bull I

bull I 1 bull I I I I bull I I I

~-~ bull bull I

bull I

bull X

I X

I I

I

bull

I

1

I 8

19

I ~

8va 8v bull I bull bull I I X I 1

bull I bull I X X 110bullf I bull I X bull ~bull I 110 bull8va---

I bull bull bull I bull I I I middot11~--- I I 12

-shy

bull bull bull bull bull I bull 1 I 7 WI I 0

I I I I 1 I 14 8 T bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bull bull 113

bull bull bull bull bull bull I k

8va--

f 9 TII I bull I bull I I I bullbull 115

iJ I til1 I bull bull bull I I bull I bull bull 115

TI I bull I bull I I I I I I 15 10

11 W I I I I f

8va bull bull bull I bull bull bull

12 T S~

13 T8va-- fI I I Ibull I X bull~_I bullr

I I bull I I bull bull 114 14 Tbull middot)( n I I bull bull 114 vbull bull I middot)(

I 15 bullbull I X

I bullbull Tbull bull bull bull bull 08va

bull I bull o---j I X 116 16 W

bull I bull bull I X bull bull bull 117 17 T

h~ X

I

s

i

8va----- 1-+--+--middotmiddot--+- f-----+-+-IXl(---+I-+---+-H 15

7 When playing If this fingering produces a lower level of pitch and an altered tone quality as well

8 To facilitate the execution of rapid passages the ED key may remain open

9 This alternate fingering will aid the adjustment of the intonation for a PP Avoid the use of an excessive volshyume of air as the note responds with ease

10 This lowers the pitch level for alf bull

11 When using a flute with a iow C foot joint the little fingerRH is raised

12 This fingering affords a slightly lower level of pitch See item 11

13 This fingering demands added breath support but the resulting pitch level is lower Use this Blso on a flute with a low C foot joint

14 This fingering produces a lower level of pitch but the note lacks an immediate response However this may vary on different flutes

15 These fingerings are applicable when using a low C or low B foot joint

16 When possible vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightly This may improve the response of the note

17 This fingering as well as 16 will respond on flutes having a low C or B foot joint

A SECURE PLAYING POSITION

The basic elements involving position and balance in holding the flute properly are of ultimate importanceat all levels of performance Much has been written onthis subject by many prominent flutists Therefore only the salient features relevant to fingerings are repeated now

1 Develop a secure hand position with the arms remaining free from tension to form an equalshyization of balance for the flute

2 Avoid any cramping of the musculature in hands wrists and arms which could bring about stiffshyactioned fingers

3 Encourage the use of a light action with the finshygers remainlng on the keys at all times Added inflections or accentuations in the music are the only occasions for which the fingers may be raised slightly higher on the keys

4 Permit the keys to lower and raise with all of the sensitivity possible The keys must be lifted not the fingers

5 Maintain a naturally arched position of the fingers This signifies the existence of freedom from any tension A flexibility and maneuverability of the fingers should be the result

Security in a playing position when achieved will bring controllabilitYand a solid technique with dexterity This must be available at any tempo

[9J

INTRODUCTION

An advanced flutist has reached that performance level because of the extreme sensitivity with which all facets of flute technique have been applied Certainly one of the most important of these instrumental techniques has to be the disciplined approach to the use of proper finshygerings It is assumed that this is a major concern of the professional performer but it should be equally so of each developing flutist

Too often due to negligence undesirable fingerings become firmly implanted in the playing habits of the young performers Correcting these faults in the early stages of their careers can result in a functional use of fingershyings as the flutists progress into the higher levels of proficiency This can be evidenced in their execution of extremely technical passages as well as the production of exotic tonal effects

Learning to use the appropriate fingerings for various situations ought to be considered a vi tal segment of basic musicianship since the application of the correct or corshyrective fingerings parallels the importance of other flute techniques This concept should become a part of each flutists daily routine and hopefully will guide the playshyer in the aspiration of becoming a sensitive musician

This compilation is presented as a methodology for finshygerings by offering a wide range of selected fingerings for the flutist and directing their use in diverse techshyniques It is hoped that this reference guide will encourshyage an exploitation of the flutes potentialities which should be the ultimate goal of every ambitious student of the flute

James J Pellerite Professor of Flute Indiana University

HOW TO READ THE CHARTS

These fing~rings apply to the Boehm system flute with the closed G~ key In many instances a low B foot joint is necessary although a low C will be acceptable for many of these fingerings Auxiliary keys that are someshytimes found on specially made flutes have not been conshysidered However the French model flute will be essenshytial for those charts in which the fingerings call for venting the various tone holes

A number appearing next to the illustration for each fingering will refer to the text material The correshysponding number is followed by a brief statement which relates to the fingerings purposefulness

The fingerings have been illustrated using the symbol ( ) and will indicate only that the keys are depressed For this reason it is not necessary to give considerashytion to whether or not a key remains open

The other familiar symbol (0) will apply exclusiveshyly to the use of the French model flute and be used solely to signify that a key is to be vented in its enshytirety

bull The key is depressed

C) The tone hole is vented accordingly

0 Vent the tone hole in its entirety

Apply the French model flute+ X Use the D or D Trill key

PI Pianissimo

If Fortissimo

R H Right Hand

L H Left Hand

[5J

2(a) HARMONICS

The production of overtones is a basic technique with which all flutists must become familiar Not only does -it represent the foundation for proper tone production but also it offers additional opportunities to simplify many complex technical passhysages which occur in the 3rd octave of the flute The fingering combinations for such phrases become moderately easy by using the fingerings for the fundamental notes to produce the harmonshyics Created by overblowing the fundamentals these are generally indicated as follows

0 g0 a 0 12

0 8 0 amp

To produce D3 (2nd overtone) use the fin~ering for fundamental Gl for E3 AI for F3 B l etc

To overblow the fundamental tone an intense air column must be applied This can be formed by diminishing the size of the aperture and increasing the breath pressure(subsequently the air speed) The air column needs to be directed more horishyzontally across the embouchure plate as one progresses into the higher harmonics Treating the fundamental tones in this manner will produce the following overtones in succession

[see Overtone Series chart (first measure)]

(a) 1st overtone - octave (b) 2nd - 12th (octave and a fifth) (c) 3rd - 15th (double octave) (d) 4th 17th (two octaves and a third) (e) 5th 19th (two octaves and a fifth)(0 6th 21st (two octaves and a seventh)

Frequently students find it difficult to reach the full gamshyut of overtones that are shown here This stems from the fact that sometimes they lack proper control of the embouchure and the air column However should this not be the case then the source of the problem may be the existing properties of the headshyjoint It is an accepted fact that no two headjoints ever will respond alike(even made by the same manufacturer) This varishyance means that one flute may possess either more or less resistshyance in its bloWing characteristics It is this added resistance that often may deter the production of the extremely high harshymonics However further development of the embouchure is asshysured as the production of these overtones is attempted and pracshyticed The resultant physical capability enables the flutist to create a greater number of overtones for each fundamental With this facility extremely technical passages in the upper ocshytaves are simplified by the use of left-hand-fingerings eg low G and A overblown can produce the overtone which would afford easier performance in a rapid passage of the 3rd octave

[10]

Due to the acoustical construction of the flute these harshymonics in the 3rd octave possess a rather veiled character of tone quality and a somewhat lower level of intonation than that produced when the regular fingerings are used The presence of the lower fundamental note causes this phenomenon since the reshyquired vent hole which is normally open in the regular fingershying is closed For example the regular fingering for D2 i properly vented by raising the 1st key LH ~he ton~ qoa11ty is muffled and its pitch level lowered when th1s key 1S closed In fact so many students accidentally produce this tone quality by using the incorrect fingerings and are not aware of the resultshying faulty tone structure One must discriminate and exercise discretion as to the use of these nshort cut fingerings Often the tonal beauty of a melodic passage is impaired by the obtuse sound of harmonics Their use in performance should be limitshyed to the most difficult passages in orchestral or band litershyature and even then only in rapidly moving phrases where it will ~ot be detected that harmonic assist has been applied

On the other hand there may be a desire for moments of tonal coloring in isolated cases Thus using the tone quality of some of these notes the harmonics become a purposeful and effecshytive display They can be used advantageously so long as the notes are played with conviction and will sou~dcorrect In actushyality many compositions now call for ~he add1t10nal tonal shadshyings that are possible when the harmon1cs are properly managed

The low register fingerings presented in thechart on Basic Fingerings are applied to the fundamental notes 1n the Overtone Series chart As the flutist progresses and studies the charts for trills tremolos etc he will discover that the application of the harmonic series will appear inexhaustible

Overtone Series 0)

Q it0Q ao ~ ~ e ~ ~ A

Q

- L g

2~ (0) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

~~ ltIi D ~

A ~ ~ ~

0 ~ IA 11amp I ~ IT 21 ~I

0 0 i~ lI- j- (2)

0 ltIi b b Q ~ ~ A shy1J ~ -amp - -- ~ = r ~ oa t ~ t 9 k

(2)1bullbull 1 v bullbull I

(3) (5)(6)(4)

Q

bull amp ~ ~Q Q

e- a Q ~

~ 6shy

~ ~Q ~v if Rk iv P V t v ~ I (2)

QQ ~ 6shy0 ~ ~

~o Q ~ -amp e

8 8 bull V R V 0 9J lit lit a 0~ ~

Note The following alterations may be applied when practicing from this chart These will assist in performing the upper harmonics with greater ease and their physical placement in the ocshytave would be identified more readily Followshying a degree of proficiency in the execution of the harmonic series these intervals should be practiced legato[slurred]

1 Vent the 2nd key RH 2 Use the Gn ~ey 3 Close the EP key 4 Use the low B key if available 5 Close the C key 6 Close the Cn key

2(b) FRENCH MODEL FLUTE Also referred to as the open tone hole model this flute is

identified by its perforations in the centers of the five keys that are activated by the fingers The relevancy of the French model flute is noteworthy Its prominence in the flutists career has been brought about by a variety of technical applications through which its advantages seem compounded

A substantial number of fingerings specifically for this instrushyment can be learned from these charts that follow The special finshygerings are for purposes of varying the pitch dynamics or tone quality or any of these in combination They also will effect a more realistic pitch relationship in the intervals for trills or tremolos according to the instructions as may be directed by the numbered comments There are some fingerings that are traditionally for the closed hole flute For these the use of the French model possibly could be supplemental to improve upon some of the original fingerings

The technique of venting the various tone holes is one that ought to be introduced to the lesser experienced flutist as soon as practicable The astute professional always has recognized the value of this application To develop the technique of sliding over the tone holes one must emphasize a subtle movement of the fingers with utmost sensitivity and vent cautiously for absolute control Almost immediately this reveals the ease with which it is possible to exeshycute a glissando of the scale bull

or a slide[portamento] to or from various notes

The left hand fingers should glide away from the flute in an outshyward motion while the right hand fingers move in the opposite direcshytion and towards the key mechanism This seems to be the most adaptshyable approach to venting However since each individuals hand position is subject to a mUltiformity due to basic differences in musculature other methods may be devised and considered equally successful The expertise of an artist teacher will be vital in considering each situation that is problematical To vent the hole by a fraction the finger is to be moved in a calculative fashion The pitch is raised according to the amount of the hole exposed The opposite is true when the desired pitch level is to be lowered By depressing the key ring by its edge it is possible to vent the enshytire tone hole The numbered comments accompanying each chart will suggest the appropriate venting combinations for each fingering

The acoustical principle applied to the vented fingerings is based upon the production of the harmonic series The overtones (see Overtone Series chart) can be altered conveniently by ventshying the fingerings for their fundamental tones This produces an array of pitches in a composite of overtones and results in total flexibility for the ensuing techniques that are to be applied By gliding these pitches the notes are altered to possess a wider range of intonation as well as a broad spectrum of tone content This development takes place as the fingerings alter the tubeshylengthsCdistance air column travels] for tone production These are either extended or contracted depending upon the location of the key being activated and the amount that its tone hole is to be vented Also with these fingerings the resistance factor of the instrument sometimes is transformed from its traditional response to an entirely different sensation in the production of certain notes Examples of this condition will be discovered when reading from the charts on tremolos altered notes quarter-tones etc

These modifications as provided by the use of the French model flute are beneficial in all facets of musical performance not only in contemporary music but in the standard repertoire as well

[llJ

bull bull

I TRILLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step)

bull bull bull I

I bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull I bullbull I

I bull I bull I bull I bulltr I I

bull I bull I tr bull II 0 I I 1(+)

tr I bull I bull I bullbull I I I

tr I I Ibull I bull I bull I

bull I bull I bulltr bull II I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull bull I I I

I I Ibull bull bull I bull I bulltr I bull I

bull bull bull I I bulltr I bull I I bull I I I 2

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

~-~ _ a--f----=-________

~_~----J

~-~ _ trtr ---------bull-bull- I bull I I

tr tr bull I bull bull bull bull bullbull-+--+--+-+-+-1-iIJ-+I-+---t1

bull bull I ~r I - I 4

~ tr j~ - bullbull--+-1---eillE-la--j---j I bull I bull

bulltr I bull I I bull bull I bull

bulltr I I I

(+) Applicable to the French model flute

I bull I

tr I bull I bull

bull f---1f--l--+-+-+--af-+-+--l1 5

f--tt-+-+-+------r---ilbull-t-+--ll 6

bullbull-+-1--t---t--+--+-f-+--t---11 6

tr Ibull I bull I

bull I

1--+---+---1a--t ---1bull--+---+---I1 7 (+)

~~r--+---+--+---+----II tr bull I~ bullbullgt---~+--+-------o---J bull bull bullbull I 7 (+)

XtrI I I 181bull

Xtr II bull I 1---4~XE--tr--l--+-----tIt-+-+---l1 9

1---4a-l--l--4llXctr-+I_-+-+--11 9bull

I bull I bull I bullbull~--I bull bull bull tr

trFR=--() bullbullbull 1--iIIbull --+-__t---tIIt-+--+---+---I1 10

EUI= 1-1-+---~a-bull-+ bull bull ~r I I

TRILLS [Half-step and Whole-step]

1 This is possible only with the use of the French model flute Depress the 3rd key-ring RH by hooking the thumbnail underneath and behind the key trilling the tone hole Adequate time is necessary for the preparation of this unshynatural hand position

2 When possible begin the trill by using regular F fingering (3rd RH) to establish the proper level of intonation

3 This may be used for added facility when the trill is followed by the note E However the F~ is slightly flat in pitch

4 This fingering produces a flat BP(A) It is acceptable in a If and its use may facilitate technical passages

5 Appropriately used for a PP this fingering produces a higher level of pitch for C2 and C3 bull

6 Use this fingering for a ff since a lower pitch level for C2and C will result3 7 The intonation for C(DP) is lowered by venting approximately

one-half of tbe tone hole of the 3rd key LH

8 When possible begin the trill by using the regular D fingering to establish the proper pitch level for the interval

9 This lowers the C for a near correct interval

10 When possible lower the 1st key L4H~ slightly until the intoshynation and tone quality for D and Di(EP) is improved

x- Use Trill Key [l3]

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull

3 TRILLSltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

bull bull bull bull bull bull

I trbull middot1 bull bull I

I middot1 tr

Ibull bullbull I 110

~--bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull I Jr

J ~r I Jr I

Ibullbull III I 1112

M---1 bull bull bull bull I Jr l I 1

~--e-j bull bull bull ~ 2

~-- I bull bull bull I Jr I I I bullbull I I I

~--_I bull bull bull tr ~

~-- bull bull bull ~

~-- tr

bull bull bull bull ~

~--e-j tr

bull bull bull bull [14J

bull bull Jr I~-

~ I bull bull tr bullbull tr tr

~_ bull bull bull bull tr tr

I Jr bullbull bull I

I Jr l-i~_ bull ~r I Ibull bull I

bull bull bulltr I II

~-- bull bulltr H

~-- bull

tr I~_ I bull

bull I tr Ibull

bull I bulltr I

t-rl I I I bull I I I I

H-+++-e-+-+-t--

I I I I I I 1 I Ibull -+-1 I I bull I I I I H--+--++-+++-1 4

~ f--I I I I bull I ~-H

H-+-++e-++-H

Jr- I I I I I Ibull I ~r I I bull H---H

1-+--1 f==1 bull 5 I ~ 1--1 6

bull I II- I bull 16

Smiddot +

bulltr I I bull I I I

I I bull I

1------l----il)(e--tr+1--+-~-tIt-t--+-I1 13

I bull I I I

I------l--+-+I-Xlrt---jrIr--tIbull -+1-+1-II 14

I I

)(tr I Xtrl IbullU--I II bull1-1--+--t-----Cgt----i X

tr I Xtrj 15(+)

bullbullbull I I I bull I Ia~--I Xtrl

O-Depress the key by its edge

I I I Ibull bull bulltr bull

bull bull J--i 1--0 bull bull 116(+)

bull bull bull tr bull bull I bull I bullbull I I I

bull bull I I

1----tbull -+-CgtIgt--+--i-+-+----I117 (+)

tr trbullbullbullbull 1 bullbull 111

II Begin the trill by using the 1st key LH open for E~(D)

12 F2 is lower in pitch when this fingering is applied 13 While using the trill key apply proper tone support to simulate

the tone quality of regular C Adjust the direction of the air column downward

14 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for D Then apply the trill key and proper tone support to sustain a more correct interval

15 Depress the 3rd key LH venting the entire tone hole This assists in correcting the intonation level for a ff

16 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for E then apply the trill fingering venting the entire tone hole of the 1st key RH When playing PP the 3rd key LH is to be vented slightly during the trill

17 Almost the entire tone hole of the 2nd key R H is to be vented In a pp the tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be slightly vented while trilling

[15]

8va---

3TRilLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

r-- tr ~~ I bullbullbull I I I I I I I bull I 126

f--(gt I bull I bull bull I I 27(+)~~ I I bullbullbull

tr I I II e I 1

8va--- bull I I bull bull I I Jr Xtr I I I bull I I 28

~ ~I Imiddotmiddotmiddottr Xtr I I bull I I I bull () bullbull 1--+1--+-1-+-1~ -~I-+--II 29(+)

8va-

~I bullbullbull tr tr

f-I- bull -+-~bull-bull- bull I bullbull ~ 8va---

1---e~1+1~XF-tr+1 -bull-r---i--tl 30~ ---H bullbull I I I ~r I bull I I I I bull I

bull tr 1---e~1+-1lh a---fI-+--+--J1 31bull I bull bull bull8va--- tr

r4--~ bullbullbull I~J~r f-I+-1lhbullbull=-+I-+-1-+1--1 32(+)

~ bull I Jr l bull 11----+-1~II---+-I -tI~1 -+1=-11 33

~ tr

1~-l)(If-+~11---+-1-+1-1bull-+1--1 34(+)

8va---- bull I bullbulltr

0-1 ~r I I I I I I 135(+)

t---eJ--r)(If-tr-+I-l)(1E-+-1-+1-+1-+I---li 36(+)

~~ Jr )(trI I I I I I I 1---a~JrX-+rI~IeA----4l-+r-+1-1 37

bull I bull I bull ~rX I I I I I I Ibull I bull I bull

8va---

I bullbull I~~

bull I bull

gt--+---+I~o

I bull

I ~r I tr ~ I I

I Jr I bull I I Jr 1

bull

I f--+----t--lto

I I Xtrl

I I bull I I bull bull I

X bull I I

I bullbull I

118

119(+)

120

I I

I I 1121

I bullbull I I

I I bull I I I Jr I bull I

I bullbull I I I I bull I I

I 122 I 23(+)

I 124

I bullbull I I I I bull I bull I I 25(+)

I I bull I I I

-[16]

__========-==========~~========~=====~ ~-_ 1

8va---

~ ~rll bull bull bull---I--r--bulltr-e~~r-iIIIt--t bull x bull bullbull 138

8va--D- tr x bull ~--bullbull-+--jo-r-+-tJ-I X oJ-+---f---+--1 39(+)

8va---

~ tr I tr bull I ~__-+--- ---t---e--i I )( I 140

8va-- tr tr

bull bullbull bull -I )(1---4a-+--e-4--+--+-+-+--e 4 O ~--IJgt-r-III---1----lt~ 1----41-+-+---+---+--+--+-+--4140bull bull bull bull I

8va--- tr tr

1---4~-+--+--+-1 -lt+--+-+-1-- 40~_ bull bull bull bull bull I

18 Although a basic fingering this does produce a faulty F

19 Vent the entire tone hole of the 2nd key RH If necessary the interval can be adjusted further by venting the 2nd key LH while trilling

20 The tone quality and pitch level of this interval is inadequate but in a ff this trill is acceptable

21 This fingering is appropriately applied in a PP On French model flutes vent the 1st tone hole RH while trilling to execute a secure diminuendo

22 To adjust the intonation for a more correct interval apply proper tone support

23 This fingering is useful in a PP bull Vent the tone hole of the 2nd key LH according to the desired level of pitch

24 Although the F is flat this fingering is acceptable in a ff 25 Depress the 2nd key RH to lower the level of pitch for

a If 26 Fundamental tones G] and A] are overblown in the production

of this trill HenCe a greater amount of tone support is necessary

27 Vent approximately one-third of the tone holes of the 2nd key LH and the 1st keyRH The intonation for G may be imshyproved by venting the 3rd key LH slightly during the trill

28 The A is faulty Throughout the trill apply firm tone supshyport to improve upon its tone structure

29 Begin the trill by using regular fingerings for G and A Then vent the 2nd key LH approximatell one-third of the tone hole [appropriately used for a PP J

30 This fingering offers suitable control for a PP bull

31 Use this fingering in a ff bull 32 The tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly to

provide for an immediate tonal response in a pp bull

33 Fundamental tones A] and Bl are overblown to produce this trill It is recommended fOr a ff level only

34 This fingering is applicable for a softer dynamic level Vent the 2nd key LH approximately one-third of the tone hole bull

35 The problem of coordinating this fingering may effect the tonal production Avoid moving the flute while blowing Vent approxshyimately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH and one-half of the tone hole of the 1st key RH or as may be needed to adjust the intonation for A

36 The 1st key RH may be vented slightly while trilling to raise the pitch level of the BP in a PP bull

37 This is appropriate for a 17 bull 38 The note C is lower in pitch 39 The intonation can be improved by vegting the entire tone hole

of the 3rd key RH 40 This trill demands substantial breath support Apply low C for

flutes without a low B foot joint

[17]

bull bullbull

bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull

bull

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

I bull I bull I ~I bull bull I 1(+)

bull I bull bullbull I bull I bull I Jr I bullbull 1 2

I bull I bull bulltr II bull I 12

I bull tr tr

I bull I bull I bull I I 2

trbull I I ~rl I H2

bull I bull bullbull

bull I bullbullbull I ~r I Jr I bull bull I I I 2

[18J

bull bull ~ Jr I I bull I 12

bull bull ~r I bull I bull I I bull I Imiddot I 23

trbull bullbull I I I I I bull I I 123

bull ~r I I I I I r bull 1--+-1 2

I I I I bullbull I I 12bull bull bull tr I

bulltr bullbullI ~1---I---+-----lI---+---+---1124 ~I-J--+----JI~ t-+---+--i1 2

tr tr I ---11-+-11--+-1-4-+---+----11 2

Jr ~r I ~I-J--+----J--t--J-t-I---+--il 2 bull--~tr tr--1I bull I bull I 12

f--i--j-+-t--t--j-l-t----+--il 24 tr tr I 1--+-4--+--1-+1l-t---t--il 2

bull I bull

bullbull I

bullbull I

bull I bull

Ibull

bull I

bull bull I bull__-+---

bull

I

~ trbull bull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull bull bull bull

124

12 ~ --+---+-H I xtrl xtrl bull I I I

~ tr trbull bull bullbull bull bull tr bull bulltr bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bullbull

12

15

16 ~ e---+-+-+--+--1

-i tr tr Ibull bull bull ~I Xtrl xtrl bull f-e-I bull I bullbull

16

19

~

~ ~

~

bull 4rbull I tr trbull bull bull I

tr tr trbull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr Ibull I tr bullbull I tr I I tr bullbull tr I I Ibullbull I ()----jbull bull bullbullbull bull

I tr

l

X 1

bull I

bull I I I I 1 I Xtr

Jr I Xtrl

I I Xtrl

bullbull

bullbull bull bullbull bull bull bull

124

127

127

16

12

12

12 18(+)

I 16

TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

1 Firm the hand position by anchoring the little fingerLH against the flute and underneath thi G lever Then apply the technique as described for the C -D trill [See TRILLS]

2 This fingering also applies to the octave above

3 Firm the hand position to avoid unnecessary movement of the flute against the embouchure The interval will sound more correct if it is produced with a less intense air column

4 This fingering affords a secure hand position The interval is faulty but may be acceptable at a ff level

5 The Cmiddot is flat and will demand the use of greater breath support

6 This is appropriately used for a PP level

7 To achieve a balanced ~and position while executing the tremolo depress the G lever

~ bull bull

bull bull

XtrlI ~r I 1

I I bull Xtrl bull

I 16

8 Apply this fingering at a PP level only When using a French model flute vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH

9 Begin the interval with the use of regular fingering for the lower note then proceed with the fingering as shown

[19]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

1

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

~ bull I tr trbull bull bull I bull middot1 I middot1 I 19

~ trbull tr bullbullbull I I I 19middot

~ Jr tr trbull bull bull I middot1 I I I bull 1 1 19

~fJf ~

bull

Apply lower octave fingerings

Jr I Jr II bull bull bull I I bullbull I I 110

~ bull I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I trbull bull I I I II

bull I bull I I Xtr Xtrj middot1 112bull

~r I Jr 1 I bull I 113bull I bull bull I~ bull

~ a ~ ~

~

~

bull bulltr bull bull

bull

bull I

bull bull bull bulltr I1

bull I bull bull Jr I ~r I tr bullbull I I

bullfr I bulltr 1 bull I tr tr I

I

tr tr I tr tr

tr trbull I bull bull bull I

x tr I I I bull I

xtr I Xtrl bull I

I I X tr

I Xtr 1

I Jr 1 1 I I bull I

I bullbull tr I bullX

19

114

I I

I 115(+)

116

19

I bull I bull J9

I bullbull 117

bull I I bull I 18

I I 118

I I I I I I I 119

[20J

bull bull tr tr I f------1-+--+--+--+-e_f-t-i1 25

~--+-__+_-+-----1I__-II-+-l1 24

tr f----tt-+I--bullI---iIII~e-f-t-i1 20

~--+-I__+_-+-----1If--agt-+-+-1 22

f-+-+---+--+----If--agt-t--+---11 23

~a___+__f--+----+--+---ll 20

1--1-+---+---+--+1---+---+-11 21

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull bull bull trbull bull bullbull

tr trbull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull

bull

bull

bull

trbull

bull

bull

8va-----

~(lt

8va----

~

r~~t-rXt-1--+--t-+1~I-+I-I 26(+)

f----4III~-rX--1r 1--+--11--+-1~I-+---li 27(+)~ tr t

bull 1 bullbullbull 1 1----1--t--+-+--it-r-+I-e-t--ll 28

10 Overblow the fundamentals(D-F) at the 12th

11 Overblow the fundamentals(E~-G) at the 12th

12 The D is better in tune as the tremolo is played pp bull

13 The fundamentals (E-G) are overblown at the 12th

14 Apply this fingering at a ff level

15 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown at the 12th When using the French model flute vent the 2nd keyLU and the 1st keyRU slightly while trilling This improves the intonation and affords control at a pp level

16 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

17 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

18 The fundamentals(G-BP) are overblown at the 12th

19 The fundamentals(G-B) are overblown at the 12th

20 This fingering is more difficult to coordinate however it produces a more correct interval

21 Overblow the fundamentals(G-B) at the 12th

22 Overblow the fundamentals(AP-C) at the 12th

23 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

24 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

25 Overblow the fundamentals (BP-DP) at the 12th

26 These harmonics are produced by overblowing BP at the 12th and F at the 17th This fingering is applicable also when using a closed-hole flute however the French model will produce the tremolo with clarity The tone holes of the 2nd and 3rd keys LU are vented slightly

27 Same as 26 but apply the harmonics B at the 12th and F at the 17th

28 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown to produce the harmonics at the 15th

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

8va------

~ bull bull trbull r-cirxtr I I I I bull I I 29(+)

8va-

~

8va----

~fit bull

bullbull

trbulltrbull

tr trbullbull I I

I I tr

X I

I I I

I bull I 131

bull 1 I 130

8va----

~ bull I bull

tr tr bull bull bull I I I I bull I I 132

8va----

bull bull bull bull I Jr l I I I I I 133

8va--

bull tr trbull bull bull I I I I I I bullbull 134

[22J

8va----

~r bull o--e I bull I I I I I M 35(+)

f

29 Overblow B2 to produce the harmonic at the 12th On French model flut~s the response of the interval is improved by depressing the 1st key ring RH

30 Overblow the fundamentals (G-BP) at the 15th

31 Overblow C2 at the 12th to produce Gbull

32 The fundamentals (G-B) are overblown at the 15th

33 When using a flute with a B foot joint depress the low B key only

34 Overblow the fundamentals (A-C) at the 15th

35 On French model flutes depress the 3rd key ring LH The tonal response when using this fingering may vary with some flutes if so use the EP key instead of low C

I I

These charts include as many fingerings as are pracshyticable in the execution of tremolos involving intershyvalsinfourths fifths sixths sevenths and octaves Those intervals which have been omitted lacked acceptshyable fingerings that would offer adequate facility with the necessary tonal response Probably these intervals could be played with a degree of proficiency by using the regular fingerings resulting in a superior effect

Tremolos other than thirds or fourths are used inshyfrequently but being knowledgeable in their technical production would prove most beneficial to the performer Their physical demands would add a totally new dimenshysion to the flutists technique Embouchure flexibilishyty and the coordination of the fingers are the initial benefits that accrue from the execution of these wide intervals

It will be noted that a resemblance to the regular fingerings will exist in some of these and the addishytion of the G~ or thumb or trill keys serving as vents lend an added distinctness to the intervals In many instances these keys bring about a response as efshyfectively as would an octave key on other woodwind inshystruments

Apart from their function as tremolos there are nushymerous advantages which these fingerings offer The conshytrol of technical passages by applying these as short cut fingerings the production of tonal effects in lyrshyical phrases or the purposeful application of tone coloring simply by reiterating these intervals slowly are all distinct merits that would contribute to a pershyformers technical skills However the individual situations in present-day repertoire must be researched experimentally in order to apply the various fingerings These will promulgate a more comprehensible approach to the application of the harmonic series as well as provide for an extended view in the use of the French model flute

4(b) TREMOLOSCPerfectFourths and Tritones

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

tr1middot1middot bullbullbull I bull I Jr I Jr I bull bullbull

tr trI bull I bull I I bullbull II

tr tr ~ bull I bull I bullbull II

II

I tr I tr I tr I I I1---iIbull-I--iIIIIr--+-ja-t-1IIbull-+------1 I

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones)

1 Apply these fingerings one octave above

[23)

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones) Cant

tr tr trbull I bull I bull 1 I I IIbull bullbull I

bull bull tr

bullbull I tr

bull I bull I bull I I I 11)2

tr tr bull bull bullbull bull I bull I bullbull I I 11)2

tr bull bull bull I I I bull I bullbull I I 11 1 3

trbullbullbull I 11 I 1 I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I bull I I bull I I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I I I I bull I I II

I 1 I I I bullbull I 1 11)5

I I I I I I bull Jshy 1L

I I I I I bullbull I I II

bull ~r bull I I Jr I I I I bull I I 114

tr trbull bull bull

tr trbull bullbull

tr tr Ibull bull bull

bull bull I Xtrl I bull I 16bulltr tr bull I I I I I bull I 11)7bull bull

I

Xtrlbull bull bull I I bull I 16- bull

t

trbulltr bulltr bull bull bull I I I I I bull I I 1)7

I XtrlI I I I 18bull bull bull bull bull I~- tr

bull bull I I I x bull I 19~-

I I~ bull ~r I I bull bull I bull Ibull [24J

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

y ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~

bull bull I bull 19

bull bullbull

bull bulltr

Ibull bull I I tr trbull bull bull bull I

trbull bull bull ~r I tr Jr I

tre----1 bull bull bull bull I bull bull

tr bull tr

Apply lower

tr tr tr

bull bull I

Xtrl Xtrl bull 19

bull bull I bull bull I

tr trbull bull X l bull 110

bull bull I bull I II

tr tr middot1 bull I I bull I II tr Jr Xtrlmiddot1 bull 110

Jr l XtrlI bull I 112

octave fingerings 13

~rl ~rl tr I bull 1 I bull I

~ Apply lower octave fingerings

~fJf 13

2 It is acceptable to trill only the G key for a PP level otherwise alternate the trilling of the G key with the 1st key RH

3 Use an intense air column to produce a more correct tone quality for Abull

4 Coordinate the action of both fingers to avoid lagging the response of the interval

5 For added facility trill only the 2nd key however the B will remain faulty bull

6 At a pp level this fingering may be acceptable

7 Although difficult to coordinate this fingering is preferred

8 Adequate breath support and directed inward will assist toward the production of a more appropriate tone quality for the D

9 As the upper note is faulty direct the air column inward to match the tone quality of the lower

10 This responds with ease and is suitable for app 11 The upper note will respond more readily as the interval

is played If 12 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to ensure clarity

13 Apply the fingerings given(See 1)

[25J

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritonesgt Cant

bull I I 11 21(+)

~ 8va--

tr tr bull lOX I bull I I I 22(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr bull I ~r I bull I I I I C) x I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va----

tr t tr tr bull I r I bull I I I I Craquo( I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr I I I I I I I I Ibull I I bullbull

~ 8va---

tr tr tr trbull I bulltr bull bull I bullbullx I 124 tr tr tr

~I x I 1(+) ~ bullbull8va---

tr tr I I bulltr bull bull bull I I x bull bullbull 125

~ 8va----

tr tr tr tr I I I I I I I 126bull I bull bull bull bull~

x tr xtrJ~rbullbull-+--+--I116(+) tr

l tr

)( I X I I 117

tr tr I I X 0 I I bull I I 1(+)

tr tr tr ~gt-+-If-X~I-e-ilr--+-il 19(+)

1--+1-i)(lrtr-tI-iXlrtr--+I-e-ilr--+-ll 20

11--+1-+-1-+I--+--+-bull-JI--+-I 14 t---drxtrl I I 115(+)

tr tr tr 117(+)bull bull bull bull bull I I xo I

bull tr tr Xtr Xtr bull bull bull I bull I I

tr tr tr 118(+)~ f-OX I X I bull I I

~ tr

bull I bullbull I I

bull I bullbull Jr I

[26]

I

8va---

~ 8va----

~ I_tr~x__t r+-I -+-+-1f-+-j--+-41 27 (+)

~ 8va-----

bull bull Jr ~29

~

14 Anticipate the action of the 1st key to avoid a lag in the response of the interval

15 In spite of this awkward fingering a ready response is afforded Alternate the use of the LH keys with those of the RH

16 This is purposeful for a ff

17 Apply this fingering for a pp

18 Control the action of the trill keys for a clearly defined interval Vent also one-half of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

19 Vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling to effect a pp bull

20 This is used for a ff

21 Vent approximately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH

22 For controllability concentrate on the use of an equal action with the RH fingers

23 The interval responds best when approximately one-half of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH is vented

24 This tremolo by necessity will be executed at a slower speed Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the thumb key and the right hand keys simultaneously

25 This tremolo will need to be executed quite slowly Altershynate the trilling of the G key with the use of the thumb and trill key together

26 Overblow the G~-C~2 fundamental at the 12th

27 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the use of the RH keys

28 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with the use of the RH keys

29 To correct an F that is faulty the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly while trilling

[27]

bull bull bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull

4(c)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

bulli I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I middot1 bull bullbull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 1 bullbull I

tr~ bull I bull bull bull bull I Jr I bull I bull I bull I II

~ trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 bull I I I I

bull tr trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 e e bull I 1 I

tr trbull bull I bull bull bull I Jr I el middot1

bull bulltr bull Ie I Jr I 12

tr trbull I bull bull bull I bull I e I 13 ~ tr tr tr I 1bull I bull bull bull bull I 1 4

bull ~

~ ~ -bull ~ bull

tr tr tr

I 1

bull I bull bull bull tr I

I

Ibull bull bull bulltr

I

tr tr II

tr tr II

e I bull bull Ibull tr tr tr

J

I bullbulltrx bullbull I

15

~rxtrl

xtr

xtr bull I

I I bull 16(+

17

I I Xtrl xtr bull 1

I tr tr Ibull I bull X bull I I 18

I bull I I Xtrl bull I I 19

I I I I I bull bull I I I

I ~r I tr tr bull I bull I bullbull 1

I I I I I I bull I I I

bull bull bull bull

bulltr bull bullbulltr

tr trbull bull bullbull I

tr trbull bull bulltr bull

bulltr bulltr bullbull

tr bulltr bulltr bullbull

bulltr bull bullbull I

bull bull bull o--e

e---jf-----bull-----

bullbull---1-----bull-0-0____

tr1- middotmiddot1 tr ~rl1-41-+1-----4---4----bull-11--+--11 II

bulltr I bull --+-iII~-+~1 12

tr bull I I - I

I - - I

ytrl tr 1--~7lr---+-+--4middotmiddotmiddot-4Imiddott---+-+---1113 I

114(+)

~ tr 115(+)

I bull trl bullbull 11516(+)

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

1 This fingering also applies to the octave above Alternate the use of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 The B is slightly flat

3 This fingering serves more appropriately for a pp bull

4 A more correct interval results with this fingering

5 Apply the use of a large aperture to produce a dispersed air column iQ using this fingering at a pp level The impurities in the C~ thus can be eliminated

6 This fingering is most appropriately used for a pp bull The D may be sharp in pitch

7 Use a strong air column to assist in the correction of a faulty D Alternate the use of the 1st key LH with the trill key

8 Avoid the sounding of extraneous notes in the interval by emshyphasizing control in the action of the RH fingers

9 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to secure coordinashytion with the LH keys being trilled

10 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the simulshytaneous action of the 3rd key LH and the 1st key RH

11 Avoid moving the flute thereby improving the coordination of the fingers

12 The B will respond clearly only if the action of the fingers is equalized

13 A slight accentuation of the G will assist in producing the interval with greater assurance Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with those of the RH

14 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightlyand about one-h~lf of the tone hole 1st key RH to adequately tune the G~ Avoid excessive closing of the embouchure

15 Accentuate the A throughout the tremolo to lend clarity

16 This fingering produces a controlled pp

~(c) TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths) Cont 17 Vent also one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH while

trilling

18 To ensure a tonal response accentuate the lower note

19 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH to properly tune the D This is more suited to playing pp bull

20 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with those of the RH

21 Apply a low B if available

22 An intense air column must be used for this interval Altershynate trilling the thumb key with the 2nd Although this finger- bull ing is awkward the interval responds readily and is enhanced further through the use of a low B

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

~

I Jr I ~r I~ bull bull bull bull I bulltr

I bullbullbull

~ bull I bull bull bull bulltr I Jr l bull I bull I bull bullbull 1

Jr I 1 bull I bull I bullbullbull 2~ bull bull bull tr

tr tr I~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull middot3 bull l

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull

bullbull1IIIIIIl~~~~

lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

~~~~

bull bulltr bullbull

tr trbullbullbullbullbull 111 bullbull 11

tr trbull I bull I bull I bullbull 12bull bull bull bull I

-i tr tr I I bull I bull I bull I bull bull I3

bull bull bull bulltr

tr tr tr I bulltr I bull I bullbull bullbull I

bulltr

I bull I bull I bull I I

bull I bull bull bull I tr I bullbull bull bull 14

~rl bull bull bull

bull I Jr I bull 16 Jr I bull I bull I

Jr I bull bull I 14

I ~r I bull I bull I I I I

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I j5

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I 15 tr trbull bullbullbull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

1 Alternate the trilling of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 Although this fingering demands coordination the tonal reshysponse is aided by the trilling of the 1st key RH

3 The A~ is slightly flat

4 This balan~ed hand position provides maneuverability howshyever the A~ remains flat in pitch

5 Direct the air column inward to achieve adequate response for the low C~

6 This fingering produces a lower pitch level for A~ bull

[31]

bull bull bull

--

I bull I I I I bull I I I

trxtrlI I Xmiddot bull I I 110

Xtr tr X bullbull III

Xtr Xtrl bull I 112

tr tr I bull I I I~r I X

Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 113

tr tr I JrXtrjbull bull I I 114

tr I Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 114

tr tr tr II tlr I bull I bull bull bullbull 15(+)

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)Cont

~ tr tr tr I bull I Ibull I bull bull bull I 17

tr tr I 1 bullbull I I~ - bull bull bull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull bullbull I I I

tr tr tr trbull I I I~ bull bullbull -I middotmiddot1

~ tr trbull I bull bullbull ~rl bull I I bull I I I

tr tr tr tr I~ bull I bull bullbull I middot1

__I tr tr ~8 ~ bull bull bull

tr bull bull Xtrl~ bull I bull bull I I middot1 I 19

[32J

~ ~ ~ V bullbull bull bull

tr tr Jr I

Ibull bull bull bull I

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull I

-1 bull bullbull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull bull

I I

r

I tr tr tr tr

I 115(+)bull bull bull bull bull I-laquogt bull I bull I bull I 13

bull ~ rdr r I bull I bullbull 113(+)

bull bull bull tr

~ bull bull I bull I 118(+)1

bull bull bulltr r I I bull Xtrl bull I 119

tr trbull bull bull bull ~ I bull bull bull bull 118(+)

tr tr 120(+)bull bull bull bull r--laquor-I bull I bull I bull I

1-1t-t-I-+--1-iI-+----+--+----11 21(+)

trbull bull bullbullbull

7 Avoid moving the flute during the tremolo Direct the air column inward to assure response for the D

8 Alternate the trilling of the LH key with the trill key The D is faulty Avoid the lag in response resulting from the LH reacting late This interval will prove to be difficult in sustaining a tremolo

9 The D is flat and requires added breath support Alternate the trilling of the thumb with the trill key [see 8J

10 This tremolo is more correct in pitch if played softly Use a slightly diffused air column to prevent the D from becoming sharp

11 This interval must be played louder than 10 for it to be near corr~ct in its intonation Intensify the air column for the Dli

12 Use greater breath support to raise the pitch level for D bull

13 This interval will be difficult to execute as a sustained tremolo

14 Use the ED key to raise the pitch for the upper note if needed Alternate the G key with the simultaneous trillshying of the RH keys

15 Alternate the G key with the trilling of the keys of the RU The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH This tremolo is difficult to coordinate due to the possishybility of certain tone holes not being covered adequately

16 Anticipate the action of the trill key to aid in the proper coordination

17 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH while trilling The clear response will depend upon this controlled venting

18 The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th A breath emphasis given to this note will assist in its response

19 Adequate breath support for the F may paTtially correct its faulty tone structure

20 Vent ~pproximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH The Gli is a harmonic at the 12th Venting the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling may add distinctness

21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

[33J

r

- - -

tr -I I I 121(+)- -shy

4(d) TREMOLOS ltSixthsSeventhsOctavesgt Cont

-~

tr ~

trbull I bull -

_I

tr r--o I

tr - I -

- 1 bull

-

I

I I

__

21(+)

118(+)

~ - I bull tr

- o----l ~r 1 -I _I __ 118(+)

~ - I tr

bull -~ tr- -I -I I I I 22(+)

-~

tr ~

tr- 1 bull -()-----1

tr I _I --I I-tr tr I -I I- shy

121(+)

122(+)

- ~ tr

j--() I _ I - I - - 12 3(+)

tr ~ -I -I - I I 124(+)

~

bull ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~

~

Jr I tr tr 0-1shy~

~

~

~

tr - shy-

tr trbull I - I- I

-tr I - II I

Jr 1 _I- I I

Jr I _ -- I

tr tr I-I I - I-Jr I I I - Ishy

I Jr II I - 1 shy

tr I tr I Il I

I 124(+)

I I 21(+)

I 125(+)

I 124(+)

1 121(+)

I 121(+)

- 126(+)

I 127

[34]

bull bull bull bull

2nd 3rd

l~~ tr

bull bull bull bull I bull~

bull r ~r bull I I Jr 1 ~r I bull bull I 127

~ tr tr tr tr rr I xI H27bull bull bull bull l bull I

~ r tr ~r Xtrbulltr bull bull I r-+- bull I 127

~ tr tr trbull bull bull bull I I Jr I XI bull I 127

~ tr tr tr

I XI -I 128

~ tr ~I X I

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull I

~ tr tr

Xbull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 129

~ tr tr Xtr bulle-----i bull bull bull bull I X bull bull 11330

~

B~

tr I bullbull 130bull bull bull bull bull

~ tr tr tr I

--I bull bull bull 1 bull 1 bull X I bull bull 11331

~ 21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper

note is a harmonic at the 12th

22 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

23 Vent approximately one-half of the tone holes 2nd key LH and 1st key RH while trilling This produces a G~ harshymonic at the 12th but on a low C fundamental (vented)

24 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

25 Vent one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The A is a harmonic at the 12th

26 Also vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

27 Favor the embouchure and direction of the air column used for the lower note throughout the tremolo

28 The D will be flat and demanding of full breath support

29 This interval may be cumbersome as it requires alternating the trilling of the 1st key LH with the trill key

30 Direct the air column outward and to further the responsiveshyness of the interval lend a breath accentuation to the upper note

31 Alternate the trilling in the LH with that of the RH

[35J

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

4(d)TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths OctavesgtCont

I I xtrI I 1 bull bull 113131

~ tr tr trbull I bull bull bull bull I I X I X bull I bull bull 113~

tr tr X bull bull I bull bull bull I I Xtrl I bull bull 113131

~ trbull I bull bull bull bull tr Xtr I Xtrl bullbull 113

~ tr tr tr

~ Jr Ibull I bull bull bull bull bull x I bull bull 13

pound tr tr trbull I bull bull bull I x I bull bull 11331bull

tr ~rXtrlbull I bull bull bull I I I bull bull 113 131

~ ~r I

tr tr tr I I bull bull 11332(+)[=~

X

[36 ]

bull I I Jr Jrxtr I 113 133bull~ ~ ~ 1tJ= ~va---

8va--bull 8va---bullyen bull

I

~

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bulltr bull

bulltr I I

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

tr trbull I bull bull bull bull

(+)

~rl Jr I I I bullbull 134

tr tr tr middot1 bull x I H 31(+)bull I

tr tr I I I C) )( I bull I H1335

(+)

~rl bull I I bull I I 136(+)

~rl ~r I I bull I I 137(+)

tr ~ I ~r I bull bull H13 138

(+)

~cirl I I 1(+)bulltrbull

140(+

I42(+)

I(+)

140(+

bull I

~~I-+-+-11-----+-1--+--JI 39

I tr tr

j Ll-J

~bull --Xlf-+-+---+-H I I 43 (+)

r-Jr I bull I bull I

i----()-4--I-+-1--+-+----+--J (+)

tr tr bull bull egt--e

tr tr

bull

tr trbull bull bullbullbull

trbullbull--I----(raquo)--+-~

bullbullr----I--r--~o--j

bull bullbull ~ bulltr ---+~-+--~

8va--

~ bull bulltr bull

32 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH Alternate trilling the G~ key with the simultaneous trillingof the RH keys

33 The 2nd key RH is vented imperceptibly while trilling Alternate the LH with the trilling in the RH

34 B~gin the tremolo by giving breath pulsations to the upper G~ to benefit the response of the interval

35 The 2nd key LH is alternated with the synchronized trilling of the 3rd key LH and the RH keys The 2nd key RH is vented slightly

36 Vent about one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

37 The 1st key LH is alternated with the trilling of the RH keys

38 Scarcely vent the 1st key RH The harmonic content of the G adds to the difficulty in its response Regular fingering for this interval might be appropriate

39 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd

40 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

41 Also vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling

42 The 3rd key LH and 1st key RH are vented slightly according to the dictates of the interval in its level of intonation and ease of response

43 Scarcely vent the 2nd key LH while trilling the 3rd key approximately one-half of the tone hole

[37J

bull bull bull bull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Seve-nthsOctaves) 5ALTECont Nearl

the Fren of the f

(a) A 8va~ (b) A

(c) A

bulltr bull bulltr bull (d) E

(e) A~ These tOnal ef

8va~ be most trastsbulltr tr tr I I Jr I 144 (I

1-1-+--+--X~-+-+--+-J -I I Altho

erally i ~ breath p pianissi sitively notes to check til imperati in balao tack tha44 Use the low B key when available

Alter45 Vent about one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH special Hence t with eas

46 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd A firm action by the 1st finger must be accompanied by a slight Howev breath accentuation for the B offering

er breat pitch Ie clined t

At ti use of a followin suggeste ness giv plish th mended t fingerill The adju to the t teristid duct ion dependcn tonal sl oughly t completlO dynamic~

illgS is essenti~

44(+)

trbullbull

tr tr

trbull I 144

I bull I I x tr I bull I I 145(+)

I Jr I I bull I I

trbull bull

trbull bull bull

trbull bullbull

tr Cgt

~r bull I

bull

bullbullbull Itrbull

trbull

trbull

bull

bull bull bull bull

5ALTERED FINGERINGS Nearly all of these altered fingerings will require the use of

the French model flute They produce notes possessing two or more of the following characteristics

(a) A transparent tone structure (b) A higher pitch level than with normal fingerings (c) A variation of timbre (d) Extreme pianissimo with sensitively posed adjustments (e) An added resistance factor for playing fortissimo

These notes retaining a transparency add a new dimension to the tonal effect and used with discretion this blending of sound can be most desirable in phrases that also call for greater dynamic conshytrasts

Although the amount of breath support needed for these notes genshyerally is less than for those played with normal fingerings the breath pressure should be maintained in the usual manner as for a pianissimo The resultant pitch level can be controlled more senshysitively with many of these fingerings and the usual tendency for notes to become flat while playing softly sometimes can be held in check through their application When executing these notes it is imperative that the tongue stroke for the individual attack be used in balance with the dynamic level This avoids an overbearing atshytack that can delay the tonal response of the note

Altered fingerings for the notes of the third octave will be of special interest since the breath support for these can be lessened Hence the adjustment in the level of intonation can be accomplished with ease and flexibility

However some of these fingerings produce an opposite effect By offering substantially more resistance they permit the use of greatshyer breath support in playing a fortissimo Consequently a lower pitch level can be attained for those notes that normally are inshyclined to be sharp These also possess a different timbre

At times it may be difficult or impossible to coordinate the use of an altered fingering with that of a preceding note or one following In each circumstance the fingering must be applied as suggested by the accompanying material and with equal attentiveshyness given to its resulting tone production In order to accomshyplish the maximum result with a degree of practicality it is recomshymended that the various possibilities as offered by more than one fingering for a particular note be explored as much as possible The adjustments for these varicolored notes must be made according to the treatment of the air column and the notes resulting characshyteristics Since each flutist by nature will approach tone proshyduction differently the ventin~ of the tone holes then will be dependent upon this phenomenon The performers capacity to hear tonal shadings nnd minute modificntions of intonntion will be thorshyoughly tested as he nttemllts to develop a technique for venting A complete understanding of this proceduJe for altering the pitch dynamics and tone quality is vital and the use of special fingershyings is a vnlued supplement to the interpretive skills that are essential in the flutists performance

This concentration of fingerings stressing the use of the French model flute will serve as an appropriate introduction to the SUbsequent charts in this book Many of these fingerings can be altered further to vent for a more exacting structure of a quarshyter-tone scale and because of their relationship with the function of the harmonic series they form a fundamental approach in the proshyduction of multiphonics

~ ~- bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 2bull bull bull bull bull 0-+-0 bull bull I 12

12~ bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull bull 12

~- bull bull bull o--i ~ bull bull bull bull 2

bull bull bull 0-1 f-o bull bull bull bull I 12

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull bull 12

0 bull bull bull 112~ bull bull bull bull bull bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull o-e bull bull bull bull bull I 12bull

bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull I 12 bull 0 0bull bull bull bull bull bull I 12

l Vent the tone holes completely Apply a wide aperture and use very little breath support This will lower the pitch signifishycantly and at the same time produce a light and transparent tone structure

2 Each of these fingerings offers a slightly varied tone quality Vent the tone hole(s) as indicated

[39J ALL FINGERINGS ARE USED FOR PIANISSIMO UNLESS DESIGNATED BY()

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cont)

()bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull I 17~-15bull bull bull bull I bull x I bull I

bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 12~- bull I bull bull bull Hgt I I I bull bull 18bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 12 ~- bull I bull bull bull 9

I H I I I bull 110~- bull I bull o-e bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 23 bull bull bull bull I o---e 123bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull bull bull I---igt I bull I bull bullbullbull8

I bull 0 I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull4tyenyent= bull bull ~-

bull I I Hgt I bull I bull I bull bull 18bull I ~ I I I I bull I I 13 bull bull bullbull ~-

I bullbullbull3bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull egt-e 10~ ~- bullbull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull egt--- bull I bull 1 bull I bullbullbull11 I bull () bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I 14 bull I bull bull o---e bull I I I bull I 112

() I I I I 110M- I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I 13 ~- bull I bull I I bull I bull I 13 I () bull I I bull I bull bull I I 113bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bullbull I bull I bull bull o---i I bull I bull bull I I I 1114

I I 0 I I I 17bull bull bull I bull I

bull I

I I 15sect2g bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull I ~- bull I bull () bull 1 I bull bull I bullbull j I 113 I bull X bull I bull I 15 bull bull bull I bull bull bullbull bull bull I o---e I I bullbull3

I 15~- bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull bull I bull I bull bull bull I bull I 0 I j 17

I bull bull bull bull I bull X bull I bull 15 ~- bull I bull 0 bull I bull [ bull bull I 115

bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I () bull I 16

[40J THESE ARE USED FOR FORTISSIMO ONLY

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

-

bull bull bull I bull () bull 17 ~- bull bull bull f-4gt bull bull bull bull bull 8

bullbull bull f--O bull bullbull 19

I bull I bull~- () Hgt I bull bull bull ~ I bull

f-ltgtbull bull bull I bull bull egt---i I Ibull~- I I bull bull bull I I I X 0

1--4gt I bull~

()

0pound- bull bull 0

0bull bull bull Ibulla- bull

8va---

bull bull bull I 0 ~- bull

0bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull ~

116

bull bull 1817

bull bull bull 18

bullbull 19bull bull 110

118

bull I 119

bull I bull bull 113

X I I 1820 bull

I bull I 113 X

I bull I bull I 118

818

bull 118

bull 110

3 This fingering makes possible a dynamic level that is louder than that produced with regular fingering

4 Vent the ~nd key LH slightly

3 Vent by using the trill key but only according to the desired level of intonation

6 Adjust the intonation by venting approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key RH

7 Scarcely vent the 2nd key ~H

8 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 The entire tone hole of the 1st key RIl is vented Use a sparse air column for the tone support to be used in maintainshying the level of intonation

10 Vent the tone hole according to the existing level of intonation while executing a diminuendo bull

II Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH

12 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH

13 Scarcely vent the tone hole of the ~nd key LH for added conshytrol of the pitch level This fingering noticeably produces an immediate tonal response nnd with tllis a veiled tone quality isproduced with ease

14 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH This produces a transparent tonal effect

15 Vent about three-fourths of the tone hole 2nd key LH If this is vented less the note may be played louder and a greater content of harmonics will result in its tone structure bull The note will be lower in pitch

16 Use an extremely soft attack to ensure greater sensitivity in the production of a light and clear tone structure

17 Gently raise the 1st key LH slightly This aids in eliminating the sound of the harmonic in the tone

18 The tone hole of the 2nd key RIl is vented completely

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality is desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch bull

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly bull

[41J Ij

I

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cant]

bull 0 bull bull 118~- bull ~ bullbull--+-__---+--__bull--1 0 bull bull 118bull

8va---- laquogt 119bull bull bull bull I bull I bull Isect==

bull bull bull bull I o----t-ltgt I I 21~-8va-----

~-~ t-----J-+I---t--+---~-+-11 10

I bullbull I I r-41~X~cgt-+--+--4It-+--+----i1 22

Ir--+I--X)f----jl-+I~bull-+-+---+-ll 23fiF=--bull middotbull -1---+---middotbull -1 1-0 X I X I I 924

~- bull bull I--t--A-X---t-I--JlX~~bull-lI--+-j1 8va----

~- bull bull bull bull middot1

~_~ bull j bullbull 1

8va---

bull 11-$shybull ~

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality ip desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly

21 TIle entire tone hole of each key 2nd and 3rd RH is vented Close a portion of the 2nd tone hole RH to adjust the pitch further if necessary

22 The (D) trill key is opened gently to raise the pitch At the same time vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key RH

23 Use a lip attack for added control of the pitch level

24 Depress the 0 trill key only slightly for the purpose of raising the pitch level if needed during the execution of a diminuendo

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute)

QUARTER-TONES To pursue the study of the quarter-tone scale one may wish to begin

by learning the notes in the chart on Altered Vingcrings When used apshypropriately they could establish n general background for the techniques that are related to this scale Altered fingerings can produce new timshybres that result from certain alterations of the physical properties of the air column Such alterations reveal multiple tube-lengths in the air column of the flute and are caused by the venting of various fingering combinations Tllis is noted wIlen using some of the fingerings for tremshyolos as well as altered lIotes As an acoustical phenomenon this emerges with greater prominence as tlw fingerings then arc vented further through the use of the French model flute It is by this modification of the finshygerings that the tonal responRe is transformed to produce a wide range of

[42J

tone colors Identifying these timbres and adjusting to their accompashynying physical sensations will enhance the performers adaptabilities in the development of embouchure control Also the application of a posishytive approach to the function of the air column will occur with greater sensitivity

To establish the scale of microtones(quarter-tones) it is necessary for these new sounds to be accepted in the traditional sense and played with firm conviction It is a known fact that when the flutist possesses a well developed tone structure for the semitones the prevailing intonashytion also will be appealing This same standard of performance would apshyply and hopefully should exist when developing the quarter-tone scale Therefore adjusting to the array of timbres that accompany the various notes of the quarter-tone scale should become natural and their tonal characteristics accepted as being ordinary

The fingerings included in this chart are based on an elaboration of the harmonic series The conventional response of the overtones is alshytered by venting certain tone holes which brings about the formation of the multiple tube-lengths This departure from the fixed overtone arshyrangement permits the sounding of the neighboring harmonics and with this occurrence a chromatic quarter-tone scale can evolve in an organshyized manner The use of these fingerings can bring about a greater flexshyibility when endeavoring to achieve absolute control of pitch

The listening required for the proper placement of the microtone inshytervals is indeed acute and becomes intensified with each effort This hopefully ought to assure the guiding of the intervals of semitones

As the quarter-tones are learned they must be treated as new fundashymental notes The tone control for these ought to be developed justas it has been for the regular semitones and an understanding of their placement in the schema will add immeasurably to their eventual evolushytion in the production of multiphonics ~Qqing of pitches normalshyly executed by the accepted practice of rolling the headJoint in or out to alter the direction of the air column need not be an exclusive apshyproach to the tempering of the pitches for the microtone scale Too ofshyten this technique seems unreliable although in a number of instances it can prove to be beneficial and will assist in the effectiveness of a particular fingering

Frequent adjustments of the embouchure in conjunction with the use of breath pressure and the directional change of the air column will be necessary for most of the notes Instructions for such treatment will be given for each note

The French model flute is an absolute necessity in the production of a great many of these notes since there is no way in which the closed-hole flute can tune quarter-tone~ as accurately The use of only the basic fingerings can become restrictive and will limit the degree of variation

A reeducation in tonal imagery and pitch relationships is vital to the development of a microtone scale This could eliminate the aleatory approach to tuning Therefore it is imperative that the player should determine the proper venting of the tone holes for these fingerings by seeking the correct pitch levels In fact as a result of the experience that was gained by the venting for the notes in the charts on tremolos and altered fingerings the flutist now must treat this as an accepted technique and consider the proper venting to be in balance with the emshybouchure habits in tone production Hence the text material in this chart will not dictate the amount that the tone hole is to be vented since each player varies the basic approach to tone production

The exclusive use of straight tone is not necessary for these notes and the application of vibrato certainly is in order Of course the

usual considerations would apply for its expression and it should be used with discretion

In most cases due to complexities that may be encountered with some of these fingerings there will be very little dexterity or facility for rapid passages Flutists must determine which fingerings will serve best in a given situation At the same time it is assumed that equal conshysideration will have been shown by composers in their compositional deshymands and that the musical structures can be clear of technical hazards

The notes of the chromatic scale of semi tones have been illustrated (in parentheses) with the quarter-tones in this chart To adjust for the tuning of each microtone properly the regular semi tone should be played first Following this each fingering for each quarter-tone ought to be tried in order to establish the correct interval as closely as possible At the same time one must be attentive to each fingerings tonal charshyacteristics With this the player then should react to the resistance factor which is set up in the flute This is resolved by recognizing a physical sensation that is demonstrated by the manner in which the tone responds At this time the embouchure should be adjusted accordingly Reshycalling this experience each time that the fingering is used should reshysult in the performer cultivating a familiarity with a more definitive approach to these tones and an anticipation of their prevailing pitch levels

Contemporary composers have used a variety of signs and symbols to indicate the sharps and flats for the quarter-tones In order to give this chart readability arrows extending from the stems of the convenshytional alterations have been used These denote that the pitch is raised or lowered a quarter-step Although only sharps have been used here the player must assume that the enharmonic notation would be used in performance

At same as 8~ Et same as ot etc

Also the enharmonic pitches apply as follows

A~ same as 8f or A1 ot or cl same as o~ etc

Unquestionably a great deal of experimentation with fingerings such as these will result in acquiring added facility in the manner in which all facets of tone production are studied Other fingerings may be conceived for notes of this scale However the criteria inshyvolving their adaptability will be similar to that already described in the preceding paragraphs

QUAIITER-TONE TIULLS

These fingerings create quarter-tone trills either ascending or descending Many of the notes include the possibility of a trill in either direction emanating from the principal note and are indicated as such by the text materials The instructions are given in an abbreshyviated form and are interpreted as follows

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The note this pro-letter identifying the to be activated duces and its tend-note ~ encies if any

Ex-( 4F C key DOWN to Q )

The flutist may wish to research these fingerings further in as much as they offer a seemingly limitless display of intervals of varshyious degrees Mini-microtones(sixth-tones or eighth-tones) also are possible and these will be referred to as pitch-pulsations in the subshysequent charts

[43]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

IPIO I C) 1 I 1 I I bull I 1 13~ bull I I I 14bull bull I bull I bull bull I bull I

~ I bull bull I bull I bullbull 15

0 I bull I I I I bull I bull I bullbullbull6- e-+ bull bull bull bull I bull bull 12 ~ bull bull I I f----o I bull 1 bull I bull bull 17Cgtbull bull I

iCO)~ IAIB I bull e bull I bull I 0 bull I I 13 IR I --0 I I I 14bull ~ bull bull bull bull I bullbull I bull bull bull bull I 0 I bull I bull bull middot12 I I bull I bull I bull bull I I 14

bull I bull bull f----o I bull I bull I bullbullbull4 ICIO I I 0 I I bull I I 13~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 4

bull I bull bull bull f----o I bull bull I bull bull 1I

~ IElFe I r-o 13 I (U)qgg ISIT I bull I bull I bullbull I I 14

IS I I bull () 1 I I I bull I I 141Ge---l bull bull bull r-o I bull 1 3

IS~ I I bull I --t-1 8

I (~~ bull I bull bull D---i I bull bull I bull I bull bull II IU I () bull I I bull bull 1 bull I bull 19~

I IV jIH bull D------i r-o bull I bull I bull I 14 I bull I bull x bull I bull bull I 15~ bull bull IVIW IIH bull bull o-------j I bull I bull I I bull bull 14 bull I 5bull

IJ e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 14 fXIY I e e bull I ex bull I bull I 13

IJ 5e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull 1 ~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I () I 110 I(e)~ IKIL bull ()----e I 1 I I I I bull I 13 IZ2A I I I 14bull bull bull X bull bull

IMIN~ If-O bull I bull bull 15

I bull bull o----e I bull I I ICia) M 2B2C bull bull bull I bull I bull I o bull 13bull bull bull bull bull 5 ~

bull I I bull I bull bull 15 I bull e bull bull I bull x bull I 311

[44J The preferred fingering for each note is illustrated first

bullbull bull bull 0 bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

~2F2 bull bull I 0 l_l I bullbull I 13bull -shy2H I I j 13bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 2J bull bull bull I f-cgt X I I bull bull la

~2~L bull bull o-j bull I bull bull 112 I X 0 I 112bull bull bull I bull

2M bull bull bull I I I bull bull bullbull1213

bull bull () bull I I I bull bullbull I 114

1 Apply a mlmmum amount of breath support using a wide apertureThis note lacks the usual tonal presence of the low register and its use is limited to extremely soft attacks

~ Direct the air column downward to adjust for the level of intoshynation This effort must be exaggerated when using a low C

3 This fingering produces a tonal response that is similar to that of the notes of the tempered chromatic scale of semitones A firm breath support may be applied and a resonance as well as a variation of dynamic levels are possible

4 Direct the air column downward in order for the note to attain as much tone center as possible and a proper adjustment for its intonation A light volume of air is applied but a medium dynamic level seems possible

5 Direct the air column upward in order to raise the pitch level A large aperture and the use of a dispersed air column will renshyder a distinct contrast in tone quality for some of the notes

6 Since there is no suitable fingering for a more accurate tuning of this note the air column must be aimed exaggeratedly downshyward However an interesting tone color emerges and a near correct level of pitch can be attained

7 If a split-E attachment is available this fingering may be alshytered to produce a correct pitch level Otherwise an unorthoshydox method of closing the 1st key RH is necessary to vent apshyproximately one-half of the B hole This seems impractical

8 This fingering effectively produces a subdued tone quality and is suitable for a soft dynamic level

9 The sounding of multiple harmonics in the tone must be elimishynated as the key is vented Attempt to favor the sounding of the upper pitch

10 A slight venting of the tone hole 3rd key RH will assist in the control of the intonation in a soft dynamic level

11 bull The 3rd finger RH should lean gently on the trill key in order to vent for the appropriate degree of intonationbull

12 bull This fingering serves best when playing loudly Apply an intense air column and use as wide an aperture as possible without altershying the tonal standard

10 The keys of the low B foot joint must be closed securely to preshyvent any unnecessary venting otherwise the F cannot be altered auequately Direct the air column upward

14 The tone holes as indicated are to be vented imperceptibly A translucent tonal structure is indigenous to most of these fingerings

lA I 3rd RH I UP to E

IB I E~ key I DOWN to Q(Sharp)

lC I 2nd RH I UP to I

ID I 3rd RH I DOWN to ~(sharp)

IE I 2nd Rff I DOWN to I

IF lIst RH I UP to 1

IG I 2nd amp 3rd RH I DOWN to F

IH I 1st ~nd UP t (( I )and (3rd) RII I 0 ~ S WIP

IJ lIst 2nd UP to G and 3rd RII I

lK I 3rd LH(vented) I UP to A

lL I G key I DOWN to ~~

1M I G key I UP to A

IN I 3rd RH DOWN to G(sharp)

IP I 2nd LH(vented) I UP to A

lQ I 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) I

lR I 2nd LH UP to C amp 1st RH I

IS I Thumb key I UP to ~

IT I 2nd amp 3rd LH DOWN to C (depress G~ key) I I

IV I 1st RH I DOWN to ~

IV I Thumb key I UP to Q

lW I 1st LH I UP to Q

lX I G~ key I DOWN to D

lY I E~ key I UP to J)

lZ I D Trill key I UP to D

2A I 2nd LH I DOWN to D(ring only)

2B I 3rd RH I UP to I

2C I E~key I DON to Q

2D I 2nd RH I UP to F

2E I 3rd RII I DOWN to (shllrp)

21 I 1st HH I UP to f

2G I 2nd RIl DOWN to f(half-vented) I 211 I 2nd RII I UP to r 2J I D Trill key I DOWN to I

(sharp)shy

2K I 2nd RH I UP to Q (sharp)

2L I )rd RII DOWN t ro (ring only) I a _

~-1 I )rd HII I UP to Q

[45]

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

8(a QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

2N bull 0---1 I bull I bull I 13bull 2P I I I bull 114- 2a bull 1 I bull 115bull I

4 m 2S2T I bull bull o--t f-o bull I bull I bull I 13

2T 1 bull bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I bull 13

bull I bull () bull bull I 1 I I bull 1 114

2S2U I bull bull o---e I I I I bull I 13rztt=22W bull I 0 I i I I I bull -t-+-3 2V2X~ I I 116bull I bull I bull I

(~)~ 2Y I bull I I bull I 0 I bull I I 116bullI 2Z~A I bull bull bull I I bull I bull I o bull I 13

f--(gt I 114bull I bullbullbull Ibull I bull bull bull I 38 I Q---j I 116bull I bull I bull I bullbull

I(n)qn ~ 3C I bull bull I I bull bull I bull I I I 116

bull I bull 0--+--1 f-ltgt I bull I bullbull 15 3D I bull bull bull I f---Cgt I bull I I I 114 3E I bull bull I I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

3E30 I 0 I I I 13bull bull bull I I bull I

f 1 t

bull bull 1

(~q~~ 3Fe

I bull bull middot1

I

3G

3H3J I

(~I~~ 3K I bull I I

I bull ()-e-j3L I

(0) qn ~3M3N I I I

bull ()I bull If

3P I bull 3Q

f (0) n ~~ 3R3S bull bull bull bull I 3S3Te

3T

3R3S3U

(~) ~-amp ~Q 3V

I 3W3X

bull 3Y

(0) ~o~ 3Z

1 4A

bull bull o--e ()

bull bull o--e

I bull bullbull I bull I bull I I o--+-Jbull I bull 0 bull I

I bull +---cr--l I bull bull I

tI I x I I bull 13

~ 115bull I bull I bull I I I I x I bull I I 118

1---0 I bull I bull I I I 1919

I 0 112 I bull I bull I bull I I I 317 r bull I bull I I bull I

j I bull I x bullbull 13 I

I bull I bull I bull bull 110 115I bull I bull I bullbull

1 I I x I bull 1310

13 I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

I bull x bull x I bull I I 116

I bull I () I bull I I 115

t---o I I I bull 1 bull 11920

I I I I I bull 119 bull X

[46J

B +

~ 48 bull bull bull bull I bull 112 4C

40 bull bull

bull bull bull

X bull I bull

bull 116

121 8va I

~4E4F bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13 4E4F bull bull bull bull 117 4G4F

middot8va 1rrplusmnt5=4H4J bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull I bull I bull

bull 0

0

bull bull

bull bull 119

112

bull 117

4JI bull () bull bull 1-0 bull bull bull 117 8va I (-Q)J-e- -eshy 4K4L I

I 4M4L I

4Me

bull ()

bullbull bull bull e

bull I X 1 bull X f---Q X

bullbull

114 11622 119

15 This is used advantageously for n pianissimo The intonation level is controllnble by venting the tone hole of the 2nd key L H slightly

16 A firm breath support with a vnrinble volume of air may be apshyplied to produce a reasonable range of dynamic coloring The intonation seems controllable as the flow of air iR directed upward

17 A relaxation of breath pressure seems possible ith this fingershying The tonal structure is altered nccordingly and at the same time a medium range of dynamic level can be controlled

18 This fingeringwill demand coordination when ascending from D and again to D The pitch level can be controlled by directshying the air coumn downward

19 The tone structure may become excessively airy but this as well as the intonation level can be corrected by adding subshystantially to its breath support

20 The use of the 3rd key RH aids only in the balanced hand position Thus the application of the fingering either in an ascending or descending paRsage is facilitnted

21 Overblow the low G at the 15th as softly as possible The harmonic content of the tone structure will be of contrasting quality The air column must be directed donward

22 To facilitate tuning this note ly vent the tone hole 2nd key

2N Low C key UP to ~~

2P 2ntl HII DOWN to ~

2Q )st I 2ntl HH UP to G~

2H 1 st HII UP to ~~

2S 1rtl LII UP t A (ring only) 0

2T 1st 2ntl DOWN to G~ anti 1rtl RH shy

2U G~ key DOWN to ~

2V 2nd LH UP to A~ (ring only)

2W 3rd LH (ring only) DOWN to A

2X Low C~ key DOWN to A

2Y Low C~ key DOWN to A~

2Z 3rd RH UP to 8

3A ED key DOWN to A~

38 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) shy

3C 1st RH UP to pound

3D 3rd RH DOWN to _8 (ring only)

3E 2nd RH UP to pound 3F 2nd amp 3rd RH DOWN to C

3G 1st Rn UP to C(flat)(ring only)

3H 1st RH DOWN to pound(ring only)

3J Thumb key UP to pound

3K 1st LH UP to Q

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

at a soft dynamic level scarceshyLH

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

3M 1st LH DOWN to 0

3N 0 Trill key UP to Q

3P Low C key UP to Q

3Q ED key liP to 1)

3R 1st RH DOWN to 0

35 3rd LH UP to E

3T 3rd RH UP to E

3U 1st amp 2nd RH UP to ~

3V 2nd RH UP to I

3W 2nd LH DOWN t E (ring only) 0 _

3X 2nd amp 3rd RH UP to I

3Y 3rd RH DOWN to ~

3Z 1st LH UP to I

4A 0 Trill key DOWN to F

48 G key UP to ~

4C D~ Trill key DOWN to I~

40 Thumb key UP to ~

4E jIst LH UP to G~

4F G~ key DOWN to G

4G 3rd RH UP to G

4H 1st amp 2nd RH DOWN to G~

4J 3rd LH UP to ~

4K 3rd LH(vented) DOWN to A

4L 0 Trill key DOWN to ~

4M 2nd LH UP to A~

[47J

II

1iibull bull bull

Sea) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

8va I_4N4PI bull r---ox x 123

40 I I X I 119

4N4R I 1317bull bull I X bull X 8va i

(o)~ft ~ I e19bull bull bull bull bull bull bull I 451 ()---1 x e e 119bull 8va i

(-e-)~-e- ~ 4Te bull bull bull I bull X I I 24

I bull e 0--- f-O I X bull bull 124

it

23 When descending from the regular B the 1st and 3rd keys LH may remain closed

24 This note may be played only at a loud dynamic level A firm breath pressure is vital to the control of the intonation alshythough the note tends to be sharp

4N D~ Trill key DOWN to ~

4P 1st HH(vented) UP to B

4Q 2nd LH UP to ~

4H D Trill key UP to _Band 2nd HH

45 2nd HH DOWN to ~

4T D Trill key DOWN to f

[48J

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo)

In this chart the fingerings for both the alto flute and picshycolo are combined The concepts of tone production and pitch disshycernment that were discussed in the preceding section on quartershytones for the C flute would apply to these instruments also Due to the limitations in venting the fingerings there will be less flexibility in the tuning of these notes In fact some noiesof the scale have been omitted because of unsuitable fingering comshybinations and a lack of control for the pitches However if an open-tone-hole model piccolo is available to the player other fingerings from the previous chart could be applied It will be noted that a great deal of emphasis is placed on the exaggerated change of direction of the air column for the purpose of tuning This will compensate for the lack of venting for most of these notes

QUARTER-TONE TRIllS

The text materials for these trills are presented here in the same manner as for those in the previous chart In some instances the direction of the air column has to be exaggerated either upward or downward in order to reach the proper intonashytion level for a single note in the quarter-tone scale This precludes the proper tuning of the quarter-tone trill When it occurs the smaller interval that results is termed a pitchshypulsation However prior to playing the trill special effort must be made to tune the quarter-tone from which the trill is to emanate otherwise even the small interval(pitch-pulsation) will be nonexistent Occasionally when only one fingering is given for both instruments the text will indicate the instrushyment for which the trill fingering is intended

bull bull e bull bull I bull I bull bull bull e I I~ e(o)~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull 12

reg - ALTO FLUTE

j ~

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull

f (e)~eF IA bull bull bull bull bull bull bull IA

Sb

+ l(ie)~ IQ I bull bull bull bull bull bullbull

I bull bull bull bull bull bull bull The little finger nlI must open the IP key and at the same

IS time close the footjoint keys The air column must be dishybull bull bull 30~ bull bull bull rected dowmarct to lower the pitch 1 eve IS bull bull bull bull bull bull 12reg

2 Exaggerate the ctowlllVilnl directioll of the njr column The apshyerture must relilain il~ opcn ttl possj) 1c otlerwjse the tone structure becomes sllpplcsilted This fi lIferinf i~ more appro-

IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13reg priate for il sort 1Ild subdued efrcct~ bull IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 14reg 3 Apply the techniques noS ill )- nlll u--( vcry I it tIc volume

of air This note milY lack ndeqllnte tOllnl projection

4 Using very little bleilth support direct the nil columnI(e)~ ID bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 120 dowmarct to Ilchieve the lIeceSiltary Jevel of pitch 1I0wever the tone qUilli ty of the lower register 01 the piccolo willIE bull bull bull bull bull 14reg project substllntiillly

5 Use a slightly victe Ilperture ilnd il direction of the air col-IF 140 umn that is similllr to that of the preceding note bull~ bull bull bull bull bull bull IG 14reg 6 Direct the air column downward but slightly for the evenshy

tual adjustment of intonAtion

7 The air column is directed upward~ IH bull bull bull bull bull bull I 150

8 It may be difficult to maneuver the fingers adequately butIJ bull bull bull I 14reg if the trill keys can be scarcely opened the note can be

properly tuned

I (ci)qng IK I bull bull bull bull bull 150 UP(pitch-pulsation) IJ I 2nd amp 3rd LH I UP to elA I 3rd RH I

IK I 14reg lK I Thumb key I UP to e~IB I 2nd RH I UP to F~ (flat)

lL I Thumb key I UP to D (Piccolo)Ie I 1st 2ndlIL 1 160 UP to G~ (sharp)3rd RIlFfft)~ bull bull bull X bull bull 1M I Thumb key I UP to D~10 I 3rd RH I UP(pitch-pulsation)IL bull bull I X bull 170

IN I 1st amp 2nd LH I DOWN to DIE I 1st 2nd amp 3rd RH I UP to A

IP I D Trill key I UP (pitchshy1M X X bull bull 150 IF I 2nd amp 3rd RII I UP to A~ Jlulsa t ion)(fla t)

INIP I I I X bull 16reg A~ lQ I 3rd LH I DOWN to D ~ bull bull bull

IG I 3rd LH I UP to (fla t)

0- PICCOLO IH I 2nd LII amp 1st RII I UP to e

bull bull bull bull bullbull

- IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull I I 124reg

IT 16bull bull bull I bull bull I bull~ IT bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14reg

l(~e)~ bull I bull bull bull X I bull bull IIOreg

IU 17g-QdegfO bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull IUIV bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull IGreg

~WX bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 17

bull bull bull bull bull I I x I bull I IIO IY bull bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull I 12reg

~ IZ bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull 6bull IZ2A 1 I I Iregbull I bull I I bull I

[50]

I(0) ~o ~e 2B bull bull bull I bull bull I 16middot0 2C20 16reg I bull

I(~~ Me 2E2F I I I I I bull 16middot0bull 2F2G I bull I I bull I bullbull 16reg

(~t~~ 2H I bull bull I 2J

(ft) ~n ~2K~L I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I Ibullbull 190 bullIR bull bull bull bull I bull I

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo) Cont

1 (Ito-) ~ ~-e- 2M2N 17

f

bull bull bull bull I bull I bull x bullbull 2P bull II bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull 16~P

(~) ~~ ~Q 2Q~R bull bull bull I bull I bull bullbull 16~I 2

(n) qn ~ 2T bull 1 bull 1 I bull 1I1

I bull 1 bull X

2U2V bull I bull bull I 11rreg 8 va 0i

~2~X bull bull I 1 bull bull I bull I 170

8va regI

I I I 1712rrplusmnyen==2~ bull bull bull I bull 8 va i

I I x bull 1110et-ECilDbull bull bull bull bull bull

reg

8 va I

(-amp)]-amp ~3E3F I I I bull 17I bull X 8va

I

I I bull I I I X bull X I I IIIO3H bull

9 Direct the air column as in 2 However the tone strucure will permit an acceptable projection at a medium dynamic level

10 Vent imperceptibly by opening the trill key gently The air colshyumn should be directed downward only slightly but the aperture is to be somewhat larger than for the preceding note Thisfinshygering serves best when ascending from the regular semitone

11 This is suitable only for a loud dynamic level The note deshymands full breath support and the air column should be directshyed upward slightly

12 The additional resistance that this fingering lends to the piccolo may cause undue forcing of the tone unless the performshyer displays control of the embouchure in this octave However the use of this fingering is not as problematical when applyshying it to the alto flute

lR 3rd RH UP to P

IS 1st LH UP(pitch-pulsation)

IT 2nd RH UP to r~ (Piccolo) (flat)

lU 1st RH UP to G~

IV 2nd amp 3rd RH

lW 1st RI DOW

IX 3rd LH L~ to

lyen 1st amp 2nd RH

lZ 3rd LH UP to

2A 2nd RH DOWN

DOWN to G (flat)

to G~ (flat)

A

UP to A

A

to A

2B 2nd RH UP to C

2C b Key DOWN to B

2D 3rd nH UP to C

2E 1st RH DOWN to C

2P Thumb key UP to C

2G 1st RH DOWN to C

2H 2nd LH DOWN to C

2J 1st LH UP to D

2K Eb key UP to D

2L G key DOWN to D(Alto flute)

2M 1st RH DOWN to D

2N 3rd LH

2P 3rd RH

2Q 3rd RH

2R 1st LH

2S Eb key

UP to E

UP to E UP to r (Piccolo)

UP to r(Alto flute)

DOWN(pitch-pulsation) (Piccolo)

2T D Trill key DOWN to r

2U 1st LH UP to P (flat)

2V 2nd RH DOWN to P

2W G key UP to G

2X Low C key DOWN to r

2Y 1st RH UP to G (Piccolo)

2Z 1st LH UP to G

3A 3rd RH DOWN to G(Piccolo)

3B 2nd RH DOWN to G (Alto flute)

3C G key DOWN to G

3D 1st LH UP to A (flat)

3~ 2nd LH UP to A

3P D Trill key DOWN to A

3G D Trill key DOWN to A

3H 2nd RH UP to B (flat)

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES MULTIPHONICS

No longer can the flutist expect that a traditional flute tone is the only attractive or acceptable sound structure Sound pheshynomenon must be valued as significant structure which the aspiring performer must embrace in order to add to the variety of musical exshypression in contemporary music In the various periods of music the goal of each generations performers has been to enrich and augment the sometimes restrictive character of the sound of the flute Hence with this standard of excellence in flute playing the evolution of compositional techniques has paralleled the instrumentalists develshyopment Accordingly more and more is expected of the flutists technical skills and resources

The or ani tion of many-voiced sounds is now a vital part of the f~ts technique ana for this all of the aspects of tone

-proouction are to be considered Rultiphonics involve the layerin ~ developin an understandin of the n use Q ere ones ~n e over one series of the flute~coustical the orma ionof _ muitiJHe tube-lengtns in the air column g e a number 0 requency vibrations with whic to produce added pitches simultaneously TOis affords an array of chord groups that are controllable Such pheshynomenon is observed when a short tube-length and a larger one are formed in the air column as additional keys are vented in a fingershying combination This causes a modification of the fixed overshytone arrangement of the flute

The composition of many of the fingerings for the multiphonics v ~can be traced directly to those presented for tremolos(especially

sixths sevenths and octaves) altered fingerings and quartershytones Interestingly many of the quarter-tones can be identified as fundamental tones for a number of these chords However the fingerings for these have been changed somewhat in order to facilshyitate the tonal response of the multiphonics

The tonal characteristics of these chords seem to fit into (3) different categories according to their timbres and dynamic levels They can be studied further by referring to these groups in part(B) of this section

The chords illustrated in this chart have included only the notes that possess a reasonable amount of prominence stableness and immediacy in tonal response Quite possibly some performers may be capable of elaborating on these structures to produce upto five tones However this would require considerable experience and a phenomenal control of techniques Except for those few inshydividuals who have such technical skill most flutists will need to devote some practice time to these peculiar techniques

~A flexible_~bnuchUI~_togetherwith sensitivit~ for the approshypriare use of the air column are an absolute must w en exper~mentshy~ng with new auditory experiences As the mUltiple tube-lengths are felt via the resistance of the flute the physical reaction to these must be repeated in virtually all of these chords The transformashytion of this resistance factor from its normal state in the flute tube must be recognized then the air column can be effectively used in balance with this

Those chords that react readily do so because the resistance is not posing a major hazard Thesetwo-note chords require little breath support with a slight alteration of the embouchure However

[51J

~the multiphonics that include1hr~~ or four notes offer muchgreatshyer resistance As a barrier this must be permeated by applying inshyensity to e breath pressure and at times with a large volume of

air Consequently more attention must be given to embouchure corshyrection for these Usin a w~ aEertur the air column needs to be directed so that a--segment of the flute range can be sounded in one air blast By diffusing the air column the tone is spread and thereby capable of including several notes at once These can sound simultaneously as a chord spanning more than one octave of the flute All of this is contradictory to the normal procedure that prevails for playing single-line notes For these the apershyture needs to decrease in size as the air pressure is increased

The volume of breath support for a multiphonic is an equally important matter The qeterminant is evidenced by the demands for each multiphonic and as the player adjusts to these the physical sensations that are to be recalled should be used as guides for the proper maneuvering of the embouchure

The text materials which accompany the fingering for each chord suggest the embouchure movements and technical modifications of the air column However the performance of these sounds cannot be achieved with only these directives More importantly the player must adapt to these sensitively by feel and become accustomed to reacting to the response of the chord with perceptiveness

Many of the chords can be sustained with reasonable success and sufficient duration However vibrato cannot be used because it would disturb the steadiness of the air flow Straight tone is the prime mover in establishing stability for the multiphonics

It is impossible to effect an instantaneous response from a chord Inorder to create the illusion that all of the notes are sounding at the same time the necessary corrections must occurat once These are realized by attacking the lowest note first or for some chords the highest This method assists in the use of the wide-angle aim of the air column for an equal response of the other notes of the tone-group The effect is one of a broken chord as is often played on a keyboard instrument or the harp If the response should lag and the notes of the chord are not soundingin balance with one another then those notes that are positioned at the opposite level from the attacking note either the lowest or highest of the chord must be favored This is done by directing the air column toward that level in the range that seems weakest

The chords have been placed according to their lower fundamenshytals in ascending order This is only approximate and in some inshystances when these pitches were the same the total effect of the chord was considered although the placement is purely arbitrary

The arrows on the alterations do not necessarily indicate quarter-tone pitches Some of these notes could be mini-microshytones In fact many of these notes may not always impart their ~itch levels as originally conceived in as much as the techniques of tone production are variable But this pitch discrepancy also can be extolled as a virtue since so many notes that have the same pitch level would also be capable of lending an impressive range of timbres When isolating the lowest or highest note of each chord and its intonation seems controllable a new dimension in tone coloring can be imagined for any single-line phrase

[52J

This arrangement of fingerings is not a complete collection of multiphonics Rather it is presented as a systematic study and a survey of possibilities for tone clusters There are fingerings which have not been included capable of producing virtually the same notes as some found in this chart Probably there are still other fingerings that may be ascertainable However those shown here seem to lend substantial control for a clear image of eachmulshytiphonic and are to be accepted only on this basis Therefore once the flutist has developed the technique for these additional finshygerings producing new chord structures could evolve through the efforts of individual research

The following points may be considered when the multiphonics are played for the first time As possible solutions to some probshylems that involved technical deficiencies these applications conshytributed to the learning process

(~) Do not isolate the individual tones of the chord as ~ the direction of the air column is adjusted

(b) Avoid an excessive covering of the embouchure hole on the flute and prohibit the forming of a small aperture A diffusion of the air column and a spreadshying of the tone structure should result

(c) A low B must be used when advisedotherwise the inshytervals may not respond with the same assuredness

(d) A wider than normal aperture must prevail for most chords

(e) The air column must be directed in favor of the opposshying note If the chord is attacked via the lower note then the air is to be directed slightly upward etc

(f) Learn to identify the resistance factor first to best judge the necessary breath support for a response

(g) Ascertain the proper venting of the fingerings

(h) Avoid moving the flute on the embouchure this ensures a functional application of straight tone

(j) Minimize the action of the embouchure when it becomes necessary to adjust the direction of the air column Extreme sensitivity is essential

(k) Avoid any exertion of external pressure of the flute against the lip Provide for mobility of the embouchure

(m) Adapt the embouchure and the air column to the sounds Do not attempt to alter the peculiarities of the timbres so radically otherwise the idea of having varieties of tone qualities at hand will be defeated These chords must be played convincingly or they will become repulsive

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-I

SPECIAL SONORITIES

When applying these fingeringsthe flutists and composers may wish to explore a variety of sonorities through the use of the chords Numerous effects are discussed in these sections that follow The position numbers and code numbers with letters have been assigned to the multiphonics These are to be referred to as each part is consulted for study

(A) Multiple Trills and Multiple Effects

Control of the multiphonic must be assured for the proper exshyecution of these effects The flute must be held steady to ensure the adequate dispersion of the air column so as not to obstruct the sounding of the multiphonic Practice by moving the fingers slowly at first in order to achieve a lightness in the action of the keys This will prevent a jarring of the flute on the embouchure

The following are possible using the illustrated fingerings

(a) MULTIPlE TRILLS UP or DOWN--- The lower and upper notes of a chord trill simultaneously and in the same direction

(b) MULTIPlE TRILL - CONVERGING -- One note trills upward while another trills in a downward direction This is created by the sounding of a common note onto which each trill converges

(c) Single trills in any direction are possible while other notes of the chord sustain

(d) MULTIPlE PITCH - PULSATIONS -- These account for trills of microtonessmaller than quarter-tones

(e) Together with multiple pitch-pulsations other tones can be sustained

The instructions for the above effects have been abbreviated(as in sections on quarter-tones) and the words lower upper and sometimes middle refer to the particular notes in the chord This is followed by the indication of the direction in which the trill is moving

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The resul tant letter identifying the to be activated effect note

Ex- ( IE 1st RH Multiple Trill-UP )

tJ) 0 A

~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull 1 0

(2) yen-- bull bull bull bull I 0 bull I bull bull 2

(3)~ IA bull bull bull bull I bull o bull 13 -eshy

(4) 0yen--IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 12 -fi

(5)~ IC 0 bull bull I 13

(6) ~-ICID bull bull f-o bull I bull bull bull 1bull

~--e-(7) fyen IE bull bull bull 1-0 bull bull 13

bull bull bull bull bull bullbull3 =--e- 10 (8) ~-IB bull bull bull f---O I bull bull bull 13

1 Using a wide aperture direct a dispersed air column downward Little breath support is needed Close the keys for low B with certainty

2 Direct the air column upward Intensify the breath pressure sufficiently to effect the response of the upper partials but allow for adequate openness of the aperture to permit an immeshydiate sounding of the lower note as well Only a minimum of breath support is necessary Close the keys for low Bsecurel~

3 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the lower notes Avoid changing the size of the aperture when adding to the breath support for the upper notes Close the keys for low B securely

lA

18

3rd RH Multiple Trill-UP

Thumb Upper sustains key Middle trills DOWN IE

ID

1st RH

3rd RH

Multiple Trill-UP

Multiple Trill Converging

lC 2nd RH MUltiple Trill-UP

[53]

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7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cont

~

(9) ~ e-

IEIF bull bull bull bull I bullbull middot2

1I0) ~-IE bull bull bull 3 (II) (f -IBIG bull bull bull I 0 I bullbull middot4

0 Ibull I bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14

(12) ~-IAH o-j bull I bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (I3)~ 15IAIJ~ bull I bull bull I bull I

eshy(14) ~ fA IK IL bull I 16Ibull bull 0-+

I bull bull I

(15)11 -IJILIM bull o-j I 16 bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I

IAIH(16) -0 I bull I bull I I 17IN~ bull bull 0-

(17 ~ -IMIP bull bull o---j ~I bull bullbull 178

l8) ~ ~-IAIJ 15bull 0 bull I I bull bull rmiddot

tt (l9)~--IQIR bull o----j bull I bull I I I bull bull 17bull

(20) _ -IEIS 0bull bull bull bull bull I I bull I 17

~ ~) I

bullbull I

f~ ~bull lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

8deg 8 ~ G+ + f-eshy

(21l~~IUIT I bullbull bullbull f-O I bull bull I I 17

(22)~ -IJIP~ 1-0 bull I bull I bull 15 ~n

(23)~ IV I bull bull o-l H bull I bullbull I 1-i98 e

(24) ~-ILIM~ 0bull I bull I I bull bull 15

(25)~- IMIWIX I bull 0 bull bull I 0 bull I bull I 15 ~Q

(26) ~ -IMIJ I I bull I I 0 I I 15bull 0 bull bull (27)rW-IJIQIYe--1 0 o bull I I l6bull bull bull I bull

(28) ~-IQIB bull bull I 01bull o bull I bull bull middot3 ~~~

(29)~-IQIZ bull 0 bull I bull I bull I bullbull 19

(30) ~~ ~ILIQ~ bull I 0 I bull bull 19IR2A

t-n (31) ~ -IMIN2S I bull 0 bull I Hgt I bull I 16

D (32) ~ IQIY~ 162C2D I bull I bull A

(33)~-IJIQlVIY~ I bull I 01 bullbull I 16

(34) ~_rNQbull I bull 0 bull I f-ltgt bull I bullbull 16IL [54]

~~~JI~~I

Isf Th Th 2nd 3rd

~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ (35)~ IDILIQ2C~

(361 ~-IL bullbull o--e ~~

t37J ~n ~-ILIQIW~

(38) 111~ IQIR~ 2C2D- I bull - I

(39) Qi ~-IMIV2E~

-eshy(40)~

~-2F2G bullbull~+-_--(O bull

(41) ui ~ - 2C2G2H bullbull--I-----(O bull

p-u (42) ~ 2~iH~ -amp

(43)~ -IQIR2L~ lB

44J ~ 2E2M~ (45)~--2D2N~

~1gt-+-o---+---+--+--+-----1 68

t--iI~I--tt-tI H__+-1-t---ll 9

r--laquogt I bull I I bull bull 178

r-o--t- bull I I bull bull III

bull I

t-o I

bull I

bull I

310

bull bullbull7

bullbull 19

f--o

bull bull I

bull I bull 19

bull bull 1912

bull bull bull

bull bull

I II

16

4 Direct the air column upward slightly and intensify the breath using an embouchure that favors the middle register

5 Adjust the aperture mainly for the lower note and direct the air column inward Use only a light tone support

6 The air column is to be directed upward very slightly with the embouchure favoring the upper note

7 Use a wide aperture with substantial breath support and direct the air column upward

8 Also vent approximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 Use an aperture more appropriately adapted to the upper notes but direct the air column downward slightly Only a medium amount of breath support is needed

10 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH imperceptibly

11 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the middle range This chord is to be supported robustly

12 Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd key LH also

IF 2nd RH MUltiple Trill- IX (ring only) DOWN

IG 1st RH Upper sustains lY (ring only) Lower trills DOWN

IH

IJ

lK

lL

1M

IN

IP

lQ

lR

IS

IT

lU

IV

lW

1st RH Upper sustains lZ Lower trills UP

1st RH MUltiple Trill 2A Converging

3rd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP 28

2nd LH Multiple Trill-UP 2C

3rd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2D

EP key Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2E

3rd LH MUltiple Trill-UP 2F

2nd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

2G Low C Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWNkey Upper trills DOWN

2H 1st RH Lower sustains2nd RH Upper sustains Upper trills UPLower trills UP 2K 2nd RH Multiple tones susshyLow C Multiple Pitchshy (ring only) tain Middle noteskey Pulsations Middle pulsatetrills UP 2L 3rd RH Upper sustains1st RH MUltiple Pitchshy Lower trills DOWNPulsations Upper

sustains 2M 1st RH Lower sustainsMulshytiple Trills ConshyEP key Lower sustains vergingmiddot

Upper trills DOWN 2N 3rd RH Multiple Trill-DOWN

G key Upper sustain~i Lower trills UP

[55]

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills UP

G key Multiple Trill Converging

1st RH Multiple Trill Converging

3rd RH MUltiple tones sustain middle notes pulsate

1st RH Lower sustains Upper trills DOWN

Thumb key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

Thumb key MUltiple Trill-UP (wide intervals)

2nd RH MUltiple Trill Converging

2nd RH Lower sustains

bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES

07(

Cont

~

(46) 1 -IL 2P 20 19I I -0- bull bull bull I bull I bull bull

(47)~ IAIL2R 16

~ bull 0 bull bull bull I bull I bullbull (48) ~ __ 252T bull o-o--j bull I bull I I bull 17

~2X(49) IEIO 2U bull I bull I bull 1 bull bull 4

~A bull

(50)~ - -2U2V2W bull I bull I 0 I I I II bull

IE2U(51) It ~ 02X bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull3

(52)~-ICIE2U2Y 0--1 bull I bull I I 15I bull bull ~n

(53) ~ 2C2U 2Z bull 0---1 bull 1 0 I 1 bull III

n (54) ~ly2Z3A383C bull bull I bull 1 bull 1 16

(55) ii-lEI bull bull t--o bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (56) 11-amp

~-IH2T3D I f--o bull I bull I bull I 15 D

(57) ~_IHIP I bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I 152T3D I

(58) If --IEIY bull bull f--o I bull I bull bull bullbull3

[56]

( 1~(O~)~ 2Z I I bull I bull I I I bull bull 12I

~Q-6shy(60) ~-IYI2H I I bull bull I 1-0 I bull I bull I bull bull 15 =~

(61) ~--3C3E I I I

(62) t~ -3F I

~ (63)1~

( 3E I I laquogt---ebull (64) d-Qshy-0- ~-2H3G~

(65) ~ - IP3G3H I I I

(66) ~ - IMIP3KI

- bull bull bull bull (67) 0shy

lt1 ~ I P283L3M I I

-(68) ~~4l-~IM2BI Itba 3K bull

(69) = ~--IM3N1

=1l-6shy(70) ~ ~ I] II IP I I bullbullbull bull

(71) ~~ ~--(X3P~ (72) qA gIX2H~

1-0 I bull I bull I bull I 15

I bull I I I I 1 bull bull I II

bull I bull 1 I I I I 1113

f--O I I I I I bull bull 15

I I I I I I bull I I 15

L bull I bull I 0 I bull I 16

1 bull I I 15

bull I bull I o bull I I 16

914

I bull 0-+-----0 bull 1914

1---0 I bull I bull I bull I I 613

1-0 bull 1 bull J bull I ~16

bull bull

13 Approximately one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH is to be vented

14 Vent also one-fourth of the 2nd key RH~

~ ~o (73)~

E= - 3K3Q3R 1-1--I--~-4a--o---e

(74) ~ ~2G3K3RI bull 0 bull

~ a (75) ~2B2G3Q3R3Sr----t------oshy

(76) t~ ~ 3R3T3U 1-1--l-~-egt----J--1

(77)I~i - -- 2P3 L 1-1--I~~----4 --shy

n __

(78) g _ 1-1-+--+-~----3V ___ ~

t79)ff ~ - I B2Y3V 1-1--I--+--4a-4~bullbull

~-e-(80) ~ 2H 3L __-+ ----ia-+_~ ~ 3W bull 1

(811 _ 2H 2U bullbull~gt---~+-__

(82) 1- ~ - bull --shy2U3Xbullbull~-l---

(83) Qg ~- ILfQ30bullbulll--+--bull--0 bull

j~

qt (84) EQ IR zu ----1

EE 3W3Y bullbull~~~-l---I~----

t9 t85) ~

~~ 3Y3W3Xbullbullf------+--+-~o__1

bull I bull I bullbull 19

~~X--+-I-+--+-+-f----t---il 6

7

~x I I bull I

bull loX I I 13

x I bull I bullbull 14

I--+I---4-X~----+-1-+---+1 4

3L

3M

3N

3P

3Q

3R

35

3T

3U

3Y

D Trill MUltiple Trill-UP key

2nd LH Multiple Trill Converging

Thumb key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

1st RH ~ MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

3rd LH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

D Trill key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

G key Lower sustains Upper trills UP

3rd LH Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWN

D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills UP

1st LH MUltiple Trill-DOWN

3W D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills DOWN

3X 1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

3Y 2nd LH Multiple Pitchshy(ring only) Pulsations

2P

2Q

2R

25

2T

2U

2Y

2W

2X

2Y

2Z

3A

3B

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

3K

3rd LH

E~ key

1st RH

2nd RH

MUltiple Trill-DOWN

MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

Lower trills UP Upper and middle

interpose

Multiple notes sustain Middle trills DOWN

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills DOWN

2nd LH Multiple Trillshy(ring only) DOWN

Low C Multiple Pitch-key

3rd RH (vented)

3rd RH

3rd RH

1st LH

2nd LH (ring only)

2nd LH

3rd LH

Pulsations

Lower sustains Upper and Middle

interpose

Multiple Tones sustain Upper trills DOWN

Multiple PitchshyPulsations

Multiple Trill-UP

Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

Upper sustains Lower tremolo DOWN

Multiple Trill Converging

G key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd RH MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

D TrillHigh C sustains key Middle trill UP

D and D MUltiple Trill-UP Trill keys

D Trill key MUltiple Trill-UP

1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

[57J

bull bull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cant

0bullI X I bull 1 2

bull bull I bull X bull 1 19

bull bull bull X bull I 17

bull bull I I bull X 19

bull bull e- r-oX I I bull I 15

bull bull I bull I X 16

bull r--o X I I 15bull bull I bull I bull X 1 15bull ()----j X bullbull middot11015bull o---j X I bull I 11315bull

o-ebull r-o-I I X bull bull 17

0--1 I I X I X I I 16

t-e-D

19S) It II -3P3Qbull I Ibullb6shy

199) 11~

0shy~-2H4E bull egt---l

lIOO)~ IE bull bull bull

1I01l

U-eshy1I02)~

~-~

-eshy

-2C

JO IPJQ4F I

bull bull bull bull bull bull bullbull bull bull bull

1I03)~ -2Y4G bull bull o-----e

UA1I04)fshy

-1L2H30 bull () bull lI05) ~

~ ~-IL2P I bull bull I bull II06I~r~

-2H3H4A~n lion xx

IBJR3H I~ I bull bull bull qn 1I0S)rD

-- IL3K l----+-----o-shyt-e

1I09)r 2U3K3L I I I e-bull

I I x x I I 115

rox X I bull 1913

2

I--cgt bull I bull I bullbullbull78

I I I I 17 I bull 0 I bull I I I II

1-0 I bull bull I 1713

-o bull I bull I bullbull 1712

7 8

f-I bull I I 115

I bull I I bull bull 14 shy

4

4

15 Approach the attack for this chord via the top note but widen the aperture sufficiently to accommodate the placement of the lowest note Direct the air column downward and apply a sUbshystantial amount of breath support

4D I 2nd LH Lower sustains3Z I D Trill I Multiple Trill-DOWN (ring only) IUpper trills DOWN

4A I G~ key I Lower sustain~i

key

4E I D~ Trill I MUltiple Trill-DOWN Uppertrills uuWN key

4F I 3rd RH I Lower sustains46 I D~ Trill I Upper sustains Upper trills DOWNkey Lower trills DOWN

4G I G~ key I Upper sustains4C lIst RH I Multiple Tri1lshy Lower trills DOWN(ring only) DOWN

3PECJAL SONORITIES

(B) The Tonal Characteristics And Dynamic Ranges

of multiphonics are shown here as three predominant effects Each chord-group possesses a built-in quality of tone and the player should permit this to subsist according to the resistance that is evidenced As the control of the embouchure improves those chords capable of sounding with a full dynamic range may alsobe controllable using a lighter tone quality and played at a softer dynamic level For this reason some chords have been listed in more than one category The numbers used toidenshytify the multiphonics in the main chart appear here in the approshypriate categories

(1) Subdued Quality of Tone Reasonably Soft Dynamics

1 15 34 65

2 18 37 73

24 54 6 25 55 80

12 26 56 90

13 27 57 91

14 33 64 92

(2) Some Degree of Resonance (3) Blaring or Strident Tone Medium Dynamic Range Fairly Loud Dynamics

4 27 57 74 2 37 60 89

5 28 58 75 3 39 62 93

7 29 60 5 94

8 31 61 76 9 41 63 95

9 32 62 80 11 42 70 96

10 33 64 83 16 43 71 97

14 34 65 86 17 44 72 98

15 35 66 90 19 45 77 99

18 36 67 91 20 46 78 100

20 37 68 92 21 47 79 101

22 38 69 93 23 48 80 102

23 40 71 97 26 49 81 103

25 41 72 103 27 50 82 104

26 54 73 106 28 51 84 105

30 52 85 107

32 53 87 108

36 59 88 109

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(C) Suppressed Chords

Often the term smorzato has been used to signify the effect of diminishing or extinguishing tones As is described here a controlled suppressing of tones in the chord can occur while the lowest note continues to sustain This can be accomplished withshyout altering the fingering

By releasing the firmness of the embouchure slightly and pershymitting the breath support to diminish the upper partials can be made to disappear When in some cases this does not produce the effect completely then a directional change of the air column must implement this technique Since the modification of the air column can be regulated voluntarily the suppression of the chords can be realized in any desired rhythmic pattern

In a few instancesanother note of the chord can be sustained simultaneously with the fundamental while the higher one is diminshyishing In other chords certain notes can be suppressed intershychangeably These variables have been indicated in the listingbelow As a result of this added peculiarity these other notes too can be sustained either prior to or following the suppression of the chord This effect is related to that described in part(D) of this section

[59]

In this list the fundamental note is illustrated together with the number that applies to its multiphonic The arrows on the altershyations have been omitted Attention is drawn to the fact that as an added advantage these tones for their distinctive timbres may be used also as single-line notes

The following multiphonics are the most responsive and easiest to control for this effect Two-note multiphonics are listed first and are the most facile

Two-note Chords

6 E 27 G 65 C 91 D

12 G 32 G 66 C 92 D

13 - G 33 - G 67 - C 93 - D

14 - G 34 - G 71 - C 97 - EO 15 - G 52 - So 72 - C 102 - G 22 - G 54 - So 73 - C 104 - G 24 - G 58 - S 76 - C 107 - S 25 - G 60 - C 80 - C 108 - S

26 - G 61 - C 90 - D 109 C

Three and Four-note Chords

36 - Low and middle Gs will sustain as the upper note

2 - E

3 - E is suppressed Alter the 5 - E air columns direction

8 - F (Middle G and possibly 37 - AO middle E can be altershy 38 - AO (The C or G may benated with d) interchanged with the

9 - F sounding of F by altershying the direction of air)10 - F (C can be alternated

with F) 40 - A (C alternates with G) 11 - F 41 - A (F alternates with C) 16 - G 42 - A

17 - G 43 - A

19 - G (E can be alternated 45 - A with F) 46 - A

20 - G 47 - A 21 G

48 - A 23 - G 49 - So (A and B sound simultashy28 Low and middle Gs will neously as the chord is

sustain to~ethet as the suppressed) upper note is suppressed

50 - BO and A sustain as the 29 - G top note is suppressed 30 - G 53 - BO 35 - G 57 - B

[60J

70 - C 87 - D (A can be alternated with E by releasing the breath74 - C pressure interchangeably)

75 - C 88 - D 77 - C 89 - D 78 - C 94 EO (B can be alternated 79 - C with GO) 82 - d 98 - EO

99 - E83 - C (E alternates with C) 100 - F84 - D 105 - A85 - D 106 - B86 - D (f can be alternated with

C~ by changing the direcshytion of the air column)

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(D) Connecting Single Notes to MUltiphonics

The suppressing of chords (part C) indicates that it is posshysible to sustain a single note and connect this to a chordassumshying of course that the fingering being used initially is that of the multiphonic A flexibility in this procedure results from the fact that either the lowest or highest note in each multiphonic can be sustained when going into or coming out of the chord This occurs without any perceptible interruption of the sound oraltershyation of the fingering However it will be found that some chords do not lend themselves to a controllable responsiveness when they are approached via the highest note This can only be determined by trial and error

The middle note in many of the three-note chords can also be sustained The chords listed below have been selected as thosehavshying this characteristic and a few added effects have been noted with several others The letter after each number applies to the middle note of the multiphonic In the case of four-note chords then the note from the middle octave which may lend the easiest response is listed As mentioned previously it is automatically assumed that the lowest and highest notes from each chord can be isolated and sustained without difficulty

In some instances a radical change in the direction of the air column and a simultaneous release of the breath pressure may be necessary to effect the linking of tones to chords portions of which are then to be suppressed Only by experimenting with the process of isolating the tones can the player acquire a famshyiliarization with the physical sensation involved This will dicshytate any modifying of the air columns direction and maneuvershying of the embouchure

The two-note chords are quite simple to execute in this proshyduction and either note can be sustained with ease

Page 5: A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the Flute

bull bull bull

1 BASIC FINGERINGS

~-~ bull I bullbullbull 1 1111 bullbullbull

~-- I bullbullbull I

~- I bullbullbull I

~~

~- I bullbullbull I

W-- bull I bullbullbull I

~_ I bullbullbull I

m~ --+--bull--4It-4~1 r-t-----Ir--tt-t-+---I---I--+-~I I

bull I bullbullbull I I I bull I I I

~ __ bullf---i--~---__bull I I bull A~~ ---- bull__-t--tI~---i I I I 1 I 11 ~_ ~--+----+---l bull I 12bull

I I 12 bull I bull bull I bull 12

~ bullbull I I I I I I bull

~ bull --1-I---i---i~t---J I I I I I I I I I

I I I I 3 fti----- bull bull bull I bullbullbullI I I

bull I bull I bull

bullbull I

I bull bullbull bull bullbull bull I bull I bull bull

[6 ] ---~-) Basic fingerings(These should be learned first)

bull bull bull bullbull

bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull

bull bull

~---- ~ bullbullf--_t__--4__J--I

~ ~ f--_t___J--I---I

~--

~ ~ --__I------bull----1i---li---li---I

bull

bull bull bull I

I--I----l---+I---+-ef--I-_+--+I 4 1--I----l---4llbull ---I-1-41~_+---j1 5

bull I I

bull I I

I bull I I I

bullbull--+-_+_+_+-+---ibull-t-t--tl 2

1---f---If-----1f-----1--+ t--I--+-1 2 ~__t--t--+__~_ _t__+---il 2

bull I I

I bull I

I bull I I I

I bull I

I bullbull bullbull I I

~~I---t______+--+---I--+_+--tl 6 bull

BASIC FINGERINGS

1 This fingering produces a slighily lower level of pitch However its use in extremely technical passages is inshyvaluable

2 Each fingering must be learned with equal facility and applied interchangeably The control of various technical passages and added dexterity will be dependent upon this flexibility When possible emphasize the use of the BIever RH

3 The fa~lty intonation and thin tone structure of the open C~ can be corrected partially through the use of this fingering When using a French model flute deshypress the key-ring 2nd LH and vent approximately one-half of the tone hole This offers more control in a crescendo

4 To maintain the proper pitch level when playing PP depress the 2nd trill key(D~) gently as is needed

5 See item 1 In this octave the F is more noticeably flat in pitch This fingering is equally useful when sustaining the note in a ff to adjust the intonation

6 A controll~d level of pitch can be achieved in a ff when the EP key remains closed However the tone quality becomes muffled at this lower level of pitch and will necessitate embouchure adjustments

[7J

BASIC FINGERINGS (CONTJ

bull I bull I I I I I I bull I I I

~------I

If~-- I I bull bull I

bull Ibull bull Ibull

I I I I I

I

bull I

I bull

bullbull I bull

I I I

I

15

bull bullbull~~--I ~II----+--+--4~

I

bull I

I

bullbull

I

I

I

I)

~ I bull bull I

bull I 1 bull I I I I bull I I I

~-~ bull bull I

bull I

bull X

I X

I I

I

bull

I

1

I 8

19

I ~

8va 8v bull I bull bull I I X I 1

bull I bull I X X 110bullf I bull I X bull ~bull I 110 bull8va---

I bull bull bull I bull I I I middot11~--- I I 12

-shy

bull bull bull bull bull I bull 1 I 7 WI I 0

I I I I 1 I 14 8 T bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bull bull 113

bull bull bull bull bull bull I k

8va--

f 9 TII I bull I bull I I I bullbull 115

iJ I til1 I bull bull bull I I bull I bull bull 115

TI I bull I bull I I I I I I 15 10

11 W I I I I f

8va bull bull bull I bull bull bull

12 T S~

13 T8va-- fI I I Ibull I X bull~_I bullr

I I bull I I bull bull 114 14 Tbull middot)( n I I bull bull 114 vbull bull I middot)(

I 15 bullbull I X

I bullbull Tbull bull bull bull bull 08va

bull I bull o---j I X 116 16 W

bull I bull bull I X bull bull bull 117 17 T

h~ X

I

s

i

8va----- 1-+--+--middotmiddot--+- f-----+-+-IXl(---+I-+---+-H 15

7 When playing If this fingering produces a lower level of pitch and an altered tone quality as well

8 To facilitate the execution of rapid passages the ED key may remain open

9 This alternate fingering will aid the adjustment of the intonation for a PP Avoid the use of an excessive volshyume of air as the note responds with ease

10 This lowers the pitch level for alf bull

11 When using a flute with a iow C foot joint the little fingerRH is raised

12 This fingering affords a slightly lower level of pitch See item 11

13 This fingering demands added breath support but the resulting pitch level is lower Use this Blso on a flute with a low C foot joint

14 This fingering produces a lower level of pitch but the note lacks an immediate response However this may vary on different flutes

15 These fingerings are applicable when using a low C or low B foot joint

16 When possible vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightly This may improve the response of the note

17 This fingering as well as 16 will respond on flutes having a low C or B foot joint

A SECURE PLAYING POSITION

The basic elements involving position and balance in holding the flute properly are of ultimate importanceat all levels of performance Much has been written onthis subject by many prominent flutists Therefore only the salient features relevant to fingerings are repeated now

1 Develop a secure hand position with the arms remaining free from tension to form an equalshyization of balance for the flute

2 Avoid any cramping of the musculature in hands wrists and arms which could bring about stiffshyactioned fingers

3 Encourage the use of a light action with the finshygers remainlng on the keys at all times Added inflections or accentuations in the music are the only occasions for which the fingers may be raised slightly higher on the keys

4 Permit the keys to lower and raise with all of the sensitivity possible The keys must be lifted not the fingers

5 Maintain a naturally arched position of the fingers This signifies the existence of freedom from any tension A flexibility and maneuverability of the fingers should be the result

Security in a playing position when achieved will bring controllabilitYand a solid technique with dexterity This must be available at any tempo

[9J

INTRODUCTION

An advanced flutist has reached that performance level because of the extreme sensitivity with which all facets of flute technique have been applied Certainly one of the most important of these instrumental techniques has to be the disciplined approach to the use of proper finshygerings It is assumed that this is a major concern of the professional performer but it should be equally so of each developing flutist

Too often due to negligence undesirable fingerings become firmly implanted in the playing habits of the young performers Correcting these faults in the early stages of their careers can result in a functional use of fingershyings as the flutists progress into the higher levels of proficiency This can be evidenced in their execution of extremely technical passages as well as the production of exotic tonal effects

Learning to use the appropriate fingerings for various situations ought to be considered a vi tal segment of basic musicianship since the application of the correct or corshyrective fingerings parallels the importance of other flute techniques This concept should become a part of each flutists daily routine and hopefully will guide the playshyer in the aspiration of becoming a sensitive musician

This compilation is presented as a methodology for finshygerings by offering a wide range of selected fingerings for the flutist and directing their use in diverse techshyniques It is hoped that this reference guide will encourshyage an exploitation of the flutes potentialities which should be the ultimate goal of every ambitious student of the flute

James J Pellerite Professor of Flute Indiana University

HOW TO READ THE CHARTS

These fing~rings apply to the Boehm system flute with the closed G~ key In many instances a low B foot joint is necessary although a low C will be acceptable for many of these fingerings Auxiliary keys that are someshytimes found on specially made flutes have not been conshysidered However the French model flute will be essenshytial for those charts in which the fingerings call for venting the various tone holes

A number appearing next to the illustration for each fingering will refer to the text material The correshysponding number is followed by a brief statement which relates to the fingerings purposefulness

The fingerings have been illustrated using the symbol ( ) and will indicate only that the keys are depressed For this reason it is not necessary to give considerashytion to whether or not a key remains open

The other familiar symbol (0) will apply exclusiveshyly to the use of the French model flute and be used solely to signify that a key is to be vented in its enshytirety

bull The key is depressed

C) The tone hole is vented accordingly

0 Vent the tone hole in its entirety

Apply the French model flute+ X Use the D or D Trill key

PI Pianissimo

If Fortissimo

R H Right Hand

L H Left Hand

[5J

2(a) HARMONICS

The production of overtones is a basic technique with which all flutists must become familiar Not only does -it represent the foundation for proper tone production but also it offers additional opportunities to simplify many complex technical passhysages which occur in the 3rd octave of the flute The fingering combinations for such phrases become moderately easy by using the fingerings for the fundamental notes to produce the harmonshyics Created by overblowing the fundamentals these are generally indicated as follows

0 g0 a 0 12

0 8 0 amp

To produce D3 (2nd overtone) use the fin~ering for fundamental Gl for E3 AI for F3 B l etc

To overblow the fundamental tone an intense air column must be applied This can be formed by diminishing the size of the aperture and increasing the breath pressure(subsequently the air speed) The air column needs to be directed more horishyzontally across the embouchure plate as one progresses into the higher harmonics Treating the fundamental tones in this manner will produce the following overtones in succession

[see Overtone Series chart (first measure)]

(a) 1st overtone - octave (b) 2nd - 12th (octave and a fifth) (c) 3rd - 15th (double octave) (d) 4th 17th (two octaves and a third) (e) 5th 19th (two octaves and a fifth)(0 6th 21st (two octaves and a seventh)

Frequently students find it difficult to reach the full gamshyut of overtones that are shown here This stems from the fact that sometimes they lack proper control of the embouchure and the air column However should this not be the case then the source of the problem may be the existing properties of the headshyjoint It is an accepted fact that no two headjoints ever will respond alike(even made by the same manufacturer) This varishyance means that one flute may possess either more or less resistshyance in its bloWing characteristics It is this added resistance that often may deter the production of the extremely high harshymonics However further development of the embouchure is asshysured as the production of these overtones is attempted and pracshyticed The resultant physical capability enables the flutist to create a greater number of overtones for each fundamental With this facility extremely technical passages in the upper ocshytaves are simplified by the use of left-hand-fingerings eg low G and A overblown can produce the overtone which would afford easier performance in a rapid passage of the 3rd octave

[10]

Due to the acoustical construction of the flute these harshymonics in the 3rd octave possess a rather veiled character of tone quality and a somewhat lower level of intonation than that produced when the regular fingerings are used The presence of the lower fundamental note causes this phenomenon since the reshyquired vent hole which is normally open in the regular fingershying is closed For example the regular fingering for D2 i properly vented by raising the 1st key LH ~he ton~ qoa11ty is muffled and its pitch level lowered when th1s key 1S closed In fact so many students accidentally produce this tone quality by using the incorrect fingerings and are not aware of the resultshying faulty tone structure One must discriminate and exercise discretion as to the use of these nshort cut fingerings Often the tonal beauty of a melodic passage is impaired by the obtuse sound of harmonics Their use in performance should be limitshyed to the most difficult passages in orchestral or band litershyature and even then only in rapidly moving phrases where it will ~ot be detected that harmonic assist has been applied

On the other hand there may be a desire for moments of tonal coloring in isolated cases Thus using the tone quality of some of these notes the harmonics become a purposeful and effecshytive display They can be used advantageously so long as the notes are played with conviction and will sou~dcorrect In actushyality many compositions now call for ~he add1t10nal tonal shadshyings that are possible when the harmon1cs are properly managed

The low register fingerings presented in thechart on Basic Fingerings are applied to the fundamental notes 1n the Overtone Series chart As the flutist progresses and studies the charts for trills tremolos etc he will discover that the application of the harmonic series will appear inexhaustible

Overtone Series 0)

Q it0Q ao ~ ~ e ~ ~ A

Q

- L g

2~ (0) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

~~ ltIi D ~

A ~ ~ ~

0 ~ IA 11amp I ~ IT 21 ~I

0 0 i~ lI- j- (2)

0 ltIi b b Q ~ ~ A shy1J ~ -amp - -- ~ = r ~ oa t ~ t 9 k

(2)1bullbull 1 v bullbull I

(3) (5)(6)(4)

Q

bull amp ~ ~Q Q

e- a Q ~

~ 6shy

~ ~Q ~v if Rk iv P V t v ~ I (2)

QQ ~ 6shy0 ~ ~

~o Q ~ -amp e

8 8 bull V R V 0 9J lit lit a 0~ ~

Note The following alterations may be applied when practicing from this chart These will assist in performing the upper harmonics with greater ease and their physical placement in the ocshytave would be identified more readily Followshying a degree of proficiency in the execution of the harmonic series these intervals should be practiced legato[slurred]

1 Vent the 2nd key RH 2 Use the Gn ~ey 3 Close the EP key 4 Use the low B key if available 5 Close the C key 6 Close the Cn key

2(b) FRENCH MODEL FLUTE Also referred to as the open tone hole model this flute is

identified by its perforations in the centers of the five keys that are activated by the fingers The relevancy of the French model flute is noteworthy Its prominence in the flutists career has been brought about by a variety of technical applications through which its advantages seem compounded

A substantial number of fingerings specifically for this instrushyment can be learned from these charts that follow The special finshygerings are for purposes of varying the pitch dynamics or tone quality or any of these in combination They also will effect a more realistic pitch relationship in the intervals for trills or tremolos according to the instructions as may be directed by the numbered comments There are some fingerings that are traditionally for the closed hole flute For these the use of the French model possibly could be supplemental to improve upon some of the original fingerings

The technique of venting the various tone holes is one that ought to be introduced to the lesser experienced flutist as soon as practicable The astute professional always has recognized the value of this application To develop the technique of sliding over the tone holes one must emphasize a subtle movement of the fingers with utmost sensitivity and vent cautiously for absolute control Almost immediately this reveals the ease with which it is possible to exeshycute a glissando of the scale bull

or a slide[portamento] to or from various notes

The left hand fingers should glide away from the flute in an outshyward motion while the right hand fingers move in the opposite direcshytion and towards the key mechanism This seems to be the most adaptshyable approach to venting However since each individuals hand position is subject to a mUltiformity due to basic differences in musculature other methods may be devised and considered equally successful The expertise of an artist teacher will be vital in considering each situation that is problematical To vent the hole by a fraction the finger is to be moved in a calculative fashion The pitch is raised according to the amount of the hole exposed The opposite is true when the desired pitch level is to be lowered By depressing the key ring by its edge it is possible to vent the enshytire tone hole The numbered comments accompanying each chart will suggest the appropriate venting combinations for each fingering

The acoustical principle applied to the vented fingerings is based upon the production of the harmonic series The overtones (see Overtone Series chart) can be altered conveniently by ventshying the fingerings for their fundamental tones This produces an array of pitches in a composite of overtones and results in total flexibility for the ensuing techniques that are to be applied By gliding these pitches the notes are altered to possess a wider range of intonation as well as a broad spectrum of tone content This development takes place as the fingerings alter the tubeshylengthsCdistance air column travels] for tone production These are either extended or contracted depending upon the location of the key being activated and the amount that its tone hole is to be vented Also with these fingerings the resistance factor of the instrument sometimes is transformed from its traditional response to an entirely different sensation in the production of certain notes Examples of this condition will be discovered when reading from the charts on tremolos altered notes quarter-tones etc

These modifications as provided by the use of the French model flute are beneficial in all facets of musical performance not only in contemporary music but in the standard repertoire as well

[llJ

bull bull

I TRILLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step)

bull bull bull I

I bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull I bullbull I

I bull I bull I bull I bulltr I I

bull I bull I tr bull II 0 I I 1(+)

tr I bull I bull I bullbull I I I

tr I I Ibull I bull I bull I

bull I bull I bulltr bull II I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull bull I I I

I I Ibull bull bull I bull I bulltr I bull I

bull bull bull I I bulltr I bull I I bull I I I 2

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

~-~ _ a--f----=-________

~_~----J

~-~ _ trtr ---------bull-bull- I bull I I

tr tr bull I bull bull bull bull bullbull-+--+--+-+-+-1-iIJ-+I-+---t1

bull bull I ~r I - I 4

~ tr j~ - bullbull--+-1---eillE-la--j---j I bull I bull

bulltr I bull I I bull bull I bull

bulltr I I I

(+) Applicable to the French model flute

I bull I

tr I bull I bull

bull f---1f--l--+-+-+--af-+-+--l1 5

f--tt-+-+-+------r---ilbull-t-+--ll 6

bullbull-+-1--t---t--+--+-f-+--t---11 6

tr Ibull I bull I

bull I

1--+---+---1a--t ---1bull--+---+---I1 7 (+)

~~r--+---+--+---+----II tr bull I~ bullbullgt---~+--+-------o---J bull bull bullbull I 7 (+)

XtrI I I 181bull

Xtr II bull I 1---4~XE--tr--l--+-----tIt-+-+---l1 9

1---4a-l--l--4llXctr-+I_-+-+--11 9bull

I bull I bull I bullbull~--I bull bull bull tr

trFR=--() bullbullbull 1--iIIbull --+-__t---tIIt-+--+---+---I1 10

EUI= 1-1-+---~a-bull-+ bull bull ~r I I

TRILLS [Half-step and Whole-step]

1 This is possible only with the use of the French model flute Depress the 3rd key-ring RH by hooking the thumbnail underneath and behind the key trilling the tone hole Adequate time is necessary for the preparation of this unshynatural hand position

2 When possible begin the trill by using regular F fingering (3rd RH) to establish the proper level of intonation

3 This may be used for added facility when the trill is followed by the note E However the F~ is slightly flat in pitch

4 This fingering produces a flat BP(A) It is acceptable in a If and its use may facilitate technical passages

5 Appropriately used for a PP this fingering produces a higher level of pitch for C2 and C3 bull

6 Use this fingering for a ff since a lower pitch level for C2and C will result3 7 The intonation for C(DP) is lowered by venting approximately

one-half of tbe tone hole of the 3rd key LH

8 When possible begin the trill by using the regular D fingering to establish the proper pitch level for the interval

9 This lowers the C for a near correct interval

10 When possible lower the 1st key L4H~ slightly until the intoshynation and tone quality for D and Di(EP) is improved

x- Use Trill Key [l3]

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull

3 TRILLSltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

bull bull bull bull bull bull

I trbull middot1 bull bull I

I middot1 tr

Ibull bullbull I 110

~--bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull I Jr

J ~r I Jr I

Ibullbull III I 1112

M---1 bull bull bull bull I Jr l I 1

~--e-j bull bull bull ~ 2

~-- I bull bull bull I Jr I I I bullbull I I I

~--_I bull bull bull tr ~

~-- bull bull bull ~

~-- tr

bull bull bull bull ~

~--e-j tr

bull bull bull bull [14J

bull bull Jr I~-

~ I bull bull tr bullbull tr tr

~_ bull bull bull bull tr tr

I Jr bullbull bull I

I Jr l-i~_ bull ~r I Ibull bull I

bull bull bulltr I II

~-- bull bulltr H

~-- bull

tr I~_ I bull

bull I tr Ibull

bull I bulltr I

t-rl I I I bull I I I I

H-+++-e-+-+-t--

I I I I I I 1 I Ibull -+-1 I I bull I I I I H--+--++-+++-1 4

~ f--I I I I bull I ~-H

H-+-++e-++-H

Jr- I I I I I Ibull I ~r I I bull H---H

1-+--1 f==1 bull 5 I ~ 1--1 6

bull I II- I bull 16

Smiddot +

bulltr I I bull I I I

I I bull I

1------l----il)(e--tr+1--+-~-tIt-t--+-I1 13

I bull I I I

I------l--+-+I-Xlrt---jrIr--tIbull -+1-+1-II 14

I I

)(tr I Xtrl IbullU--I II bull1-1--+--t-----Cgt----i X

tr I Xtrj 15(+)

bullbullbull I I I bull I Ia~--I Xtrl

O-Depress the key by its edge

I I I Ibull bull bulltr bull

bull bull J--i 1--0 bull bull 116(+)

bull bull bull tr bull bull I bull I bullbull I I I

bull bull I I

1----tbull -+-CgtIgt--+--i-+-+----I117 (+)

tr trbullbullbullbull 1 bullbull 111

II Begin the trill by using the 1st key LH open for E~(D)

12 F2 is lower in pitch when this fingering is applied 13 While using the trill key apply proper tone support to simulate

the tone quality of regular C Adjust the direction of the air column downward

14 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for D Then apply the trill key and proper tone support to sustain a more correct interval

15 Depress the 3rd key LH venting the entire tone hole This assists in correcting the intonation level for a ff

16 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for E then apply the trill fingering venting the entire tone hole of the 1st key RH When playing PP the 3rd key LH is to be vented slightly during the trill

17 Almost the entire tone hole of the 2nd key R H is to be vented In a pp the tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be slightly vented while trilling

[15]

8va---

3TRilLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

r-- tr ~~ I bullbullbull I I I I I I I bull I 126

f--(gt I bull I bull bull I I 27(+)~~ I I bullbullbull

tr I I II e I 1

8va--- bull I I bull bull I I Jr Xtr I I I bull I I 28

~ ~I Imiddotmiddotmiddottr Xtr I I bull I I I bull () bullbull 1--+1--+-1-+-1~ -~I-+--II 29(+)

8va-

~I bullbullbull tr tr

f-I- bull -+-~bull-bull- bull I bullbull ~ 8va---

1---e~1+1~XF-tr+1 -bull-r---i--tl 30~ ---H bullbull I I I ~r I bull I I I I bull I

bull tr 1---e~1+-1lh a---fI-+--+--J1 31bull I bull bull bull8va--- tr

r4--~ bullbullbull I~J~r f-I+-1lhbullbull=-+I-+-1-+1--1 32(+)

~ bull I Jr l bull 11----+-1~II---+-I -tI~1 -+1=-11 33

~ tr

1~-l)(If-+~11---+-1-+1-1bull-+1--1 34(+)

8va---- bull I bullbulltr

0-1 ~r I I I I I I 135(+)

t---eJ--r)(If-tr-+I-l)(1E-+-1-+1-+1-+I---li 36(+)

~~ Jr )(trI I I I I I I 1---a~JrX-+rI~IeA----4l-+r-+1-1 37

bull I bull I bull ~rX I I I I I I Ibull I bull I bull

8va---

I bullbull I~~

bull I bull

gt--+---+I~o

I bull

I ~r I tr ~ I I

I Jr I bull I I Jr 1

bull

I f--+----t--lto

I I Xtrl

I I bull I I bull bull I

X bull I I

I bullbull I

118

119(+)

120

I I

I I 1121

I bullbull I I

I I bull I I I Jr I bull I

I bullbull I I I I bull I I

I 122 I 23(+)

I 124

I bullbull I I I I bull I bull I I 25(+)

I I bull I I I

-[16]

__========-==========~~========~=====~ ~-_ 1

8va---

~ ~rll bull bull bull---I--r--bulltr-e~~r-iIIIt--t bull x bull bullbull 138

8va--D- tr x bull ~--bullbull-+--jo-r-+-tJ-I X oJ-+---f---+--1 39(+)

8va---

~ tr I tr bull I ~__-+--- ---t---e--i I )( I 140

8va-- tr tr

bull bullbull bull -I )(1---4a-+--e-4--+--+-+-+--e 4 O ~--IJgt-r-III---1----lt~ 1----41-+-+---+---+--+--+-+--4140bull bull bull bull I

8va--- tr tr

1---4~-+--+--+-1 -lt+--+-+-1-- 40~_ bull bull bull bull bull I

18 Although a basic fingering this does produce a faulty F

19 Vent the entire tone hole of the 2nd key RH If necessary the interval can be adjusted further by venting the 2nd key LH while trilling

20 The tone quality and pitch level of this interval is inadequate but in a ff this trill is acceptable

21 This fingering is appropriately applied in a PP On French model flutes vent the 1st tone hole RH while trilling to execute a secure diminuendo

22 To adjust the intonation for a more correct interval apply proper tone support

23 This fingering is useful in a PP bull Vent the tone hole of the 2nd key LH according to the desired level of pitch

24 Although the F is flat this fingering is acceptable in a ff 25 Depress the 2nd key RH to lower the level of pitch for

a If 26 Fundamental tones G] and A] are overblown in the production

of this trill HenCe a greater amount of tone support is necessary

27 Vent approximately one-third of the tone holes of the 2nd key LH and the 1st keyRH The intonation for G may be imshyproved by venting the 3rd key LH slightly during the trill

28 The A is faulty Throughout the trill apply firm tone supshyport to improve upon its tone structure

29 Begin the trill by using regular fingerings for G and A Then vent the 2nd key LH approximatell one-third of the tone hole [appropriately used for a PP J

30 This fingering offers suitable control for a PP bull

31 Use this fingering in a ff bull 32 The tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly to

provide for an immediate tonal response in a pp bull

33 Fundamental tones A] and Bl are overblown to produce this trill It is recommended fOr a ff level only

34 This fingering is applicable for a softer dynamic level Vent the 2nd key LH approximately one-third of the tone hole bull

35 The problem of coordinating this fingering may effect the tonal production Avoid moving the flute while blowing Vent approxshyimately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH and one-half of the tone hole of the 1st key RH or as may be needed to adjust the intonation for A

36 The 1st key RH may be vented slightly while trilling to raise the pitch level of the BP in a PP bull

37 This is appropriate for a 17 bull 38 The note C is lower in pitch 39 The intonation can be improved by vegting the entire tone hole

of the 3rd key RH 40 This trill demands substantial breath support Apply low C for

flutes without a low B foot joint

[17]

bull bullbull

bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull

bull

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

I bull I bull I ~I bull bull I 1(+)

bull I bull bullbull I bull I bull I Jr I bullbull 1 2

I bull I bull bulltr II bull I 12

I bull tr tr

I bull I bull I bull I I 2

trbull I I ~rl I H2

bull I bull bullbull

bull I bullbullbull I ~r I Jr I bull bull I I I 2

[18J

bull bull ~ Jr I I bull I 12

bull bull ~r I bull I bull I I bull I Imiddot I 23

trbull bullbull I I I I I bull I I 123

bull ~r I I I I I r bull 1--+-1 2

I I I I bullbull I I 12bull bull bull tr I

bulltr bullbullI ~1---I---+-----lI---+---+---1124 ~I-J--+----JI~ t-+---+--i1 2

tr tr I ---11-+-11--+-1-4-+---+----11 2

Jr ~r I ~I-J--+----J--t--J-t-I---+--il 2 bull--~tr tr--1I bull I bull I 12

f--i--j-+-t--t--j-l-t----+--il 24 tr tr I 1--+-4--+--1-+1l-t---t--il 2

bull I bull

bullbull I

bullbull I

bull I bull

Ibull

bull I

bull bull I bull__-+---

bull

I

~ trbull bull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull bull bull bull

124

12 ~ --+---+-H I xtrl xtrl bull I I I

~ tr trbull bull bullbull bull bull tr bull bulltr bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bullbull

12

15

16 ~ e---+-+-+--+--1

-i tr tr Ibull bull bull ~I Xtrl xtrl bull f-e-I bull I bullbull

16

19

~

~ ~

~

bull 4rbull I tr trbull bull bull I

tr tr trbull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr Ibull I tr bullbull I tr I I tr bullbull tr I I Ibullbull I ()----jbull bull bullbullbull bull

I tr

l

X 1

bull I

bull I I I I 1 I Xtr

Jr I Xtrl

I I Xtrl

bullbull

bullbull bull bullbull bull bull bull

124

127

127

16

12

12

12 18(+)

I 16

TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

1 Firm the hand position by anchoring the little fingerLH against the flute and underneath thi G lever Then apply the technique as described for the C -D trill [See TRILLS]

2 This fingering also applies to the octave above

3 Firm the hand position to avoid unnecessary movement of the flute against the embouchure The interval will sound more correct if it is produced with a less intense air column

4 This fingering affords a secure hand position The interval is faulty but may be acceptable at a ff level

5 The Cmiddot is flat and will demand the use of greater breath support

6 This is appropriately used for a PP level

7 To achieve a balanced ~and position while executing the tremolo depress the G lever

~ bull bull

bull bull

XtrlI ~r I 1

I I bull Xtrl bull

I 16

8 Apply this fingering at a PP level only When using a French model flute vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH

9 Begin the interval with the use of regular fingering for the lower note then proceed with the fingering as shown

[19]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

1

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

~ bull I tr trbull bull bull I bull middot1 I middot1 I 19

~ trbull tr bullbullbull I I I 19middot

~ Jr tr trbull bull bull I middot1 I I I bull 1 1 19

~fJf ~

bull

Apply lower octave fingerings

Jr I Jr II bull bull bull I I bullbull I I 110

~ bull I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I trbull bull I I I II

bull I bull I I Xtr Xtrj middot1 112bull

~r I Jr 1 I bull I 113bull I bull bull I~ bull

~ a ~ ~

~

~

bull bulltr bull bull

bull

bull I

bull bull bull bulltr I1

bull I bull bull Jr I ~r I tr bullbull I I

bullfr I bulltr 1 bull I tr tr I

I

tr tr I tr tr

tr trbull I bull bull bull I

x tr I I I bull I

xtr I Xtrl bull I

I I X tr

I Xtr 1

I Jr 1 1 I I bull I

I bullbull tr I bullX

19

114

I I

I 115(+)

116

19

I bull I bull J9

I bullbull 117

bull I I bull I 18

I I 118

I I I I I I I 119

[20J

bull bull tr tr I f------1-+--+--+--+-e_f-t-i1 25

~--+-__+_-+-----1I__-II-+-l1 24

tr f----tt-+I--bullI---iIII~e-f-t-i1 20

~--+-I__+_-+-----1If--agt-+-+-1 22

f-+-+---+--+----If--agt-t--+---11 23

~a___+__f--+----+--+---ll 20

1--1-+---+---+--+1---+---+-11 21

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull bull bull trbull bull bullbull

tr trbull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull

bull

bull

bull

trbull

bull

bull

8va-----

~(lt

8va----

~

r~~t-rXt-1--+--t-+1~I-+I-I 26(+)

f----4III~-rX--1r 1--+--11--+-1~I-+---li 27(+)~ tr t

bull 1 bullbullbull 1 1----1--t--+-+--it-r-+I-e-t--ll 28

10 Overblow the fundamentals(D-F) at the 12th

11 Overblow the fundamentals(E~-G) at the 12th

12 The D is better in tune as the tremolo is played pp bull

13 The fundamentals (E-G) are overblown at the 12th

14 Apply this fingering at a ff level

15 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown at the 12th When using the French model flute vent the 2nd keyLU and the 1st keyRU slightly while trilling This improves the intonation and affords control at a pp level

16 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

17 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

18 The fundamentals(G-BP) are overblown at the 12th

19 The fundamentals(G-B) are overblown at the 12th

20 This fingering is more difficult to coordinate however it produces a more correct interval

21 Overblow the fundamentals(G-B) at the 12th

22 Overblow the fundamentals(AP-C) at the 12th

23 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

24 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

25 Overblow the fundamentals (BP-DP) at the 12th

26 These harmonics are produced by overblowing BP at the 12th and F at the 17th This fingering is applicable also when using a closed-hole flute however the French model will produce the tremolo with clarity The tone holes of the 2nd and 3rd keys LU are vented slightly

27 Same as 26 but apply the harmonics B at the 12th and F at the 17th

28 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown to produce the harmonics at the 15th

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

8va------

~ bull bull trbull r-cirxtr I I I I bull I I 29(+)

8va-

~

8va----

~fit bull

bullbull

trbulltrbull

tr trbullbull I I

I I tr

X I

I I I

I bull I 131

bull 1 I 130

8va----

~ bull I bull

tr tr bull bull bull I I I I bull I I 132

8va----

bull bull bull bull I Jr l I I I I I 133

8va--

bull tr trbull bull bull I I I I I I bullbull 134

[22J

8va----

~r bull o--e I bull I I I I I M 35(+)

f

29 Overblow B2 to produce the harmonic at the 12th On French model flut~s the response of the interval is improved by depressing the 1st key ring RH

30 Overblow the fundamentals (G-BP) at the 15th

31 Overblow C2 at the 12th to produce Gbull

32 The fundamentals (G-B) are overblown at the 15th

33 When using a flute with a B foot joint depress the low B key only

34 Overblow the fundamentals (A-C) at the 15th

35 On French model flutes depress the 3rd key ring LH The tonal response when using this fingering may vary with some flutes if so use the EP key instead of low C

I I

These charts include as many fingerings as are pracshyticable in the execution of tremolos involving intershyvalsinfourths fifths sixths sevenths and octaves Those intervals which have been omitted lacked acceptshyable fingerings that would offer adequate facility with the necessary tonal response Probably these intervals could be played with a degree of proficiency by using the regular fingerings resulting in a superior effect

Tremolos other than thirds or fourths are used inshyfrequently but being knowledgeable in their technical production would prove most beneficial to the performer Their physical demands would add a totally new dimenshysion to the flutists technique Embouchure flexibilishyty and the coordination of the fingers are the initial benefits that accrue from the execution of these wide intervals

It will be noted that a resemblance to the regular fingerings will exist in some of these and the addishytion of the G~ or thumb or trill keys serving as vents lend an added distinctness to the intervals In many instances these keys bring about a response as efshyfectively as would an octave key on other woodwind inshystruments

Apart from their function as tremolos there are nushymerous advantages which these fingerings offer The conshytrol of technical passages by applying these as short cut fingerings the production of tonal effects in lyrshyical phrases or the purposeful application of tone coloring simply by reiterating these intervals slowly are all distinct merits that would contribute to a pershyformers technical skills However the individual situations in present-day repertoire must be researched experimentally in order to apply the various fingerings These will promulgate a more comprehensible approach to the application of the harmonic series as well as provide for an extended view in the use of the French model flute

4(b) TREMOLOSCPerfectFourths and Tritones

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

tr1middot1middot bullbullbull I bull I Jr I Jr I bull bullbull

tr trI bull I bull I I bullbull II

tr tr ~ bull I bull I bullbull II

II

I tr I tr I tr I I I1---iIbull-I--iIIIIr--+-ja-t-1IIbull-+------1 I

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones)

1 Apply these fingerings one octave above

[23)

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones) Cant

tr tr trbull I bull I bull 1 I I IIbull bullbull I

bull bull tr

bullbull I tr

bull I bull I bull I I I 11)2

tr tr bull bull bullbull bull I bull I bullbull I I 11)2

tr bull bull bull I I I bull I bullbull I I 11 1 3

trbullbullbull I 11 I 1 I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I bull I I bull I I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I I I I bull I I II

I 1 I I I bullbull I 1 11)5

I I I I I I bull Jshy 1L

I I I I I bullbull I I II

bull ~r bull I I Jr I I I I bull I I 114

tr trbull bull bull

tr trbull bullbull

tr tr Ibull bull bull

bull bull I Xtrl I bull I 16bulltr tr bull I I I I I bull I 11)7bull bull

I

Xtrlbull bull bull I I bull I 16- bull

t

trbulltr bulltr bull bull bull I I I I I bull I I 1)7

I XtrlI I I I 18bull bull bull bull bull I~- tr

bull bull I I I x bull I 19~-

I I~ bull ~r I I bull bull I bull Ibull [24J

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

y ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~

bull bull I bull 19

bull bullbull

bull bulltr

Ibull bull I I tr trbull bull bull bull I

trbull bull bull ~r I tr Jr I

tre----1 bull bull bull bull I bull bull

tr bull tr

Apply lower

tr tr tr

bull bull I

Xtrl Xtrl bull 19

bull bull I bull bull I

tr trbull bull X l bull 110

bull bull I bull I II

tr tr middot1 bull I I bull I II tr Jr Xtrlmiddot1 bull 110

Jr l XtrlI bull I 112

octave fingerings 13

~rl ~rl tr I bull 1 I bull I

~ Apply lower octave fingerings

~fJf 13

2 It is acceptable to trill only the G key for a PP level otherwise alternate the trilling of the G key with the 1st key RH

3 Use an intense air column to produce a more correct tone quality for Abull

4 Coordinate the action of both fingers to avoid lagging the response of the interval

5 For added facility trill only the 2nd key however the B will remain faulty bull

6 At a pp level this fingering may be acceptable

7 Although difficult to coordinate this fingering is preferred

8 Adequate breath support and directed inward will assist toward the production of a more appropriate tone quality for the D

9 As the upper note is faulty direct the air column inward to match the tone quality of the lower

10 This responds with ease and is suitable for app 11 The upper note will respond more readily as the interval

is played If 12 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to ensure clarity

13 Apply the fingerings given(See 1)

[25J

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritonesgt Cant

bull I I 11 21(+)

~ 8va--

tr tr bull lOX I bull I I I 22(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr bull I ~r I bull I I I I C) x I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va----

tr t tr tr bull I r I bull I I I I Craquo( I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr I I I I I I I I Ibull I I bullbull

~ 8va---

tr tr tr trbull I bulltr bull bull I bullbullx I 124 tr tr tr

~I x I 1(+) ~ bullbull8va---

tr tr I I bulltr bull bull bull I I x bull bullbull 125

~ 8va----

tr tr tr tr I I I I I I I 126bull I bull bull bull bull~

x tr xtrJ~rbullbull-+--+--I116(+) tr

l tr

)( I X I I 117

tr tr I I X 0 I I bull I I 1(+)

tr tr tr ~gt-+-If-X~I-e-ilr--+-il 19(+)

1--+1-i)(lrtr-tI-iXlrtr--+I-e-ilr--+-ll 20

11--+1-+-1-+I--+--+-bull-JI--+-I 14 t---drxtrl I I 115(+)

tr tr tr 117(+)bull bull bull bull bull I I xo I

bull tr tr Xtr Xtr bull bull bull I bull I I

tr tr tr 118(+)~ f-OX I X I bull I I

~ tr

bull I bullbull I I

bull I bullbull Jr I

[26]

I

8va---

~ 8va----

~ I_tr~x__t r+-I -+-+-1f-+-j--+-41 27 (+)

~ 8va-----

bull bull Jr ~29

~

14 Anticipate the action of the 1st key to avoid a lag in the response of the interval

15 In spite of this awkward fingering a ready response is afforded Alternate the use of the LH keys with those of the RH

16 This is purposeful for a ff

17 Apply this fingering for a pp

18 Control the action of the trill keys for a clearly defined interval Vent also one-half of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

19 Vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling to effect a pp bull

20 This is used for a ff

21 Vent approximately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH

22 For controllability concentrate on the use of an equal action with the RH fingers

23 The interval responds best when approximately one-half of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH is vented

24 This tremolo by necessity will be executed at a slower speed Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the thumb key and the right hand keys simultaneously

25 This tremolo will need to be executed quite slowly Altershynate the trilling of the G key with the use of the thumb and trill key together

26 Overblow the G~-C~2 fundamental at the 12th

27 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the use of the RH keys

28 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with the use of the RH keys

29 To correct an F that is faulty the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly while trilling

[27]

bull bull bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull

4(c)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

bulli I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I middot1 bull bullbull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 1 bullbull I

tr~ bull I bull bull bull bull I Jr I bull I bull I bull I II

~ trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 bull I I I I

bull tr trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 e e bull I 1 I

tr trbull bull I bull bull bull I Jr I el middot1

bull bulltr bull Ie I Jr I 12

tr trbull I bull bull bull I bull I e I 13 ~ tr tr tr I 1bull I bull bull bull bull I 1 4

bull ~

~ ~ -bull ~ bull

tr tr tr

I 1

bull I bull bull bull tr I

I

Ibull bull bull bulltr

I

tr tr II

tr tr II

e I bull bull Ibull tr tr tr

J

I bullbulltrx bullbull I

15

~rxtrl

xtr

xtr bull I

I I bull 16(+

17

I I Xtrl xtr bull 1

I tr tr Ibull I bull X bull I I 18

I bull I I Xtrl bull I I 19

I I I I I bull bull I I I

I ~r I tr tr bull I bull I bullbull 1

I I I I I I bull I I I

bull bull bull bull

bulltr bull bullbulltr

tr trbull bull bullbull I

tr trbull bull bulltr bull

bulltr bulltr bullbull

tr bulltr bulltr bullbull

bulltr bull bullbull I

bull bull bull o--e

e---jf-----bull-----

bullbull---1-----bull-0-0____

tr1- middotmiddot1 tr ~rl1-41-+1-----4---4----bull-11--+--11 II

bulltr I bull --+-iII~-+~1 12

tr bull I I - I

I - - I

ytrl tr 1--~7lr---+-+--4middotmiddotmiddot-4Imiddott---+-+---1113 I

114(+)

~ tr 115(+)

I bull trl bullbull 11516(+)

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

1 This fingering also applies to the octave above Alternate the use of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 The B is slightly flat

3 This fingering serves more appropriately for a pp bull

4 A more correct interval results with this fingering

5 Apply the use of a large aperture to produce a dispersed air column iQ using this fingering at a pp level The impurities in the C~ thus can be eliminated

6 This fingering is most appropriately used for a pp bull The D may be sharp in pitch

7 Use a strong air column to assist in the correction of a faulty D Alternate the use of the 1st key LH with the trill key

8 Avoid the sounding of extraneous notes in the interval by emshyphasizing control in the action of the RH fingers

9 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to secure coordinashytion with the LH keys being trilled

10 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the simulshytaneous action of the 3rd key LH and the 1st key RH

11 Avoid moving the flute thereby improving the coordination of the fingers

12 The B will respond clearly only if the action of the fingers is equalized

13 A slight accentuation of the G will assist in producing the interval with greater assurance Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with those of the RH

14 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightlyand about one-h~lf of the tone hole 1st key RH to adequately tune the G~ Avoid excessive closing of the embouchure

15 Accentuate the A throughout the tremolo to lend clarity

16 This fingering produces a controlled pp

~(c) TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths) Cont 17 Vent also one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH while

trilling

18 To ensure a tonal response accentuate the lower note

19 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH to properly tune the D This is more suited to playing pp bull

20 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with those of the RH

21 Apply a low B if available

22 An intense air column must be used for this interval Altershynate trilling the thumb key with the 2nd Although this finger- bull ing is awkward the interval responds readily and is enhanced further through the use of a low B

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

~

I Jr I ~r I~ bull bull bull bull I bulltr

I bullbullbull

~ bull I bull bull bull bulltr I Jr l bull I bull I bull bullbull 1

Jr I 1 bull I bull I bullbullbull 2~ bull bull bull tr

tr tr I~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull middot3 bull l

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull

bullbull1IIIIIIl~~~~

lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

~~~~

bull bulltr bullbull

tr trbullbullbullbullbull 111 bullbull 11

tr trbull I bull I bull I bullbull 12bull bull bull bull I

-i tr tr I I bull I bull I bull I bull bull I3

bull bull bull bulltr

tr tr tr I bulltr I bull I bullbull bullbull I

bulltr

I bull I bull I bull I I

bull I bull bull bull I tr I bullbull bull bull 14

~rl bull bull bull

bull I Jr I bull 16 Jr I bull I bull I

Jr I bull bull I 14

I ~r I bull I bull I I I I

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I j5

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I 15 tr trbull bullbullbull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

1 Alternate the trilling of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 Although this fingering demands coordination the tonal reshysponse is aided by the trilling of the 1st key RH

3 The A~ is slightly flat

4 This balan~ed hand position provides maneuverability howshyever the A~ remains flat in pitch

5 Direct the air column inward to achieve adequate response for the low C~

6 This fingering produces a lower pitch level for A~ bull

[31]

bull bull bull

--

I bull I I I I bull I I I

trxtrlI I Xmiddot bull I I 110

Xtr tr X bullbull III

Xtr Xtrl bull I 112

tr tr I bull I I I~r I X

Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 113

tr tr I JrXtrjbull bull I I 114

tr I Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 114

tr tr tr II tlr I bull I bull bull bullbull 15(+)

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)Cont

~ tr tr tr I bull I Ibull I bull bull bull I 17

tr tr I 1 bullbull I I~ - bull bull bull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull bullbull I I I

tr tr tr trbull I I I~ bull bullbull -I middotmiddot1

~ tr trbull I bull bullbull ~rl bull I I bull I I I

tr tr tr tr I~ bull I bull bullbull I middot1

__I tr tr ~8 ~ bull bull bull

tr bull bull Xtrl~ bull I bull bull I I middot1 I 19

[32J

~ ~ ~ V bullbull bull bull

tr tr Jr I

Ibull bull bull bull I

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull I

-1 bull bullbull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull bull

I I

r

I tr tr tr tr

I 115(+)bull bull bull bull bull I-laquogt bull I bull I bull I 13

bull ~ rdr r I bull I bullbull 113(+)

bull bull bull tr

~ bull bull I bull I 118(+)1

bull bull bulltr r I I bull Xtrl bull I 119

tr trbull bull bull bull ~ I bull bull bull bull 118(+)

tr tr 120(+)bull bull bull bull r--laquor-I bull I bull I bull I

1-1t-t-I-+--1-iI-+----+--+----11 21(+)

trbull bull bullbullbull

7 Avoid moving the flute during the tremolo Direct the air column inward to assure response for the D

8 Alternate the trilling of the LH key with the trill key The D is faulty Avoid the lag in response resulting from the LH reacting late This interval will prove to be difficult in sustaining a tremolo

9 The D is flat and requires added breath support Alternate the trilling of the thumb with the trill key [see 8J

10 This tremolo is more correct in pitch if played softly Use a slightly diffused air column to prevent the D from becoming sharp

11 This interval must be played louder than 10 for it to be near corr~ct in its intonation Intensify the air column for the Dli

12 Use greater breath support to raise the pitch level for D bull

13 This interval will be difficult to execute as a sustained tremolo

14 Use the ED key to raise the pitch for the upper note if needed Alternate the G key with the simultaneous trillshying of the RH keys

15 Alternate the G key with the trilling of the keys of the RU The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH This tremolo is difficult to coordinate due to the possishybility of certain tone holes not being covered adequately

16 Anticipate the action of the trill key to aid in the proper coordination

17 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH while trilling The clear response will depend upon this controlled venting

18 The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th A breath emphasis given to this note will assist in its response

19 Adequate breath support for the F may paTtially correct its faulty tone structure

20 Vent ~pproximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH The Gli is a harmonic at the 12th Venting the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling may add distinctness

21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

[33J

r

- - -

tr -I I I 121(+)- -shy

4(d) TREMOLOS ltSixthsSeventhsOctavesgt Cont

-~

tr ~

trbull I bull -

_I

tr r--o I

tr - I -

- 1 bull

-

I

I I

__

21(+)

118(+)

~ - I bull tr

- o----l ~r 1 -I _I __ 118(+)

~ - I tr

bull -~ tr- -I -I I I I 22(+)

-~

tr ~

tr- 1 bull -()-----1

tr I _I --I I-tr tr I -I I- shy

121(+)

122(+)

- ~ tr

j--() I _ I - I - - 12 3(+)

tr ~ -I -I - I I 124(+)

~

bull ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~

~

Jr I tr tr 0-1shy~

~

~

~

tr - shy-

tr trbull I - I- I

-tr I - II I

Jr 1 _I- I I

Jr I _ -- I

tr tr I-I I - I-Jr I I I - Ishy

I Jr II I - 1 shy

tr I tr I Il I

I 124(+)

I I 21(+)

I 125(+)

I 124(+)

1 121(+)

I 121(+)

- 126(+)

I 127

[34]

bull bull bull bull

2nd 3rd

l~~ tr

bull bull bull bull I bull~

bull r ~r bull I I Jr 1 ~r I bull bull I 127

~ tr tr tr tr rr I xI H27bull bull bull bull l bull I

~ r tr ~r Xtrbulltr bull bull I r-+- bull I 127

~ tr tr trbull bull bull bull I I Jr I XI bull I 127

~ tr tr tr

I XI -I 128

~ tr ~I X I

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull I

~ tr tr

Xbull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 129

~ tr tr Xtr bulle-----i bull bull bull bull I X bull bull 11330

~

B~

tr I bullbull 130bull bull bull bull bull

~ tr tr tr I

--I bull bull bull 1 bull 1 bull X I bull bull 11331

~ 21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper

note is a harmonic at the 12th

22 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

23 Vent approximately one-half of the tone holes 2nd key LH and 1st key RH while trilling This produces a G~ harshymonic at the 12th but on a low C fundamental (vented)

24 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

25 Vent one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The A is a harmonic at the 12th

26 Also vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

27 Favor the embouchure and direction of the air column used for the lower note throughout the tremolo

28 The D will be flat and demanding of full breath support

29 This interval may be cumbersome as it requires alternating the trilling of the 1st key LH with the trill key

30 Direct the air column outward and to further the responsiveshyness of the interval lend a breath accentuation to the upper note

31 Alternate the trilling in the LH with that of the RH

[35J

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

4(d)TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths OctavesgtCont

I I xtrI I 1 bull bull 113131

~ tr tr trbull I bull bull bull bull I I X I X bull I bull bull 113~

tr tr X bull bull I bull bull bull I I Xtrl I bull bull 113131

~ trbull I bull bull bull bull tr Xtr I Xtrl bullbull 113

~ tr tr tr

~ Jr Ibull I bull bull bull bull bull x I bull bull 13

pound tr tr trbull I bull bull bull I x I bull bull 11331bull

tr ~rXtrlbull I bull bull bull I I I bull bull 113 131

~ ~r I

tr tr tr I I bull bull 11332(+)[=~

X

[36 ]

bull I I Jr Jrxtr I 113 133bull~ ~ ~ 1tJ= ~va---

8va--bull 8va---bullyen bull

I

~

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bulltr bull

bulltr I I

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

tr trbull I bull bull bull bull

(+)

~rl Jr I I I bullbull 134

tr tr tr middot1 bull x I H 31(+)bull I

tr tr I I I C) )( I bull I H1335

(+)

~rl bull I I bull I I 136(+)

~rl ~r I I bull I I 137(+)

tr ~ I ~r I bull bull H13 138

(+)

~cirl I I 1(+)bulltrbull

140(+

I42(+)

I(+)

140(+

bull I

~~I-+-+-11-----+-1--+--JI 39

I tr tr

j Ll-J

~bull --Xlf-+-+---+-H I I 43 (+)

r-Jr I bull I bull I

i----()-4--I-+-1--+-+----+--J (+)

tr tr bull bull egt--e

tr tr

bull

tr trbull bull bullbullbull

trbullbull--I----(raquo)--+-~

bullbullr----I--r--~o--j

bull bullbull ~ bulltr ---+~-+--~

8va--

~ bull bulltr bull

32 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH Alternate trilling the G~ key with the simultaneous trillingof the RH keys

33 The 2nd key RH is vented imperceptibly while trilling Alternate the LH with the trilling in the RH

34 B~gin the tremolo by giving breath pulsations to the upper G~ to benefit the response of the interval

35 The 2nd key LH is alternated with the synchronized trilling of the 3rd key LH and the RH keys The 2nd key RH is vented slightly

36 Vent about one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

37 The 1st key LH is alternated with the trilling of the RH keys

38 Scarcely vent the 1st key RH The harmonic content of the G adds to the difficulty in its response Regular fingering for this interval might be appropriate

39 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd

40 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

41 Also vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling

42 The 3rd key LH and 1st key RH are vented slightly according to the dictates of the interval in its level of intonation and ease of response

43 Scarcely vent the 2nd key LH while trilling the 3rd key approximately one-half of the tone hole

[37J

bull bull bull bull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Seve-nthsOctaves) 5ALTECont Nearl

the Fren of the f

(a) A 8va~ (b) A

(c) A

bulltr bull bulltr bull (d) E

(e) A~ These tOnal ef

8va~ be most trastsbulltr tr tr I I Jr I 144 (I

1-1-+--+--X~-+-+--+-J -I I Altho

erally i ~ breath p pianissi sitively notes to check til imperati in balao tack tha44 Use the low B key when available

Alter45 Vent about one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH special Hence t with eas

46 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd A firm action by the 1st finger must be accompanied by a slight Howev breath accentuation for the B offering

er breat pitch Ie clined t

At ti use of a followin suggeste ness giv plish th mended t fingerill The adju to the t teristid duct ion dependcn tonal sl oughly t completlO dynamic~

illgS is essenti~

44(+)

trbullbull

tr tr

trbull I 144

I bull I I x tr I bull I I 145(+)

I Jr I I bull I I

trbull bull

trbull bull bull

trbull bullbull

tr Cgt

~r bull I

bull

bullbullbull Itrbull

trbull

trbull

bull

bull bull bull bull

5ALTERED FINGERINGS Nearly all of these altered fingerings will require the use of

the French model flute They produce notes possessing two or more of the following characteristics

(a) A transparent tone structure (b) A higher pitch level than with normal fingerings (c) A variation of timbre (d) Extreme pianissimo with sensitively posed adjustments (e) An added resistance factor for playing fortissimo

These notes retaining a transparency add a new dimension to the tonal effect and used with discretion this blending of sound can be most desirable in phrases that also call for greater dynamic conshytrasts

Although the amount of breath support needed for these notes genshyerally is less than for those played with normal fingerings the breath pressure should be maintained in the usual manner as for a pianissimo The resultant pitch level can be controlled more senshysitively with many of these fingerings and the usual tendency for notes to become flat while playing softly sometimes can be held in check through their application When executing these notes it is imperative that the tongue stroke for the individual attack be used in balance with the dynamic level This avoids an overbearing atshytack that can delay the tonal response of the note

Altered fingerings for the notes of the third octave will be of special interest since the breath support for these can be lessened Hence the adjustment in the level of intonation can be accomplished with ease and flexibility

However some of these fingerings produce an opposite effect By offering substantially more resistance they permit the use of greatshyer breath support in playing a fortissimo Consequently a lower pitch level can be attained for those notes that normally are inshyclined to be sharp These also possess a different timbre

At times it may be difficult or impossible to coordinate the use of an altered fingering with that of a preceding note or one following In each circumstance the fingering must be applied as suggested by the accompanying material and with equal attentiveshyness given to its resulting tone production In order to accomshyplish the maximum result with a degree of practicality it is recomshymended that the various possibilities as offered by more than one fingering for a particular note be explored as much as possible The adjustments for these varicolored notes must be made according to the treatment of the air column and the notes resulting characshyteristics Since each flutist by nature will approach tone proshyduction differently the ventin~ of the tone holes then will be dependent upon this phenomenon The performers capacity to hear tonal shadings nnd minute modificntions of intonntion will be thorshyoughly tested as he nttemllts to develop a technique for venting A complete understanding of this proceduJe for altering the pitch dynamics and tone quality is vital and the use of special fingershyings is a vnlued supplement to the interpretive skills that are essential in the flutists performance

This concentration of fingerings stressing the use of the French model flute will serve as an appropriate introduction to the SUbsequent charts in this book Many of these fingerings can be altered further to vent for a more exacting structure of a quarshyter-tone scale and because of their relationship with the function of the harmonic series they form a fundamental approach in the proshyduction of multiphonics

~ ~- bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 2bull bull bull bull bull 0-+-0 bull bull I 12

12~ bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull bull 12

~- bull bull bull o--i ~ bull bull bull bull 2

bull bull bull 0-1 f-o bull bull bull bull I 12

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull bull 12

0 bull bull bull 112~ bull bull bull bull bull bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull o-e bull bull bull bull bull I 12bull

bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull I 12 bull 0 0bull bull bull bull bull bull I 12

l Vent the tone holes completely Apply a wide aperture and use very little breath support This will lower the pitch signifishycantly and at the same time produce a light and transparent tone structure

2 Each of these fingerings offers a slightly varied tone quality Vent the tone hole(s) as indicated

[39J ALL FINGERINGS ARE USED FOR PIANISSIMO UNLESS DESIGNATED BY()

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cont)

()bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull I 17~-15bull bull bull bull I bull x I bull I

bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 12~- bull I bull bull bull Hgt I I I bull bull 18bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 12 ~- bull I bull bull bull 9

I H I I I bull 110~- bull I bull o-e bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 23 bull bull bull bull I o---e 123bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull bull bull I---igt I bull I bull bullbullbull8

I bull 0 I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull4tyenyent= bull bull ~-

bull I I Hgt I bull I bull I bull bull 18bull I ~ I I I I bull I I 13 bull bull bullbull ~-

I bullbullbull3bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull egt-e 10~ ~- bullbull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull egt--- bull I bull 1 bull I bullbullbull11 I bull () bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I 14 bull I bull bull o---e bull I I I bull I 112

() I I I I 110M- I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I 13 ~- bull I bull I I bull I bull I 13 I () bull I I bull I bull bull I I 113bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bullbull I bull I bull bull o---i I bull I bull bull I I I 1114

I I 0 I I I 17bull bull bull I bull I

bull I

I I 15sect2g bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull I ~- bull I bull () bull 1 I bull bull I bullbull j I 113 I bull X bull I bull I 15 bull bull bull I bull bull bullbull bull bull I o---e I I bullbull3

I 15~- bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull bull I bull I bull bull bull I bull I 0 I j 17

I bull bull bull bull I bull X bull I bull 15 ~- bull I bull 0 bull I bull [ bull bull I 115

bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I () bull I 16

[40J THESE ARE USED FOR FORTISSIMO ONLY

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

-

bull bull bull I bull () bull 17 ~- bull bull bull f-4gt bull bull bull bull bull 8

bullbull bull f--O bull bullbull 19

I bull I bull~- () Hgt I bull bull bull ~ I bull

f-ltgtbull bull bull I bull bull egt---i I Ibull~- I I bull bull bull I I I X 0

1--4gt I bull~

()

0pound- bull bull 0

0bull bull bull Ibulla- bull

8va---

bull bull bull I 0 ~- bull

0bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull ~

116

bull bull 1817

bull bull bull 18

bullbull 19bull bull 110

118

bull I 119

bull I bull bull 113

X I I 1820 bull

I bull I 113 X

I bull I bull I 118

818

bull 118

bull 110

3 This fingering makes possible a dynamic level that is louder than that produced with regular fingering

4 Vent the ~nd key LH slightly

3 Vent by using the trill key but only according to the desired level of intonation

6 Adjust the intonation by venting approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key RH

7 Scarcely vent the 2nd key ~H

8 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 The entire tone hole of the 1st key RIl is vented Use a sparse air column for the tone support to be used in maintainshying the level of intonation

10 Vent the tone hole according to the existing level of intonation while executing a diminuendo bull

II Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH

12 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH

13 Scarcely vent the tone hole of the ~nd key LH for added conshytrol of the pitch level This fingering noticeably produces an immediate tonal response nnd with tllis a veiled tone quality isproduced with ease

14 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH This produces a transparent tonal effect

15 Vent about three-fourths of the tone hole 2nd key LH If this is vented less the note may be played louder and a greater content of harmonics will result in its tone structure bull The note will be lower in pitch

16 Use an extremely soft attack to ensure greater sensitivity in the production of a light and clear tone structure

17 Gently raise the 1st key LH slightly This aids in eliminating the sound of the harmonic in the tone

18 The tone hole of the 2nd key RIl is vented completely

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality is desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch bull

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly bull

[41J Ij

I

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cant]

bull 0 bull bull 118~- bull ~ bullbull--+-__---+--__bull--1 0 bull bull 118bull

8va---- laquogt 119bull bull bull bull I bull I bull Isect==

bull bull bull bull I o----t-ltgt I I 21~-8va-----

~-~ t-----J-+I---t--+---~-+-11 10

I bullbull I I r-41~X~cgt-+--+--4It-+--+----i1 22

Ir--+I--X)f----jl-+I~bull-+-+---+-ll 23fiF=--bull middotbull -1---+---middotbull -1 1-0 X I X I I 924

~- bull bull I--t--A-X---t-I--JlX~~bull-lI--+-j1 8va----

~- bull bull bull bull middot1

~_~ bull j bullbull 1

8va---

bull 11-$shybull ~

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality ip desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly

21 TIle entire tone hole of each key 2nd and 3rd RH is vented Close a portion of the 2nd tone hole RH to adjust the pitch further if necessary

22 The (D) trill key is opened gently to raise the pitch At the same time vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key RH

23 Use a lip attack for added control of the pitch level

24 Depress the 0 trill key only slightly for the purpose of raising the pitch level if needed during the execution of a diminuendo

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute)

QUARTER-TONES To pursue the study of the quarter-tone scale one may wish to begin

by learning the notes in the chart on Altered Vingcrings When used apshypropriately they could establish n general background for the techniques that are related to this scale Altered fingerings can produce new timshybres that result from certain alterations of the physical properties of the air column Such alterations reveal multiple tube-lengths in the air column of the flute and are caused by the venting of various fingering combinations Tllis is noted wIlen using some of the fingerings for tremshyolos as well as altered lIotes As an acoustical phenomenon this emerges with greater prominence as tlw fingerings then arc vented further through the use of the French model flute It is by this modification of the finshygerings that the tonal responRe is transformed to produce a wide range of

[42J

tone colors Identifying these timbres and adjusting to their accompashynying physical sensations will enhance the performers adaptabilities in the development of embouchure control Also the application of a posishytive approach to the function of the air column will occur with greater sensitivity

To establish the scale of microtones(quarter-tones) it is necessary for these new sounds to be accepted in the traditional sense and played with firm conviction It is a known fact that when the flutist possesses a well developed tone structure for the semitones the prevailing intonashytion also will be appealing This same standard of performance would apshyply and hopefully should exist when developing the quarter-tone scale Therefore adjusting to the array of timbres that accompany the various notes of the quarter-tone scale should become natural and their tonal characteristics accepted as being ordinary

The fingerings included in this chart are based on an elaboration of the harmonic series The conventional response of the overtones is alshytered by venting certain tone holes which brings about the formation of the multiple tube-lengths This departure from the fixed overtone arshyrangement permits the sounding of the neighboring harmonics and with this occurrence a chromatic quarter-tone scale can evolve in an organshyized manner The use of these fingerings can bring about a greater flexshyibility when endeavoring to achieve absolute control of pitch

The listening required for the proper placement of the microtone inshytervals is indeed acute and becomes intensified with each effort This hopefully ought to assure the guiding of the intervals of semitones

As the quarter-tones are learned they must be treated as new fundashymental notes The tone control for these ought to be developed justas it has been for the regular semitones and an understanding of their placement in the schema will add immeasurably to their eventual evolushytion in the production of multiphonics ~Qqing of pitches normalshyly executed by the accepted practice of rolling the headJoint in or out to alter the direction of the air column need not be an exclusive apshyproach to the tempering of the pitches for the microtone scale Too ofshyten this technique seems unreliable although in a number of instances it can prove to be beneficial and will assist in the effectiveness of a particular fingering

Frequent adjustments of the embouchure in conjunction with the use of breath pressure and the directional change of the air column will be necessary for most of the notes Instructions for such treatment will be given for each note

The French model flute is an absolute necessity in the production of a great many of these notes since there is no way in which the closed-hole flute can tune quarter-tone~ as accurately The use of only the basic fingerings can become restrictive and will limit the degree of variation

A reeducation in tonal imagery and pitch relationships is vital to the development of a microtone scale This could eliminate the aleatory approach to tuning Therefore it is imperative that the player should determine the proper venting of the tone holes for these fingerings by seeking the correct pitch levels In fact as a result of the experience that was gained by the venting for the notes in the charts on tremolos and altered fingerings the flutist now must treat this as an accepted technique and consider the proper venting to be in balance with the emshybouchure habits in tone production Hence the text material in this chart will not dictate the amount that the tone hole is to be vented since each player varies the basic approach to tone production

The exclusive use of straight tone is not necessary for these notes and the application of vibrato certainly is in order Of course the

usual considerations would apply for its expression and it should be used with discretion

In most cases due to complexities that may be encountered with some of these fingerings there will be very little dexterity or facility for rapid passages Flutists must determine which fingerings will serve best in a given situation At the same time it is assumed that equal conshysideration will have been shown by composers in their compositional deshymands and that the musical structures can be clear of technical hazards

The notes of the chromatic scale of semi tones have been illustrated (in parentheses) with the quarter-tones in this chart To adjust for the tuning of each microtone properly the regular semi tone should be played first Following this each fingering for each quarter-tone ought to be tried in order to establish the correct interval as closely as possible At the same time one must be attentive to each fingerings tonal charshyacteristics With this the player then should react to the resistance factor which is set up in the flute This is resolved by recognizing a physical sensation that is demonstrated by the manner in which the tone responds At this time the embouchure should be adjusted accordingly Reshycalling this experience each time that the fingering is used should reshysult in the performer cultivating a familiarity with a more definitive approach to these tones and an anticipation of their prevailing pitch levels

Contemporary composers have used a variety of signs and symbols to indicate the sharps and flats for the quarter-tones In order to give this chart readability arrows extending from the stems of the convenshytional alterations have been used These denote that the pitch is raised or lowered a quarter-step Although only sharps have been used here the player must assume that the enharmonic notation would be used in performance

At same as 8~ Et same as ot etc

Also the enharmonic pitches apply as follows

A~ same as 8f or A1 ot or cl same as o~ etc

Unquestionably a great deal of experimentation with fingerings such as these will result in acquiring added facility in the manner in which all facets of tone production are studied Other fingerings may be conceived for notes of this scale However the criteria inshyvolving their adaptability will be similar to that already described in the preceding paragraphs

QUAIITER-TONE TIULLS

These fingerings create quarter-tone trills either ascending or descending Many of the notes include the possibility of a trill in either direction emanating from the principal note and are indicated as such by the text materials The instructions are given in an abbreshyviated form and are interpreted as follows

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The note this pro-letter identifying the to be activated duces and its tend-note ~ encies if any

Ex-( 4F C key DOWN to Q )

The flutist may wish to research these fingerings further in as much as they offer a seemingly limitless display of intervals of varshyious degrees Mini-microtones(sixth-tones or eighth-tones) also are possible and these will be referred to as pitch-pulsations in the subshysequent charts

[43]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

IPIO I C) 1 I 1 I I bull I 1 13~ bull I I I 14bull bull I bull I bull bull I bull I

~ I bull bull I bull I bullbull 15

0 I bull I I I I bull I bull I bullbullbull6- e-+ bull bull bull bull I bull bull 12 ~ bull bull I I f----o I bull 1 bull I bull bull 17Cgtbull bull I

iCO)~ IAIB I bull e bull I bull I 0 bull I I 13 IR I --0 I I I 14bull ~ bull bull bull bull I bullbull I bull bull bull bull I 0 I bull I bull bull middot12 I I bull I bull I bull bull I I 14

bull I bull bull f----o I bull I bull I bullbullbull4 ICIO I I 0 I I bull I I 13~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 4

bull I bull bull bull f----o I bull bull I bull bull 1I

~ IElFe I r-o 13 I (U)qgg ISIT I bull I bull I bullbull I I 14

IS I I bull () 1 I I I bull I I 141Ge---l bull bull bull r-o I bull 1 3

IS~ I I bull I --t-1 8

I (~~ bull I bull bull D---i I bull bull I bull I bull bull II IU I () bull I I bull bull 1 bull I bull 19~

I IV jIH bull D------i r-o bull I bull I bull I 14 I bull I bull x bull I bull bull I 15~ bull bull IVIW IIH bull bull o-------j I bull I bull I I bull bull 14 bull I 5bull

IJ e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 14 fXIY I e e bull I ex bull I bull I 13

IJ 5e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull 1 ~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I () I 110 I(e)~ IKIL bull ()----e I 1 I I I I bull I 13 IZ2A I I I 14bull bull bull X bull bull

IMIN~ If-O bull I bull bull 15

I bull bull o----e I bull I I ICia) M 2B2C bull bull bull I bull I bull I o bull 13bull bull bull bull bull 5 ~

bull I I bull I bull bull 15 I bull e bull bull I bull x bull I 311

[44J The preferred fingering for each note is illustrated first

bullbull bull bull 0 bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

~2F2 bull bull I 0 l_l I bullbull I 13bull -shy2H I I j 13bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 2J bull bull bull I f-cgt X I I bull bull la

~2~L bull bull o-j bull I bull bull 112 I X 0 I 112bull bull bull I bull

2M bull bull bull I I I bull bull bullbull1213

bull bull () bull I I I bull bullbull I 114

1 Apply a mlmmum amount of breath support using a wide apertureThis note lacks the usual tonal presence of the low register and its use is limited to extremely soft attacks

~ Direct the air column downward to adjust for the level of intoshynation This effort must be exaggerated when using a low C

3 This fingering produces a tonal response that is similar to that of the notes of the tempered chromatic scale of semitones A firm breath support may be applied and a resonance as well as a variation of dynamic levels are possible

4 Direct the air column downward in order for the note to attain as much tone center as possible and a proper adjustment for its intonation A light volume of air is applied but a medium dynamic level seems possible

5 Direct the air column upward in order to raise the pitch level A large aperture and the use of a dispersed air column will renshyder a distinct contrast in tone quality for some of the notes

6 Since there is no suitable fingering for a more accurate tuning of this note the air column must be aimed exaggeratedly downshyward However an interesting tone color emerges and a near correct level of pitch can be attained

7 If a split-E attachment is available this fingering may be alshytered to produce a correct pitch level Otherwise an unorthoshydox method of closing the 1st key RH is necessary to vent apshyproximately one-half of the B hole This seems impractical

8 This fingering effectively produces a subdued tone quality and is suitable for a soft dynamic level

9 The sounding of multiple harmonics in the tone must be elimishynated as the key is vented Attempt to favor the sounding of the upper pitch

10 A slight venting of the tone hole 3rd key RH will assist in the control of the intonation in a soft dynamic level

11 bull The 3rd finger RH should lean gently on the trill key in order to vent for the appropriate degree of intonationbull

12 bull This fingering serves best when playing loudly Apply an intense air column and use as wide an aperture as possible without altershying the tonal standard

10 The keys of the low B foot joint must be closed securely to preshyvent any unnecessary venting otherwise the F cannot be altered auequately Direct the air column upward

14 The tone holes as indicated are to be vented imperceptibly A translucent tonal structure is indigenous to most of these fingerings

lA I 3rd RH I UP to E

IB I E~ key I DOWN to Q(Sharp)

lC I 2nd RH I UP to I

ID I 3rd RH I DOWN to ~(sharp)

IE I 2nd Rff I DOWN to I

IF lIst RH I UP to 1

IG I 2nd amp 3rd RH I DOWN to F

IH I 1st ~nd UP t (( I )and (3rd) RII I 0 ~ S WIP

IJ lIst 2nd UP to G and 3rd RII I

lK I 3rd LH(vented) I UP to A

lL I G key I DOWN to ~~

1M I G key I UP to A

IN I 3rd RH DOWN to G(sharp)

IP I 2nd LH(vented) I UP to A

lQ I 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) I

lR I 2nd LH UP to C amp 1st RH I

IS I Thumb key I UP to ~

IT I 2nd amp 3rd LH DOWN to C (depress G~ key) I I

IV I 1st RH I DOWN to ~

IV I Thumb key I UP to Q

lW I 1st LH I UP to Q

lX I G~ key I DOWN to D

lY I E~ key I UP to J)

lZ I D Trill key I UP to D

2A I 2nd LH I DOWN to D(ring only)

2B I 3rd RH I UP to I

2C I E~key I DON to Q

2D I 2nd RH I UP to F

2E I 3rd RII I DOWN to (shllrp)

21 I 1st HH I UP to f

2G I 2nd RIl DOWN to f(half-vented) I 211 I 2nd RII I UP to r 2J I D Trill key I DOWN to I

(sharp)shy

2K I 2nd RH I UP to Q (sharp)

2L I )rd RII DOWN t ro (ring only) I a _

~-1 I )rd HII I UP to Q

[45]

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

8(a QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

2N bull 0---1 I bull I bull I 13bull 2P I I I bull 114- 2a bull 1 I bull 115bull I

4 m 2S2T I bull bull o--t f-o bull I bull I bull I 13

2T 1 bull bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I bull 13

bull I bull () bull bull I 1 I I bull 1 114

2S2U I bull bull o---e I I I I bull I 13rztt=22W bull I 0 I i I I I bull -t-+-3 2V2X~ I I 116bull I bull I bull I

(~)~ 2Y I bull I I bull I 0 I bull I I 116bullI 2Z~A I bull bull bull I I bull I bull I o bull I 13

f--(gt I 114bull I bullbullbull Ibull I bull bull bull I 38 I Q---j I 116bull I bull I bull I bullbull

I(n)qn ~ 3C I bull bull I I bull bull I bull I I I 116

bull I bull 0--+--1 f-ltgt I bull I bullbull 15 3D I bull bull bull I f---Cgt I bull I I I 114 3E I bull bull I I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

3E30 I 0 I I I 13bull bull bull I I bull I

f 1 t

bull bull 1

(~q~~ 3Fe

I bull bull middot1

I

3G

3H3J I

(~I~~ 3K I bull I I

I bull ()-e-j3L I

(0) qn ~3M3N I I I

bull ()I bull If

3P I bull 3Q

f (0) n ~~ 3R3S bull bull bull bull I 3S3Te

3T

3R3S3U

(~) ~-amp ~Q 3V

I 3W3X

bull 3Y

(0) ~o~ 3Z

1 4A

bull bull o--e ()

bull bull o--e

I bull bullbull I bull I bull I I o--+-Jbull I bull 0 bull I

I bull +---cr--l I bull bull I

tI I x I I bull 13

~ 115bull I bull I bull I I I I x I bull I I 118

1---0 I bull I bull I I I 1919

I 0 112 I bull I bull I bull I I I 317 r bull I bull I I bull I

j I bull I x bullbull 13 I

I bull I bull I bull bull 110 115I bull I bull I bullbull

1 I I x I bull 1310

13 I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

I bull x bull x I bull I I 116

I bull I () I bull I I 115

t---o I I I bull 1 bull 11920

I I I I I bull 119 bull X

[46J

B +

~ 48 bull bull bull bull I bull 112 4C

40 bull bull

bull bull bull

X bull I bull

bull 116

121 8va I

~4E4F bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13 4E4F bull bull bull bull 117 4G4F

middot8va 1rrplusmnt5=4H4J bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull I bull I bull

bull 0

0

bull bull

bull bull 119

112

bull 117

4JI bull () bull bull 1-0 bull bull bull 117 8va I (-Q)J-e- -eshy 4K4L I

I 4M4L I

4Me

bull ()

bullbull bull bull e

bull I X 1 bull X f---Q X

bullbull

114 11622 119

15 This is used advantageously for n pianissimo The intonation level is controllnble by venting the tone hole of the 2nd key L H slightly

16 A firm breath support with a vnrinble volume of air may be apshyplied to produce a reasonable range of dynamic coloring The intonation seems controllable as the flow of air iR directed upward

17 A relaxation of breath pressure seems possible ith this fingershying The tonal structure is altered nccordingly and at the same time a medium range of dynamic level can be controlled

18 This fingeringwill demand coordination when ascending from D and again to D The pitch level can be controlled by directshying the air coumn downward

19 The tone structure may become excessively airy but this as well as the intonation level can be corrected by adding subshystantially to its breath support

20 The use of the 3rd key RH aids only in the balanced hand position Thus the application of the fingering either in an ascending or descending paRsage is facilitnted

21 Overblow the low G at the 15th as softly as possible The harmonic content of the tone structure will be of contrasting quality The air column must be directed donward

22 To facilitate tuning this note ly vent the tone hole 2nd key

2N Low C key UP to ~~

2P 2ntl HII DOWN to ~

2Q )st I 2ntl HH UP to G~

2H 1 st HII UP to ~~

2S 1rtl LII UP t A (ring only) 0

2T 1st 2ntl DOWN to G~ anti 1rtl RH shy

2U G~ key DOWN to ~

2V 2nd LH UP to A~ (ring only)

2W 3rd LH (ring only) DOWN to A

2X Low C~ key DOWN to A

2Y Low C~ key DOWN to A~

2Z 3rd RH UP to 8

3A ED key DOWN to A~

38 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) shy

3C 1st RH UP to pound

3D 3rd RH DOWN to _8 (ring only)

3E 2nd RH UP to pound 3F 2nd amp 3rd RH DOWN to C

3G 1st Rn UP to C(flat)(ring only)

3H 1st RH DOWN to pound(ring only)

3J Thumb key UP to pound

3K 1st LH UP to Q

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

at a soft dynamic level scarceshyLH

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

3M 1st LH DOWN to 0

3N 0 Trill key UP to Q

3P Low C key UP to Q

3Q ED key liP to 1)

3R 1st RH DOWN to 0

35 3rd LH UP to E

3T 3rd RH UP to E

3U 1st amp 2nd RH UP to ~

3V 2nd RH UP to I

3W 2nd LH DOWN t E (ring only) 0 _

3X 2nd amp 3rd RH UP to I

3Y 3rd RH DOWN to ~

3Z 1st LH UP to I

4A 0 Trill key DOWN to F

48 G key UP to ~

4C D~ Trill key DOWN to I~

40 Thumb key UP to ~

4E jIst LH UP to G~

4F G~ key DOWN to G

4G 3rd RH UP to G

4H 1st amp 2nd RH DOWN to G~

4J 3rd LH UP to ~

4K 3rd LH(vented) DOWN to A

4L 0 Trill key DOWN to ~

4M 2nd LH UP to A~

[47J

II

1iibull bull bull

Sea) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

8va I_4N4PI bull r---ox x 123

40 I I X I 119

4N4R I 1317bull bull I X bull X 8va i

(o)~ft ~ I e19bull bull bull bull bull bull bull I 451 ()---1 x e e 119bull 8va i

(-e-)~-e- ~ 4Te bull bull bull I bull X I I 24

I bull e 0--- f-O I X bull bull 124

it

23 When descending from the regular B the 1st and 3rd keys LH may remain closed

24 This note may be played only at a loud dynamic level A firm breath pressure is vital to the control of the intonation alshythough the note tends to be sharp

4N D~ Trill key DOWN to ~

4P 1st HH(vented) UP to B

4Q 2nd LH UP to ~

4H D Trill key UP to _Band 2nd HH

45 2nd HH DOWN to ~

4T D Trill key DOWN to f

[48J

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo)

In this chart the fingerings for both the alto flute and picshycolo are combined The concepts of tone production and pitch disshycernment that were discussed in the preceding section on quartershytones for the C flute would apply to these instruments also Due to the limitations in venting the fingerings there will be less flexibility in the tuning of these notes In fact some noiesof the scale have been omitted because of unsuitable fingering comshybinations and a lack of control for the pitches However if an open-tone-hole model piccolo is available to the player other fingerings from the previous chart could be applied It will be noted that a great deal of emphasis is placed on the exaggerated change of direction of the air column for the purpose of tuning This will compensate for the lack of venting for most of these notes

QUARTER-TONE TRIllS

The text materials for these trills are presented here in the same manner as for those in the previous chart In some instances the direction of the air column has to be exaggerated either upward or downward in order to reach the proper intonashytion level for a single note in the quarter-tone scale This precludes the proper tuning of the quarter-tone trill When it occurs the smaller interval that results is termed a pitchshypulsation However prior to playing the trill special effort must be made to tune the quarter-tone from which the trill is to emanate otherwise even the small interval(pitch-pulsation) will be nonexistent Occasionally when only one fingering is given for both instruments the text will indicate the instrushyment for which the trill fingering is intended

bull bull e bull bull I bull I bull bull bull e I I~ e(o)~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull 12

reg - ALTO FLUTE

j ~

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull

f (e)~eF IA bull bull bull bull bull bull bull IA

Sb

+ l(ie)~ IQ I bull bull bull bull bull bullbull

I bull bull bull bull bull bull bull The little finger nlI must open the IP key and at the same

IS time close the footjoint keys The air column must be dishybull bull bull 30~ bull bull bull rected dowmarct to lower the pitch 1 eve IS bull bull bull bull bull bull 12reg

2 Exaggerate the ctowlllVilnl directioll of the njr column The apshyerture must relilain il~ opcn ttl possj) 1c otlerwjse the tone structure becomes sllpplcsilted This fi lIferinf i~ more appro-

IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13reg priate for il sort 1Ild subdued efrcct~ bull IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 14reg 3 Apply the techniques noS ill )- nlll u--( vcry I it tIc volume

of air This note milY lack ndeqllnte tOllnl projection

4 Using very little bleilth support direct the nil columnI(e)~ ID bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 120 dowmarct to Ilchieve the lIeceSiltary Jevel of pitch 1I0wever the tone qUilli ty of the lower register 01 the piccolo willIE bull bull bull bull bull 14reg project substllntiillly

5 Use a slightly victe Ilperture ilnd il direction of the air col-IF 140 umn that is similllr to that of the preceding note bull~ bull bull bull bull bull bull IG 14reg 6 Direct the air column downward but slightly for the evenshy

tual adjustment of intonAtion

7 The air column is directed upward~ IH bull bull bull bull bull bull I 150

8 It may be difficult to maneuver the fingers adequately butIJ bull bull bull I 14reg if the trill keys can be scarcely opened the note can be

properly tuned

I (ci)qng IK I bull bull bull bull bull 150 UP(pitch-pulsation) IJ I 2nd amp 3rd LH I UP to elA I 3rd RH I

IK I 14reg lK I Thumb key I UP to e~IB I 2nd RH I UP to F~ (flat)

lL I Thumb key I UP to D (Piccolo)Ie I 1st 2ndlIL 1 160 UP to G~ (sharp)3rd RIlFfft)~ bull bull bull X bull bull 1M I Thumb key I UP to D~10 I 3rd RH I UP(pitch-pulsation)IL bull bull I X bull 170

IN I 1st amp 2nd LH I DOWN to DIE I 1st 2nd amp 3rd RH I UP to A

IP I D Trill key I UP (pitchshy1M X X bull bull 150 IF I 2nd amp 3rd RII I UP to A~ Jlulsa t ion)(fla t)

INIP I I I X bull 16reg A~ lQ I 3rd LH I DOWN to D ~ bull bull bull

IG I 3rd LH I UP to (fla t)

0- PICCOLO IH I 2nd LII amp 1st RII I UP to e

bull bull bull bull bullbull

- IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull I I 124reg

IT 16bull bull bull I bull bull I bull~ IT bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14reg

l(~e)~ bull I bull bull bull X I bull bull IIOreg

IU 17g-QdegfO bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull IUIV bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull IGreg

~WX bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 17

bull bull bull bull bull I I x I bull I IIO IY bull bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull I 12reg

~ IZ bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull 6bull IZ2A 1 I I Iregbull I bull I I bull I

[50]

I(0) ~o ~e 2B bull bull bull I bull bull I 16middot0 2C20 16reg I bull

I(~~ Me 2E2F I I I I I bull 16middot0bull 2F2G I bull I I bull I bullbull 16reg

(~t~~ 2H I bull bull I 2J

(ft) ~n ~2K~L I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I Ibullbull 190 bullIR bull bull bull bull I bull I

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo) Cont

1 (Ito-) ~ ~-e- 2M2N 17

f

bull bull bull bull I bull I bull x bullbull 2P bull II bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull 16~P

(~) ~~ ~Q 2Q~R bull bull bull I bull I bull bullbull 16~I 2

(n) qn ~ 2T bull 1 bull 1 I bull 1I1

I bull 1 bull X

2U2V bull I bull bull I 11rreg 8 va 0i

~2~X bull bull I 1 bull bull I bull I 170

8va regI

I I I 1712rrplusmnyen==2~ bull bull bull I bull 8 va i

I I x bull 1110et-ECilDbull bull bull bull bull bull

reg

8 va I

(-amp)]-amp ~3E3F I I I bull 17I bull X 8va

I

I I bull I I I X bull X I I IIIO3H bull

9 Direct the air column as in 2 However the tone strucure will permit an acceptable projection at a medium dynamic level

10 Vent imperceptibly by opening the trill key gently The air colshyumn should be directed downward only slightly but the aperture is to be somewhat larger than for the preceding note Thisfinshygering serves best when ascending from the regular semitone

11 This is suitable only for a loud dynamic level The note deshymands full breath support and the air column should be directshyed upward slightly

12 The additional resistance that this fingering lends to the piccolo may cause undue forcing of the tone unless the performshyer displays control of the embouchure in this octave However the use of this fingering is not as problematical when applyshying it to the alto flute

lR 3rd RH UP to P

IS 1st LH UP(pitch-pulsation)

IT 2nd RH UP to r~ (Piccolo) (flat)

lU 1st RH UP to G~

IV 2nd amp 3rd RH

lW 1st RI DOW

IX 3rd LH L~ to

lyen 1st amp 2nd RH

lZ 3rd LH UP to

2A 2nd RH DOWN

DOWN to G (flat)

to G~ (flat)

A

UP to A

A

to A

2B 2nd RH UP to C

2C b Key DOWN to B

2D 3rd nH UP to C

2E 1st RH DOWN to C

2P Thumb key UP to C

2G 1st RH DOWN to C

2H 2nd LH DOWN to C

2J 1st LH UP to D

2K Eb key UP to D

2L G key DOWN to D(Alto flute)

2M 1st RH DOWN to D

2N 3rd LH

2P 3rd RH

2Q 3rd RH

2R 1st LH

2S Eb key

UP to E

UP to E UP to r (Piccolo)

UP to r(Alto flute)

DOWN(pitch-pulsation) (Piccolo)

2T D Trill key DOWN to r

2U 1st LH UP to P (flat)

2V 2nd RH DOWN to P

2W G key UP to G

2X Low C key DOWN to r

2Y 1st RH UP to G (Piccolo)

2Z 1st LH UP to G

3A 3rd RH DOWN to G(Piccolo)

3B 2nd RH DOWN to G (Alto flute)

3C G key DOWN to G

3D 1st LH UP to A (flat)

3~ 2nd LH UP to A

3P D Trill key DOWN to A

3G D Trill key DOWN to A

3H 2nd RH UP to B (flat)

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES MULTIPHONICS

No longer can the flutist expect that a traditional flute tone is the only attractive or acceptable sound structure Sound pheshynomenon must be valued as significant structure which the aspiring performer must embrace in order to add to the variety of musical exshypression in contemporary music In the various periods of music the goal of each generations performers has been to enrich and augment the sometimes restrictive character of the sound of the flute Hence with this standard of excellence in flute playing the evolution of compositional techniques has paralleled the instrumentalists develshyopment Accordingly more and more is expected of the flutists technical skills and resources

The or ani tion of many-voiced sounds is now a vital part of the f~ts technique ana for this all of the aspects of tone

-proouction are to be considered Rultiphonics involve the layerin ~ developin an understandin of the n use Q ere ones ~n e over one series of the flute~coustical the orma ionof _ muitiJHe tube-lengtns in the air column g e a number 0 requency vibrations with whic to produce added pitches simultaneously TOis affords an array of chord groups that are controllable Such pheshynomenon is observed when a short tube-length and a larger one are formed in the air column as additional keys are vented in a fingershying combination This causes a modification of the fixed overshytone arrangement of the flute

The composition of many of the fingerings for the multiphonics v ~can be traced directly to those presented for tremolos(especially

sixths sevenths and octaves) altered fingerings and quartershytones Interestingly many of the quarter-tones can be identified as fundamental tones for a number of these chords However the fingerings for these have been changed somewhat in order to facilshyitate the tonal response of the multiphonics

The tonal characteristics of these chords seem to fit into (3) different categories according to their timbres and dynamic levels They can be studied further by referring to these groups in part(B) of this section

The chords illustrated in this chart have included only the notes that possess a reasonable amount of prominence stableness and immediacy in tonal response Quite possibly some performers may be capable of elaborating on these structures to produce upto five tones However this would require considerable experience and a phenomenal control of techniques Except for those few inshydividuals who have such technical skill most flutists will need to devote some practice time to these peculiar techniques

~A flexible_~bnuchUI~_togetherwith sensitivit~ for the approshypriare use of the air column are an absolute must w en exper~mentshy~ng with new auditory experiences As the mUltiple tube-lengths are felt via the resistance of the flute the physical reaction to these must be repeated in virtually all of these chords The transformashytion of this resistance factor from its normal state in the flute tube must be recognized then the air column can be effectively used in balance with this

Those chords that react readily do so because the resistance is not posing a major hazard Thesetwo-note chords require little breath support with a slight alteration of the embouchure However

[51J

~the multiphonics that include1hr~~ or four notes offer muchgreatshyer resistance As a barrier this must be permeated by applying inshyensity to e breath pressure and at times with a large volume of

air Consequently more attention must be given to embouchure corshyrection for these Usin a w~ aEertur the air column needs to be directed so that a--segment of the flute range can be sounded in one air blast By diffusing the air column the tone is spread and thereby capable of including several notes at once These can sound simultaneously as a chord spanning more than one octave of the flute All of this is contradictory to the normal procedure that prevails for playing single-line notes For these the apershyture needs to decrease in size as the air pressure is increased

The volume of breath support for a multiphonic is an equally important matter The qeterminant is evidenced by the demands for each multiphonic and as the player adjusts to these the physical sensations that are to be recalled should be used as guides for the proper maneuvering of the embouchure

The text materials which accompany the fingering for each chord suggest the embouchure movements and technical modifications of the air column However the performance of these sounds cannot be achieved with only these directives More importantly the player must adapt to these sensitively by feel and become accustomed to reacting to the response of the chord with perceptiveness

Many of the chords can be sustained with reasonable success and sufficient duration However vibrato cannot be used because it would disturb the steadiness of the air flow Straight tone is the prime mover in establishing stability for the multiphonics

It is impossible to effect an instantaneous response from a chord Inorder to create the illusion that all of the notes are sounding at the same time the necessary corrections must occurat once These are realized by attacking the lowest note first or for some chords the highest This method assists in the use of the wide-angle aim of the air column for an equal response of the other notes of the tone-group The effect is one of a broken chord as is often played on a keyboard instrument or the harp If the response should lag and the notes of the chord are not soundingin balance with one another then those notes that are positioned at the opposite level from the attacking note either the lowest or highest of the chord must be favored This is done by directing the air column toward that level in the range that seems weakest

The chords have been placed according to their lower fundamenshytals in ascending order This is only approximate and in some inshystances when these pitches were the same the total effect of the chord was considered although the placement is purely arbitrary

The arrows on the alterations do not necessarily indicate quarter-tone pitches Some of these notes could be mini-microshytones In fact many of these notes may not always impart their ~itch levels as originally conceived in as much as the techniques of tone production are variable But this pitch discrepancy also can be extolled as a virtue since so many notes that have the same pitch level would also be capable of lending an impressive range of timbres When isolating the lowest or highest note of each chord and its intonation seems controllable a new dimension in tone coloring can be imagined for any single-line phrase

[52J

This arrangement of fingerings is not a complete collection of multiphonics Rather it is presented as a systematic study and a survey of possibilities for tone clusters There are fingerings which have not been included capable of producing virtually the same notes as some found in this chart Probably there are still other fingerings that may be ascertainable However those shown here seem to lend substantial control for a clear image of eachmulshytiphonic and are to be accepted only on this basis Therefore once the flutist has developed the technique for these additional finshygerings producing new chord structures could evolve through the efforts of individual research

The following points may be considered when the multiphonics are played for the first time As possible solutions to some probshylems that involved technical deficiencies these applications conshytributed to the learning process

(~) Do not isolate the individual tones of the chord as ~ the direction of the air column is adjusted

(b) Avoid an excessive covering of the embouchure hole on the flute and prohibit the forming of a small aperture A diffusion of the air column and a spreadshying of the tone structure should result

(c) A low B must be used when advisedotherwise the inshytervals may not respond with the same assuredness

(d) A wider than normal aperture must prevail for most chords

(e) The air column must be directed in favor of the opposshying note If the chord is attacked via the lower note then the air is to be directed slightly upward etc

(f) Learn to identify the resistance factor first to best judge the necessary breath support for a response

(g) Ascertain the proper venting of the fingerings

(h) Avoid moving the flute on the embouchure this ensures a functional application of straight tone

(j) Minimize the action of the embouchure when it becomes necessary to adjust the direction of the air column Extreme sensitivity is essential

(k) Avoid any exertion of external pressure of the flute against the lip Provide for mobility of the embouchure

(m) Adapt the embouchure and the air column to the sounds Do not attempt to alter the peculiarities of the timbres so radically otherwise the idea of having varieties of tone qualities at hand will be defeated These chords must be played convincingly or they will become repulsive

bull bull bull bull

-I

SPECIAL SONORITIES

When applying these fingeringsthe flutists and composers may wish to explore a variety of sonorities through the use of the chords Numerous effects are discussed in these sections that follow The position numbers and code numbers with letters have been assigned to the multiphonics These are to be referred to as each part is consulted for study

(A) Multiple Trills and Multiple Effects

Control of the multiphonic must be assured for the proper exshyecution of these effects The flute must be held steady to ensure the adequate dispersion of the air column so as not to obstruct the sounding of the multiphonic Practice by moving the fingers slowly at first in order to achieve a lightness in the action of the keys This will prevent a jarring of the flute on the embouchure

The following are possible using the illustrated fingerings

(a) MULTIPlE TRILLS UP or DOWN--- The lower and upper notes of a chord trill simultaneously and in the same direction

(b) MULTIPlE TRILL - CONVERGING -- One note trills upward while another trills in a downward direction This is created by the sounding of a common note onto which each trill converges

(c) Single trills in any direction are possible while other notes of the chord sustain

(d) MULTIPlE PITCH - PULSATIONS -- These account for trills of microtonessmaller than quarter-tones

(e) Together with multiple pitch-pulsations other tones can be sustained

The instructions for the above effects have been abbreviated(as in sections on quarter-tones) and the words lower upper and sometimes middle refer to the particular notes in the chord This is followed by the indication of the direction in which the trill is moving

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The resul tant letter identifying the to be activated effect note

Ex- ( IE 1st RH Multiple Trill-UP )

tJ) 0 A

~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull 1 0

(2) yen-- bull bull bull bull I 0 bull I bull bull 2

(3)~ IA bull bull bull bull I bull o bull 13 -eshy

(4) 0yen--IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 12 -fi

(5)~ IC 0 bull bull I 13

(6) ~-ICID bull bull f-o bull I bull bull bull 1bull

~--e-(7) fyen IE bull bull bull 1-0 bull bull 13

bull bull bull bull bull bullbull3 =--e- 10 (8) ~-IB bull bull bull f---O I bull bull bull 13

1 Using a wide aperture direct a dispersed air column downward Little breath support is needed Close the keys for low B with certainty

2 Direct the air column upward Intensify the breath pressure sufficiently to effect the response of the upper partials but allow for adequate openness of the aperture to permit an immeshydiate sounding of the lower note as well Only a minimum of breath support is necessary Close the keys for low Bsecurel~

3 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the lower notes Avoid changing the size of the aperture when adding to the breath support for the upper notes Close the keys for low B securely

lA

18

3rd RH Multiple Trill-UP

Thumb Upper sustains key Middle trills DOWN IE

ID

1st RH

3rd RH

Multiple Trill-UP

Multiple Trill Converging

lC 2nd RH MUltiple Trill-UP

[53]

bull bullbull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cont

~

(9) ~ e-

IEIF bull bull bull bull I bullbull middot2

1I0) ~-IE bull bull bull 3 (II) (f -IBIG bull bull bull I 0 I bullbull middot4

0 Ibull I bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14

(12) ~-IAH o-j bull I bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (I3)~ 15IAIJ~ bull I bull bull I bull I

eshy(14) ~ fA IK IL bull I 16Ibull bull 0-+

I bull bull I

(15)11 -IJILIM bull o-j I 16 bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I

IAIH(16) -0 I bull I bull I I 17IN~ bull bull 0-

(17 ~ -IMIP bull bull o---j ~I bull bullbull 178

l8) ~ ~-IAIJ 15bull 0 bull I I bull bull rmiddot

tt (l9)~--IQIR bull o----j bull I bull I I I bull bull 17bull

(20) _ -IEIS 0bull bull bull bull bull I I bull I 17

~ ~) I

bullbull I

f~ ~bull lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

8deg 8 ~ G+ + f-eshy

(21l~~IUIT I bullbull bullbull f-O I bull bull I I 17

(22)~ -IJIP~ 1-0 bull I bull I bull 15 ~n

(23)~ IV I bull bull o-l H bull I bullbull I 1-i98 e

(24) ~-ILIM~ 0bull I bull I I bull bull 15

(25)~- IMIWIX I bull 0 bull bull I 0 bull I bull I 15 ~Q

(26) ~ -IMIJ I I bull I I 0 I I 15bull 0 bull bull (27)rW-IJIQIYe--1 0 o bull I I l6bull bull bull I bull

(28) ~-IQIB bull bull I 01bull o bull I bull bull middot3 ~~~

(29)~-IQIZ bull 0 bull I bull I bull I bullbull 19

(30) ~~ ~ILIQ~ bull I 0 I bull bull 19IR2A

t-n (31) ~ -IMIN2S I bull 0 bull I Hgt I bull I 16

D (32) ~ IQIY~ 162C2D I bull I bull A

(33)~-IJIQlVIY~ I bull I 01 bullbull I 16

(34) ~_rNQbull I bull 0 bull I f-ltgt bull I bullbull 16IL [54]

~~~JI~~I

Isf Th Th 2nd 3rd

~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ (35)~ IDILIQ2C~

(361 ~-IL bullbull o--e ~~

t37J ~n ~-ILIQIW~

(38) 111~ IQIR~ 2C2D- I bull - I

(39) Qi ~-IMIV2E~

-eshy(40)~

~-2F2G bullbull~+-_--(O bull

(41) ui ~ - 2C2G2H bullbull--I-----(O bull

p-u (42) ~ 2~iH~ -amp

(43)~ -IQIR2L~ lB

44J ~ 2E2M~ (45)~--2D2N~

~1gt-+-o---+---+--+--+-----1 68

t--iI~I--tt-tI H__+-1-t---ll 9

r--laquogt I bull I I bull bull 178

r-o--t- bull I I bull bull III

bull I

t-o I

bull I

bull I

310

bull bullbull7

bullbull 19

f--o

bull bull I

bull I bull 19

bull bull 1912

bull bull bull

bull bull

I II

16

4 Direct the air column upward slightly and intensify the breath using an embouchure that favors the middle register

5 Adjust the aperture mainly for the lower note and direct the air column inward Use only a light tone support

6 The air column is to be directed upward very slightly with the embouchure favoring the upper note

7 Use a wide aperture with substantial breath support and direct the air column upward

8 Also vent approximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 Use an aperture more appropriately adapted to the upper notes but direct the air column downward slightly Only a medium amount of breath support is needed

10 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH imperceptibly

11 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the middle range This chord is to be supported robustly

12 Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd key LH also

IF 2nd RH MUltiple Trill- IX (ring only) DOWN

IG 1st RH Upper sustains lY (ring only) Lower trills DOWN

IH

IJ

lK

lL

1M

IN

IP

lQ

lR

IS

IT

lU

IV

lW

1st RH Upper sustains lZ Lower trills UP

1st RH MUltiple Trill 2A Converging

3rd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP 28

2nd LH Multiple Trill-UP 2C

3rd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2D

EP key Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2E

3rd LH MUltiple Trill-UP 2F

2nd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

2G Low C Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWNkey Upper trills DOWN

2H 1st RH Lower sustains2nd RH Upper sustains Upper trills UPLower trills UP 2K 2nd RH Multiple tones susshyLow C Multiple Pitchshy (ring only) tain Middle noteskey Pulsations Middle pulsatetrills UP 2L 3rd RH Upper sustains1st RH MUltiple Pitchshy Lower trills DOWNPulsations Upper

sustains 2M 1st RH Lower sustainsMulshytiple Trills ConshyEP key Lower sustains vergingmiddot

Upper trills DOWN 2N 3rd RH Multiple Trill-DOWN

G key Upper sustain~i Lower trills UP

[55]

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills UP

G key Multiple Trill Converging

1st RH Multiple Trill Converging

3rd RH MUltiple tones sustain middle notes pulsate

1st RH Lower sustains Upper trills DOWN

Thumb key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

Thumb key MUltiple Trill-UP (wide intervals)

2nd RH MUltiple Trill Converging

2nd RH Lower sustains

bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES

07(

Cont

~

(46) 1 -IL 2P 20 19I I -0- bull bull bull I bull I bull bull

(47)~ IAIL2R 16

~ bull 0 bull bull bull I bull I bullbull (48) ~ __ 252T bull o-o--j bull I bull I I bull 17

~2X(49) IEIO 2U bull I bull I bull 1 bull bull 4

~A bull

(50)~ - -2U2V2W bull I bull I 0 I I I II bull

IE2U(51) It ~ 02X bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull3

(52)~-ICIE2U2Y 0--1 bull I bull I I 15I bull bull ~n

(53) ~ 2C2U 2Z bull 0---1 bull 1 0 I 1 bull III

n (54) ~ly2Z3A383C bull bull I bull 1 bull 1 16

(55) ii-lEI bull bull t--o bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (56) 11-amp

~-IH2T3D I f--o bull I bull I bull I 15 D

(57) ~_IHIP I bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I 152T3D I

(58) If --IEIY bull bull f--o I bull I bull bull bullbull3

[56]

( 1~(O~)~ 2Z I I bull I bull I I I bull bull 12I

~Q-6shy(60) ~-IYI2H I I bull bull I 1-0 I bull I bull I bull bull 15 =~

(61) ~--3C3E I I I

(62) t~ -3F I

~ (63)1~

( 3E I I laquogt---ebull (64) d-Qshy-0- ~-2H3G~

(65) ~ - IP3G3H I I I

(66) ~ - IMIP3KI

- bull bull bull bull (67) 0shy

lt1 ~ I P283L3M I I

-(68) ~~4l-~IM2BI Itba 3K bull

(69) = ~--IM3N1

=1l-6shy(70) ~ ~ I] II IP I I bullbullbull bull

(71) ~~ ~--(X3P~ (72) qA gIX2H~

1-0 I bull I bull I bull I 15

I bull I I I I 1 bull bull I II

bull I bull 1 I I I I 1113

f--O I I I I I bull bull 15

I I I I I I bull I I 15

L bull I bull I 0 I bull I 16

1 bull I I 15

bull I bull I o bull I I 16

914

I bull 0-+-----0 bull 1914

1---0 I bull I bull I bull I I 613

1-0 bull 1 bull J bull I ~16

bull bull

13 Approximately one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH is to be vented

14 Vent also one-fourth of the 2nd key RH~

~ ~o (73)~

E= - 3K3Q3R 1-1--I--~-4a--o---e

(74) ~ ~2G3K3RI bull 0 bull

~ a (75) ~2B2G3Q3R3Sr----t------oshy

(76) t~ ~ 3R3T3U 1-1--l-~-egt----J--1

(77)I~i - -- 2P3 L 1-1--I~~----4 --shy

n __

(78) g _ 1-1-+--+-~----3V ___ ~

t79)ff ~ - I B2Y3V 1-1--I--+--4a-4~bullbull

~-e-(80) ~ 2H 3L __-+ ----ia-+_~ ~ 3W bull 1

(811 _ 2H 2U bullbull~gt---~+-__

(82) 1- ~ - bull --shy2U3Xbullbull~-l---

(83) Qg ~- ILfQ30bullbulll--+--bull--0 bull

j~

qt (84) EQ IR zu ----1

EE 3W3Y bullbull~~~-l---I~----

t9 t85) ~

~~ 3Y3W3Xbullbullf------+--+-~o__1

bull I bull I bullbull 19

~~X--+-I-+--+-+-f----t---il 6

7

~x I I bull I

bull loX I I 13

x I bull I bullbull 14

I--+I---4-X~----+-1-+---+1 4

3L

3M

3N

3P

3Q

3R

35

3T

3U

3Y

D Trill MUltiple Trill-UP key

2nd LH Multiple Trill Converging

Thumb key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

1st RH ~ MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

3rd LH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

D Trill key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

G key Lower sustains Upper trills UP

3rd LH Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWN

D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills UP

1st LH MUltiple Trill-DOWN

3W D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills DOWN

3X 1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

3Y 2nd LH Multiple Pitchshy(ring only) Pulsations

2P

2Q

2R

25

2T

2U

2Y

2W

2X

2Y

2Z

3A

3B

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

3K

3rd LH

E~ key

1st RH

2nd RH

MUltiple Trill-DOWN

MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

Lower trills UP Upper and middle

interpose

Multiple notes sustain Middle trills DOWN

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills DOWN

2nd LH Multiple Trillshy(ring only) DOWN

Low C Multiple Pitch-key

3rd RH (vented)

3rd RH

3rd RH

1st LH

2nd LH (ring only)

2nd LH

3rd LH

Pulsations

Lower sustains Upper and Middle

interpose

Multiple Tones sustain Upper trills DOWN

Multiple PitchshyPulsations

Multiple Trill-UP

Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

Upper sustains Lower tremolo DOWN

Multiple Trill Converging

G key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd RH MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

D TrillHigh C sustains key Middle trill UP

D and D MUltiple Trill-UP Trill keys

D Trill key MUltiple Trill-UP

1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

[57J

bull bull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cant

0bullI X I bull 1 2

bull bull I bull X bull 1 19

bull bull bull X bull I 17

bull bull I I bull X 19

bull bull e- r-oX I I bull I 15

bull bull I bull I X 16

bull r--o X I I 15bull bull I bull I bull X 1 15bull ()----j X bullbull middot11015bull o---j X I bull I 11315bull

o-ebull r-o-I I X bull bull 17

0--1 I I X I X I I 16

t-e-D

19S) It II -3P3Qbull I Ibullb6shy

199) 11~

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1I01l

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JO IPJQ4F I

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1I03)~ -2Y4G bull bull o-----e

UA1I04)fshy

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~ ~-IL2P I bull bull I bull II06I~r~

-2H3H4A~n lion xx

IBJR3H I~ I bull bull bull qn 1I0S)rD

-- IL3K l----+-----o-shyt-e

1I09)r 2U3K3L I I I e-bull

I I x x I I 115

rox X I bull 1913

2

I--cgt bull I bull I bullbullbull78

I I I I 17 I bull 0 I bull I I I II

1-0 I bull bull I 1713

-o bull I bull I bullbull 1712

7 8

f-I bull I I 115

I bull I I bull bull 14 shy

4

4

15 Approach the attack for this chord via the top note but widen the aperture sufficiently to accommodate the placement of the lowest note Direct the air column downward and apply a sUbshystantial amount of breath support

4D I 2nd LH Lower sustains3Z I D Trill I Multiple Trill-DOWN (ring only) IUpper trills DOWN

4A I G~ key I Lower sustain~i

key

4E I D~ Trill I MUltiple Trill-DOWN Uppertrills uuWN key

4F I 3rd RH I Lower sustains46 I D~ Trill I Upper sustains Upper trills DOWNkey Lower trills DOWN

4G I G~ key I Upper sustains4C lIst RH I Multiple Tri1lshy Lower trills DOWN(ring only) DOWN

3PECJAL SONORITIES

(B) The Tonal Characteristics And Dynamic Ranges

of multiphonics are shown here as three predominant effects Each chord-group possesses a built-in quality of tone and the player should permit this to subsist according to the resistance that is evidenced As the control of the embouchure improves those chords capable of sounding with a full dynamic range may alsobe controllable using a lighter tone quality and played at a softer dynamic level For this reason some chords have been listed in more than one category The numbers used toidenshytify the multiphonics in the main chart appear here in the approshypriate categories

(1) Subdued Quality of Tone Reasonably Soft Dynamics

1 15 34 65

2 18 37 73

24 54 6 25 55 80

12 26 56 90

13 27 57 91

14 33 64 92

(2) Some Degree of Resonance (3) Blaring or Strident Tone Medium Dynamic Range Fairly Loud Dynamics

4 27 57 74 2 37 60 89

5 28 58 75 3 39 62 93

7 29 60 5 94

8 31 61 76 9 41 63 95

9 32 62 80 11 42 70 96

10 33 64 83 16 43 71 97

14 34 65 86 17 44 72 98

15 35 66 90 19 45 77 99

18 36 67 91 20 46 78 100

20 37 68 92 21 47 79 101

22 38 69 93 23 48 80 102

23 40 71 97 26 49 81 103

25 41 72 103 27 50 82 104

26 54 73 106 28 51 84 105

30 52 85 107

32 53 87 108

36 59 88 109

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(C) Suppressed Chords

Often the term smorzato has been used to signify the effect of diminishing or extinguishing tones As is described here a controlled suppressing of tones in the chord can occur while the lowest note continues to sustain This can be accomplished withshyout altering the fingering

By releasing the firmness of the embouchure slightly and pershymitting the breath support to diminish the upper partials can be made to disappear When in some cases this does not produce the effect completely then a directional change of the air column must implement this technique Since the modification of the air column can be regulated voluntarily the suppression of the chords can be realized in any desired rhythmic pattern

In a few instancesanother note of the chord can be sustained simultaneously with the fundamental while the higher one is diminshyishing In other chords certain notes can be suppressed intershychangeably These variables have been indicated in the listingbelow As a result of this added peculiarity these other notes too can be sustained either prior to or following the suppression of the chord This effect is related to that described in part(D) of this section

[59]

In this list the fundamental note is illustrated together with the number that applies to its multiphonic The arrows on the altershyations have been omitted Attention is drawn to the fact that as an added advantage these tones for their distinctive timbres may be used also as single-line notes

The following multiphonics are the most responsive and easiest to control for this effect Two-note multiphonics are listed first and are the most facile

Two-note Chords

6 E 27 G 65 C 91 D

12 G 32 G 66 C 92 D

13 - G 33 - G 67 - C 93 - D

14 - G 34 - G 71 - C 97 - EO 15 - G 52 - So 72 - C 102 - G 22 - G 54 - So 73 - C 104 - G 24 - G 58 - S 76 - C 107 - S 25 - G 60 - C 80 - C 108 - S

26 - G 61 - C 90 - D 109 C

Three and Four-note Chords

36 - Low and middle Gs will sustain as the upper note

2 - E

3 - E is suppressed Alter the 5 - E air columns direction

8 - F (Middle G and possibly 37 - AO middle E can be altershy 38 - AO (The C or G may benated with d) interchanged with the

9 - F sounding of F by altershying the direction of air)10 - F (C can be alternated

with F) 40 - A (C alternates with G) 11 - F 41 - A (F alternates with C) 16 - G 42 - A

17 - G 43 - A

19 - G (E can be alternated 45 - A with F) 46 - A

20 - G 47 - A 21 G

48 - A 23 - G 49 - So (A and B sound simultashy28 Low and middle Gs will neously as the chord is

sustain to~ethet as the suppressed) upper note is suppressed

50 - BO and A sustain as the 29 - G top note is suppressed 30 - G 53 - BO 35 - G 57 - B

[60J

70 - C 87 - D (A can be alternated with E by releasing the breath74 - C pressure interchangeably)

75 - C 88 - D 77 - C 89 - D 78 - C 94 EO (B can be alternated 79 - C with GO) 82 - d 98 - EO

99 - E83 - C (E alternates with C) 100 - F84 - D 105 - A85 - D 106 - B86 - D (f can be alternated with

C~ by changing the direcshytion of the air column)

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(D) Connecting Single Notes to MUltiphonics

The suppressing of chords (part C) indicates that it is posshysible to sustain a single note and connect this to a chordassumshying of course that the fingering being used initially is that of the multiphonic A flexibility in this procedure results from the fact that either the lowest or highest note in each multiphonic can be sustained when going into or coming out of the chord This occurs without any perceptible interruption of the sound oraltershyation of the fingering However it will be found that some chords do not lend themselves to a controllable responsiveness when they are approached via the highest note This can only be determined by trial and error

The middle note in many of the three-note chords can also be sustained The chords listed below have been selected as thosehavshying this characteristic and a few added effects have been noted with several others The letter after each number applies to the middle note of the multiphonic In the case of four-note chords then the note from the middle octave which may lend the easiest response is listed As mentioned previously it is automatically assumed that the lowest and highest notes from each chord can be isolated and sustained without difficulty

In some instances a radical change in the direction of the air column and a simultaneous release of the breath pressure may be necessary to effect the linking of tones to chords portions of which are then to be suppressed Only by experimenting with the process of isolating the tones can the player acquire a famshyiliarization with the physical sensation involved This will dicshytate any modifying of the air columns direction and maneuvershying of the embouchure

The two-note chords are quite simple to execute in this proshyduction and either note can be sustained with ease

Page 6: A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the Flute

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bull

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~ ~ f--_t___J--I---I

~--

~ ~ --__I------bull----1i---li---li---I

bull

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bull I I

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bull I I

I bull I

I bull I I I

I bull I

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~~I---t______+--+---I--+_+--tl 6 bull

BASIC FINGERINGS

1 This fingering produces a slighily lower level of pitch However its use in extremely technical passages is inshyvaluable

2 Each fingering must be learned with equal facility and applied interchangeably The control of various technical passages and added dexterity will be dependent upon this flexibility When possible emphasize the use of the BIever RH

3 The fa~lty intonation and thin tone structure of the open C~ can be corrected partially through the use of this fingering When using a French model flute deshypress the key-ring 2nd LH and vent approximately one-half of the tone hole This offers more control in a crescendo

4 To maintain the proper pitch level when playing PP depress the 2nd trill key(D~) gently as is needed

5 See item 1 In this octave the F is more noticeably flat in pitch This fingering is equally useful when sustaining the note in a ff to adjust the intonation

6 A controll~d level of pitch can be achieved in a ff when the EP key remains closed However the tone quality becomes muffled at this lower level of pitch and will necessitate embouchure adjustments

[7J

BASIC FINGERINGS (CONTJ

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15

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I bull bull bull I bull I I I middot11~--- I I 12

-shy

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I I I I 1 I 14 8 T bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bull bull 113

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TI I bull I bull I I I I I I 15 10

11 W I I I I f

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12 T S~

13 T8va-- fI I I Ibull I X bull~_I bullr

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I 15 bullbull I X

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bull I bull o---j I X 116 16 W

bull I bull bull I X bull bull bull 117 17 T

h~ X

I

s

i

8va----- 1-+--+--middotmiddot--+- f-----+-+-IXl(---+I-+---+-H 15

7 When playing If this fingering produces a lower level of pitch and an altered tone quality as well

8 To facilitate the execution of rapid passages the ED key may remain open

9 This alternate fingering will aid the adjustment of the intonation for a PP Avoid the use of an excessive volshyume of air as the note responds with ease

10 This lowers the pitch level for alf bull

11 When using a flute with a iow C foot joint the little fingerRH is raised

12 This fingering affords a slightly lower level of pitch See item 11

13 This fingering demands added breath support but the resulting pitch level is lower Use this Blso on a flute with a low C foot joint

14 This fingering produces a lower level of pitch but the note lacks an immediate response However this may vary on different flutes

15 These fingerings are applicable when using a low C or low B foot joint

16 When possible vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightly This may improve the response of the note

17 This fingering as well as 16 will respond on flutes having a low C or B foot joint

A SECURE PLAYING POSITION

The basic elements involving position and balance in holding the flute properly are of ultimate importanceat all levels of performance Much has been written onthis subject by many prominent flutists Therefore only the salient features relevant to fingerings are repeated now

1 Develop a secure hand position with the arms remaining free from tension to form an equalshyization of balance for the flute

2 Avoid any cramping of the musculature in hands wrists and arms which could bring about stiffshyactioned fingers

3 Encourage the use of a light action with the finshygers remainlng on the keys at all times Added inflections or accentuations in the music are the only occasions for which the fingers may be raised slightly higher on the keys

4 Permit the keys to lower and raise with all of the sensitivity possible The keys must be lifted not the fingers

5 Maintain a naturally arched position of the fingers This signifies the existence of freedom from any tension A flexibility and maneuverability of the fingers should be the result

Security in a playing position when achieved will bring controllabilitYand a solid technique with dexterity This must be available at any tempo

[9J

INTRODUCTION

An advanced flutist has reached that performance level because of the extreme sensitivity with which all facets of flute technique have been applied Certainly one of the most important of these instrumental techniques has to be the disciplined approach to the use of proper finshygerings It is assumed that this is a major concern of the professional performer but it should be equally so of each developing flutist

Too often due to negligence undesirable fingerings become firmly implanted in the playing habits of the young performers Correcting these faults in the early stages of their careers can result in a functional use of fingershyings as the flutists progress into the higher levels of proficiency This can be evidenced in their execution of extremely technical passages as well as the production of exotic tonal effects

Learning to use the appropriate fingerings for various situations ought to be considered a vi tal segment of basic musicianship since the application of the correct or corshyrective fingerings parallels the importance of other flute techniques This concept should become a part of each flutists daily routine and hopefully will guide the playshyer in the aspiration of becoming a sensitive musician

This compilation is presented as a methodology for finshygerings by offering a wide range of selected fingerings for the flutist and directing their use in diverse techshyniques It is hoped that this reference guide will encourshyage an exploitation of the flutes potentialities which should be the ultimate goal of every ambitious student of the flute

James J Pellerite Professor of Flute Indiana University

HOW TO READ THE CHARTS

These fing~rings apply to the Boehm system flute with the closed G~ key In many instances a low B foot joint is necessary although a low C will be acceptable for many of these fingerings Auxiliary keys that are someshytimes found on specially made flutes have not been conshysidered However the French model flute will be essenshytial for those charts in which the fingerings call for venting the various tone holes

A number appearing next to the illustration for each fingering will refer to the text material The correshysponding number is followed by a brief statement which relates to the fingerings purposefulness

The fingerings have been illustrated using the symbol ( ) and will indicate only that the keys are depressed For this reason it is not necessary to give considerashytion to whether or not a key remains open

The other familiar symbol (0) will apply exclusiveshyly to the use of the French model flute and be used solely to signify that a key is to be vented in its enshytirety

bull The key is depressed

C) The tone hole is vented accordingly

0 Vent the tone hole in its entirety

Apply the French model flute+ X Use the D or D Trill key

PI Pianissimo

If Fortissimo

R H Right Hand

L H Left Hand

[5J

2(a) HARMONICS

The production of overtones is a basic technique with which all flutists must become familiar Not only does -it represent the foundation for proper tone production but also it offers additional opportunities to simplify many complex technical passhysages which occur in the 3rd octave of the flute The fingering combinations for such phrases become moderately easy by using the fingerings for the fundamental notes to produce the harmonshyics Created by overblowing the fundamentals these are generally indicated as follows

0 g0 a 0 12

0 8 0 amp

To produce D3 (2nd overtone) use the fin~ering for fundamental Gl for E3 AI for F3 B l etc

To overblow the fundamental tone an intense air column must be applied This can be formed by diminishing the size of the aperture and increasing the breath pressure(subsequently the air speed) The air column needs to be directed more horishyzontally across the embouchure plate as one progresses into the higher harmonics Treating the fundamental tones in this manner will produce the following overtones in succession

[see Overtone Series chart (first measure)]

(a) 1st overtone - octave (b) 2nd - 12th (octave and a fifth) (c) 3rd - 15th (double octave) (d) 4th 17th (two octaves and a third) (e) 5th 19th (two octaves and a fifth)(0 6th 21st (two octaves and a seventh)

Frequently students find it difficult to reach the full gamshyut of overtones that are shown here This stems from the fact that sometimes they lack proper control of the embouchure and the air column However should this not be the case then the source of the problem may be the existing properties of the headshyjoint It is an accepted fact that no two headjoints ever will respond alike(even made by the same manufacturer) This varishyance means that one flute may possess either more or less resistshyance in its bloWing characteristics It is this added resistance that often may deter the production of the extremely high harshymonics However further development of the embouchure is asshysured as the production of these overtones is attempted and pracshyticed The resultant physical capability enables the flutist to create a greater number of overtones for each fundamental With this facility extremely technical passages in the upper ocshytaves are simplified by the use of left-hand-fingerings eg low G and A overblown can produce the overtone which would afford easier performance in a rapid passage of the 3rd octave

[10]

Due to the acoustical construction of the flute these harshymonics in the 3rd octave possess a rather veiled character of tone quality and a somewhat lower level of intonation than that produced when the regular fingerings are used The presence of the lower fundamental note causes this phenomenon since the reshyquired vent hole which is normally open in the regular fingershying is closed For example the regular fingering for D2 i properly vented by raising the 1st key LH ~he ton~ qoa11ty is muffled and its pitch level lowered when th1s key 1S closed In fact so many students accidentally produce this tone quality by using the incorrect fingerings and are not aware of the resultshying faulty tone structure One must discriminate and exercise discretion as to the use of these nshort cut fingerings Often the tonal beauty of a melodic passage is impaired by the obtuse sound of harmonics Their use in performance should be limitshyed to the most difficult passages in orchestral or band litershyature and even then only in rapidly moving phrases where it will ~ot be detected that harmonic assist has been applied

On the other hand there may be a desire for moments of tonal coloring in isolated cases Thus using the tone quality of some of these notes the harmonics become a purposeful and effecshytive display They can be used advantageously so long as the notes are played with conviction and will sou~dcorrect In actushyality many compositions now call for ~he add1t10nal tonal shadshyings that are possible when the harmon1cs are properly managed

The low register fingerings presented in thechart on Basic Fingerings are applied to the fundamental notes 1n the Overtone Series chart As the flutist progresses and studies the charts for trills tremolos etc he will discover that the application of the harmonic series will appear inexhaustible

Overtone Series 0)

Q it0Q ao ~ ~ e ~ ~ A

Q

- L g

2~ (0) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

~~ ltIi D ~

A ~ ~ ~

0 ~ IA 11amp I ~ IT 21 ~I

0 0 i~ lI- j- (2)

0 ltIi b b Q ~ ~ A shy1J ~ -amp - -- ~ = r ~ oa t ~ t 9 k

(2)1bullbull 1 v bullbull I

(3) (5)(6)(4)

Q

bull amp ~ ~Q Q

e- a Q ~

~ 6shy

~ ~Q ~v if Rk iv P V t v ~ I (2)

QQ ~ 6shy0 ~ ~

~o Q ~ -amp e

8 8 bull V R V 0 9J lit lit a 0~ ~

Note The following alterations may be applied when practicing from this chart These will assist in performing the upper harmonics with greater ease and their physical placement in the ocshytave would be identified more readily Followshying a degree of proficiency in the execution of the harmonic series these intervals should be practiced legato[slurred]

1 Vent the 2nd key RH 2 Use the Gn ~ey 3 Close the EP key 4 Use the low B key if available 5 Close the C key 6 Close the Cn key

2(b) FRENCH MODEL FLUTE Also referred to as the open tone hole model this flute is

identified by its perforations in the centers of the five keys that are activated by the fingers The relevancy of the French model flute is noteworthy Its prominence in the flutists career has been brought about by a variety of technical applications through which its advantages seem compounded

A substantial number of fingerings specifically for this instrushyment can be learned from these charts that follow The special finshygerings are for purposes of varying the pitch dynamics or tone quality or any of these in combination They also will effect a more realistic pitch relationship in the intervals for trills or tremolos according to the instructions as may be directed by the numbered comments There are some fingerings that are traditionally for the closed hole flute For these the use of the French model possibly could be supplemental to improve upon some of the original fingerings

The technique of venting the various tone holes is one that ought to be introduced to the lesser experienced flutist as soon as practicable The astute professional always has recognized the value of this application To develop the technique of sliding over the tone holes one must emphasize a subtle movement of the fingers with utmost sensitivity and vent cautiously for absolute control Almost immediately this reveals the ease with which it is possible to exeshycute a glissando of the scale bull

or a slide[portamento] to or from various notes

The left hand fingers should glide away from the flute in an outshyward motion while the right hand fingers move in the opposite direcshytion and towards the key mechanism This seems to be the most adaptshyable approach to venting However since each individuals hand position is subject to a mUltiformity due to basic differences in musculature other methods may be devised and considered equally successful The expertise of an artist teacher will be vital in considering each situation that is problematical To vent the hole by a fraction the finger is to be moved in a calculative fashion The pitch is raised according to the amount of the hole exposed The opposite is true when the desired pitch level is to be lowered By depressing the key ring by its edge it is possible to vent the enshytire tone hole The numbered comments accompanying each chart will suggest the appropriate venting combinations for each fingering

The acoustical principle applied to the vented fingerings is based upon the production of the harmonic series The overtones (see Overtone Series chart) can be altered conveniently by ventshying the fingerings for their fundamental tones This produces an array of pitches in a composite of overtones and results in total flexibility for the ensuing techniques that are to be applied By gliding these pitches the notes are altered to possess a wider range of intonation as well as a broad spectrum of tone content This development takes place as the fingerings alter the tubeshylengthsCdistance air column travels] for tone production These are either extended or contracted depending upon the location of the key being activated and the amount that its tone hole is to be vented Also with these fingerings the resistance factor of the instrument sometimes is transformed from its traditional response to an entirely different sensation in the production of certain notes Examples of this condition will be discovered when reading from the charts on tremolos altered notes quarter-tones etc

These modifications as provided by the use of the French model flute are beneficial in all facets of musical performance not only in contemporary music but in the standard repertoire as well

[llJ

bull bull

I TRILLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step)

bull bull bull I

I bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull I bullbull I

I bull I bull I bull I bulltr I I

bull I bull I tr bull II 0 I I 1(+)

tr I bull I bull I bullbull I I I

tr I I Ibull I bull I bull I

bull I bull I bulltr bull II I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull bull I I I

I I Ibull bull bull I bull I bulltr I bull I

bull bull bull I I bulltr I bull I I bull I I I 2

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

~-~ _ a--f----=-________

~_~----J

~-~ _ trtr ---------bull-bull- I bull I I

tr tr bull I bull bull bull bull bullbull-+--+--+-+-+-1-iIJ-+I-+---t1

bull bull I ~r I - I 4

~ tr j~ - bullbull--+-1---eillE-la--j---j I bull I bull

bulltr I bull I I bull bull I bull

bulltr I I I

(+) Applicable to the French model flute

I bull I

tr I bull I bull

bull f---1f--l--+-+-+--af-+-+--l1 5

f--tt-+-+-+------r---ilbull-t-+--ll 6

bullbull-+-1--t---t--+--+-f-+--t---11 6

tr Ibull I bull I

bull I

1--+---+---1a--t ---1bull--+---+---I1 7 (+)

~~r--+---+--+---+----II tr bull I~ bullbullgt---~+--+-------o---J bull bull bullbull I 7 (+)

XtrI I I 181bull

Xtr II bull I 1---4~XE--tr--l--+-----tIt-+-+---l1 9

1---4a-l--l--4llXctr-+I_-+-+--11 9bull

I bull I bull I bullbull~--I bull bull bull tr

trFR=--() bullbullbull 1--iIIbull --+-__t---tIIt-+--+---+---I1 10

EUI= 1-1-+---~a-bull-+ bull bull ~r I I

TRILLS [Half-step and Whole-step]

1 This is possible only with the use of the French model flute Depress the 3rd key-ring RH by hooking the thumbnail underneath and behind the key trilling the tone hole Adequate time is necessary for the preparation of this unshynatural hand position

2 When possible begin the trill by using regular F fingering (3rd RH) to establish the proper level of intonation

3 This may be used for added facility when the trill is followed by the note E However the F~ is slightly flat in pitch

4 This fingering produces a flat BP(A) It is acceptable in a If and its use may facilitate technical passages

5 Appropriately used for a PP this fingering produces a higher level of pitch for C2 and C3 bull

6 Use this fingering for a ff since a lower pitch level for C2and C will result3 7 The intonation for C(DP) is lowered by venting approximately

one-half of tbe tone hole of the 3rd key LH

8 When possible begin the trill by using the regular D fingering to establish the proper pitch level for the interval

9 This lowers the C for a near correct interval

10 When possible lower the 1st key L4H~ slightly until the intoshynation and tone quality for D and Di(EP) is improved

x- Use Trill Key [l3]

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull

3 TRILLSltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

bull bull bull bull bull bull

I trbull middot1 bull bull I

I middot1 tr

Ibull bullbull I 110

~--bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull I Jr

J ~r I Jr I

Ibullbull III I 1112

M---1 bull bull bull bull I Jr l I 1

~--e-j bull bull bull ~ 2

~-- I bull bull bull I Jr I I I bullbull I I I

~--_I bull bull bull tr ~

~-- bull bull bull ~

~-- tr

bull bull bull bull ~

~--e-j tr

bull bull bull bull [14J

bull bull Jr I~-

~ I bull bull tr bullbull tr tr

~_ bull bull bull bull tr tr

I Jr bullbull bull I

I Jr l-i~_ bull ~r I Ibull bull I

bull bull bulltr I II

~-- bull bulltr H

~-- bull

tr I~_ I bull

bull I tr Ibull

bull I bulltr I

t-rl I I I bull I I I I

H-+++-e-+-+-t--

I I I I I I 1 I Ibull -+-1 I I bull I I I I H--+--++-+++-1 4

~ f--I I I I bull I ~-H

H-+-++e-++-H

Jr- I I I I I Ibull I ~r I I bull H---H

1-+--1 f==1 bull 5 I ~ 1--1 6

bull I II- I bull 16

Smiddot +

bulltr I I bull I I I

I I bull I

1------l----il)(e--tr+1--+-~-tIt-t--+-I1 13

I bull I I I

I------l--+-+I-Xlrt---jrIr--tIbull -+1-+1-II 14

I I

)(tr I Xtrl IbullU--I II bull1-1--+--t-----Cgt----i X

tr I Xtrj 15(+)

bullbullbull I I I bull I Ia~--I Xtrl

O-Depress the key by its edge

I I I Ibull bull bulltr bull

bull bull J--i 1--0 bull bull 116(+)

bull bull bull tr bull bull I bull I bullbull I I I

bull bull I I

1----tbull -+-CgtIgt--+--i-+-+----I117 (+)

tr trbullbullbullbull 1 bullbull 111

II Begin the trill by using the 1st key LH open for E~(D)

12 F2 is lower in pitch when this fingering is applied 13 While using the trill key apply proper tone support to simulate

the tone quality of regular C Adjust the direction of the air column downward

14 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for D Then apply the trill key and proper tone support to sustain a more correct interval

15 Depress the 3rd key LH venting the entire tone hole This assists in correcting the intonation level for a ff

16 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for E then apply the trill fingering venting the entire tone hole of the 1st key RH When playing PP the 3rd key LH is to be vented slightly during the trill

17 Almost the entire tone hole of the 2nd key R H is to be vented In a pp the tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be slightly vented while trilling

[15]

8va---

3TRilLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

r-- tr ~~ I bullbullbull I I I I I I I bull I 126

f--(gt I bull I bull bull I I 27(+)~~ I I bullbullbull

tr I I II e I 1

8va--- bull I I bull bull I I Jr Xtr I I I bull I I 28

~ ~I Imiddotmiddotmiddottr Xtr I I bull I I I bull () bullbull 1--+1--+-1-+-1~ -~I-+--II 29(+)

8va-

~I bullbullbull tr tr

f-I- bull -+-~bull-bull- bull I bullbull ~ 8va---

1---e~1+1~XF-tr+1 -bull-r---i--tl 30~ ---H bullbull I I I ~r I bull I I I I bull I

bull tr 1---e~1+-1lh a---fI-+--+--J1 31bull I bull bull bull8va--- tr

r4--~ bullbullbull I~J~r f-I+-1lhbullbull=-+I-+-1-+1--1 32(+)

~ bull I Jr l bull 11----+-1~II---+-I -tI~1 -+1=-11 33

~ tr

1~-l)(If-+~11---+-1-+1-1bull-+1--1 34(+)

8va---- bull I bullbulltr

0-1 ~r I I I I I I 135(+)

t---eJ--r)(If-tr-+I-l)(1E-+-1-+1-+1-+I---li 36(+)

~~ Jr )(trI I I I I I I 1---a~JrX-+rI~IeA----4l-+r-+1-1 37

bull I bull I bull ~rX I I I I I I Ibull I bull I bull

8va---

I bullbull I~~

bull I bull

gt--+---+I~o

I bull

I ~r I tr ~ I I

I Jr I bull I I Jr 1

bull

I f--+----t--lto

I I Xtrl

I I bull I I bull bull I

X bull I I

I bullbull I

118

119(+)

120

I I

I I 1121

I bullbull I I

I I bull I I I Jr I bull I

I bullbull I I I I bull I I

I 122 I 23(+)

I 124

I bullbull I I I I bull I bull I I 25(+)

I I bull I I I

-[16]

__========-==========~~========~=====~ ~-_ 1

8va---

~ ~rll bull bull bull---I--r--bulltr-e~~r-iIIIt--t bull x bull bullbull 138

8va--D- tr x bull ~--bullbull-+--jo-r-+-tJ-I X oJ-+---f---+--1 39(+)

8va---

~ tr I tr bull I ~__-+--- ---t---e--i I )( I 140

8va-- tr tr

bull bullbull bull -I )(1---4a-+--e-4--+--+-+-+--e 4 O ~--IJgt-r-III---1----lt~ 1----41-+-+---+---+--+--+-+--4140bull bull bull bull I

8va--- tr tr

1---4~-+--+--+-1 -lt+--+-+-1-- 40~_ bull bull bull bull bull I

18 Although a basic fingering this does produce a faulty F

19 Vent the entire tone hole of the 2nd key RH If necessary the interval can be adjusted further by venting the 2nd key LH while trilling

20 The tone quality and pitch level of this interval is inadequate but in a ff this trill is acceptable

21 This fingering is appropriately applied in a PP On French model flutes vent the 1st tone hole RH while trilling to execute a secure diminuendo

22 To adjust the intonation for a more correct interval apply proper tone support

23 This fingering is useful in a PP bull Vent the tone hole of the 2nd key LH according to the desired level of pitch

24 Although the F is flat this fingering is acceptable in a ff 25 Depress the 2nd key RH to lower the level of pitch for

a If 26 Fundamental tones G] and A] are overblown in the production

of this trill HenCe a greater amount of tone support is necessary

27 Vent approximately one-third of the tone holes of the 2nd key LH and the 1st keyRH The intonation for G may be imshyproved by venting the 3rd key LH slightly during the trill

28 The A is faulty Throughout the trill apply firm tone supshyport to improve upon its tone structure

29 Begin the trill by using regular fingerings for G and A Then vent the 2nd key LH approximatell one-third of the tone hole [appropriately used for a PP J

30 This fingering offers suitable control for a PP bull

31 Use this fingering in a ff bull 32 The tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly to

provide for an immediate tonal response in a pp bull

33 Fundamental tones A] and Bl are overblown to produce this trill It is recommended fOr a ff level only

34 This fingering is applicable for a softer dynamic level Vent the 2nd key LH approximately one-third of the tone hole bull

35 The problem of coordinating this fingering may effect the tonal production Avoid moving the flute while blowing Vent approxshyimately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH and one-half of the tone hole of the 1st key RH or as may be needed to adjust the intonation for A

36 The 1st key RH may be vented slightly while trilling to raise the pitch level of the BP in a PP bull

37 This is appropriate for a 17 bull 38 The note C is lower in pitch 39 The intonation can be improved by vegting the entire tone hole

of the 3rd key RH 40 This trill demands substantial breath support Apply low C for

flutes without a low B foot joint

[17]

bull bullbull

bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull

bull

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

I bull I bull I ~I bull bull I 1(+)

bull I bull bullbull I bull I bull I Jr I bullbull 1 2

I bull I bull bulltr II bull I 12

I bull tr tr

I bull I bull I bull I I 2

trbull I I ~rl I H2

bull I bull bullbull

bull I bullbullbull I ~r I Jr I bull bull I I I 2

[18J

bull bull ~ Jr I I bull I 12

bull bull ~r I bull I bull I I bull I Imiddot I 23

trbull bullbull I I I I I bull I I 123

bull ~r I I I I I r bull 1--+-1 2

I I I I bullbull I I 12bull bull bull tr I

bulltr bullbullI ~1---I---+-----lI---+---+---1124 ~I-J--+----JI~ t-+---+--i1 2

tr tr I ---11-+-11--+-1-4-+---+----11 2

Jr ~r I ~I-J--+----J--t--J-t-I---+--il 2 bull--~tr tr--1I bull I bull I 12

f--i--j-+-t--t--j-l-t----+--il 24 tr tr I 1--+-4--+--1-+1l-t---t--il 2

bull I bull

bullbull I

bullbull I

bull I bull

Ibull

bull I

bull bull I bull__-+---

bull

I

~ trbull bull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull bull bull bull

124

12 ~ --+---+-H I xtrl xtrl bull I I I

~ tr trbull bull bullbull bull bull tr bull bulltr bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bullbull

12

15

16 ~ e---+-+-+--+--1

-i tr tr Ibull bull bull ~I Xtrl xtrl bull f-e-I bull I bullbull

16

19

~

~ ~

~

bull 4rbull I tr trbull bull bull I

tr tr trbull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr Ibull I tr bullbull I tr I I tr bullbull tr I I Ibullbull I ()----jbull bull bullbullbull bull

I tr

l

X 1

bull I

bull I I I I 1 I Xtr

Jr I Xtrl

I I Xtrl

bullbull

bullbull bull bullbull bull bull bull

124

127

127

16

12

12

12 18(+)

I 16

TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

1 Firm the hand position by anchoring the little fingerLH against the flute and underneath thi G lever Then apply the technique as described for the C -D trill [See TRILLS]

2 This fingering also applies to the octave above

3 Firm the hand position to avoid unnecessary movement of the flute against the embouchure The interval will sound more correct if it is produced with a less intense air column

4 This fingering affords a secure hand position The interval is faulty but may be acceptable at a ff level

5 The Cmiddot is flat and will demand the use of greater breath support

6 This is appropriately used for a PP level

7 To achieve a balanced ~and position while executing the tremolo depress the G lever

~ bull bull

bull bull

XtrlI ~r I 1

I I bull Xtrl bull

I 16

8 Apply this fingering at a PP level only When using a French model flute vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH

9 Begin the interval with the use of regular fingering for the lower note then proceed with the fingering as shown

[19]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

1

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

~ bull I tr trbull bull bull I bull middot1 I middot1 I 19

~ trbull tr bullbullbull I I I 19middot

~ Jr tr trbull bull bull I middot1 I I I bull 1 1 19

~fJf ~

bull

Apply lower octave fingerings

Jr I Jr II bull bull bull I I bullbull I I 110

~ bull I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I trbull bull I I I II

bull I bull I I Xtr Xtrj middot1 112bull

~r I Jr 1 I bull I 113bull I bull bull I~ bull

~ a ~ ~

~

~

bull bulltr bull bull

bull

bull I

bull bull bull bulltr I1

bull I bull bull Jr I ~r I tr bullbull I I

bullfr I bulltr 1 bull I tr tr I

I

tr tr I tr tr

tr trbull I bull bull bull I

x tr I I I bull I

xtr I Xtrl bull I

I I X tr

I Xtr 1

I Jr 1 1 I I bull I

I bullbull tr I bullX

19

114

I I

I 115(+)

116

19

I bull I bull J9

I bullbull 117

bull I I bull I 18

I I 118

I I I I I I I 119

[20J

bull bull tr tr I f------1-+--+--+--+-e_f-t-i1 25

~--+-__+_-+-----1I__-II-+-l1 24

tr f----tt-+I--bullI---iIII~e-f-t-i1 20

~--+-I__+_-+-----1If--agt-+-+-1 22

f-+-+---+--+----If--agt-t--+---11 23

~a___+__f--+----+--+---ll 20

1--1-+---+---+--+1---+---+-11 21

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull bull bull trbull bull bullbull

tr trbull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull

bull

bull

bull

trbull

bull

bull

8va-----

~(lt

8va----

~

r~~t-rXt-1--+--t-+1~I-+I-I 26(+)

f----4III~-rX--1r 1--+--11--+-1~I-+---li 27(+)~ tr t

bull 1 bullbullbull 1 1----1--t--+-+--it-r-+I-e-t--ll 28

10 Overblow the fundamentals(D-F) at the 12th

11 Overblow the fundamentals(E~-G) at the 12th

12 The D is better in tune as the tremolo is played pp bull

13 The fundamentals (E-G) are overblown at the 12th

14 Apply this fingering at a ff level

15 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown at the 12th When using the French model flute vent the 2nd keyLU and the 1st keyRU slightly while trilling This improves the intonation and affords control at a pp level

16 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

17 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

18 The fundamentals(G-BP) are overblown at the 12th

19 The fundamentals(G-B) are overblown at the 12th

20 This fingering is more difficult to coordinate however it produces a more correct interval

21 Overblow the fundamentals(G-B) at the 12th

22 Overblow the fundamentals(AP-C) at the 12th

23 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

24 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

25 Overblow the fundamentals (BP-DP) at the 12th

26 These harmonics are produced by overblowing BP at the 12th and F at the 17th This fingering is applicable also when using a closed-hole flute however the French model will produce the tremolo with clarity The tone holes of the 2nd and 3rd keys LU are vented slightly

27 Same as 26 but apply the harmonics B at the 12th and F at the 17th

28 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown to produce the harmonics at the 15th

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

8va------

~ bull bull trbull r-cirxtr I I I I bull I I 29(+)

8va-

~

8va----

~fit bull

bullbull

trbulltrbull

tr trbullbull I I

I I tr

X I

I I I

I bull I 131

bull 1 I 130

8va----

~ bull I bull

tr tr bull bull bull I I I I bull I I 132

8va----

bull bull bull bull I Jr l I I I I I 133

8va--

bull tr trbull bull bull I I I I I I bullbull 134

[22J

8va----

~r bull o--e I bull I I I I I M 35(+)

f

29 Overblow B2 to produce the harmonic at the 12th On French model flut~s the response of the interval is improved by depressing the 1st key ring RH

30 Overblow the fundamentals (G-BP) at the 15th

31 Overblow C2 at the 12th to produce Gbull

32 The fundamentals (G-B) are overblown at the 15th

33 When using a flute with a B foot joint depress the low B key only

34 Overblow the fundamentals (A-C) at the 15th

35 On French model flutes depress the 3rd key ring LH The tonal response when using this fingering may vary with some flutes if so use the EP key instead of low C

I I

These charts include as many fingerings as are pracshyticable in the execution of tremolos involving intershyvalsinfourths fifths sixths sevenths and octaves Those intervals which have been omitted lacked acceptshyable fingerings that would offer adequate facility with the necessary tonal response Probably these intervals could be played with a degree of proficiency by using the regular fingerings resulting in a superior effect

Tremolos other than thirds or fourths are used inshyfrequently but being knowledgeable in their technical production would prove most beneficial to the performer Their physical demands would add a totally new dimenshysion to the flutists technique Embouchure flexibilishyty and the coordination of the fingers are the initial benefits that accrue from the execution of these wide intervals

It will be noted that a resemblance to the regular fingerings will exist in some of these and the addishytion of the G~ or thumb or trill keys serving as vents lend an added distinctness to the intervals In many instances these keys bring about a response as efshyfectively as would an octave key on other woodwind inshystruments

Apart from their function as tremolos there are nushymerous advantages which these fingerings offer The conshytrol of technical passages by applying these as short cut fingerings the production of tonal effects in lyrshyical phrases or the purposeful application of tone coloring simply by reiterating these intervals slowly are all distinct merits that would contribute to a pershyformers technical skills However the individual situations in present-day repertoire must be researched experimentally in order to apply the various fingerings These will promulgate a more comprehensible approach to the application of the harmonic series as well as provide for an extended view in the use of the French model flute

4(b) TREMOLOSCPerfectFourths and Tritones

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

tr1middot1middot bullbullbull I bull I Jr I Jr I bull bullbull

tr trI bull I bull I I bullbull II

tr tr ~ bull I bull I bullbull II

II

I tr I tr I tr I I I1---iIbull-I--iIIIIr--+-ja-t-1IIbull-+------1 I

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones)

1 Apply these fingerings one octave above

[23)

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones) Cant

tr tr trbull I bull I bull 1 I I IIbull bullbull I

bull bull tr

bullbull I tr

bull I bull I bull I I I 11)2

tr tr bull bull bullbull bull I bull I bullbull I I 11)2

tr bull bull bull I I I bull I bullbull I I 11 1 3

trbullbullbull I 11 I 1 I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I bull I I bull I I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I I I I bull I I II

I 1 I I I bullbull I 1 11)5

I I I I I I bull Jshy 1L

I I I I I bullbull I I II

bull ~r bull I I Jr I I I I bull I I 114

tr trbull bull bull

tr trbull bullbull

tr tr Ibull bull bull

bull bull I Xtrl I bull I 16bulltr tr bull I I I I I bull I 11)7bull bull

I

Xtrlbull bull bull I I bull I 16- bull

t

trbulltr bulltr bull bull bull I I I I I bull I I 1)7

I XtrlI I I I 18bull bull bull bull bull I~- tr

bull bull I I I x bull I 19~-

I I~ bull ~r I I bull bull I bull Ibull [24J

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

y ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~

bull bull I bull 19

bull bullbull

bull bulltr

Ibull bull I I tr trbull bull bull bull I

trbull bull bull ~r I tr Jr I

tre----1 bull bull bull bull I bull bull

tr bull tr

Apply lower

tr tr tr

bull bull I

Xtrl Xtrl bull 19

bull bull I bull bull I

tr trbull bull X l bull 110

bull bull I bull I II

tr tr middot1 bull I I bull I II tr Jr Xtrlmiddot1 bull 110

Jr l XtrlI bull I 112

octave fingerings 13

~rl ~rl tr I bull 1 I bull I

~ Apply lower octave fingerings

~fJf 13

2 It is acceptable to trill only the G key for a PP level otherwise alternate the trilling of the G key with the 1st key RH

3 Use an intense air column to produce a more correct tone quality for Abull

4 Coordinate the action of both fingers to avoid lagging the response of the interval

5 For added facility trill only the 2nd key however the B will remain faulty bull

6 At a pp level this fingering may be acceptable

7 Although difficult to coordinate this fingering is preferred

8 Adequate breath support and directed inward will assist toward the production of a more appropriate tone quality for the D

9 As the upper note is faulty direct the air column inward to match the tone quality of the lower

10 This responds with ease and is suitable for app 11 The upper note will respond more readily as the interval

is played If 12 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to ensure clarity

13 Apply the fingerings given(See 1)

[25J

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritonesgt Cant

bull I I 11 21(+)

~ 8va--

tr tr bull lOX I bull I I I 22(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr bull I ~r I bull I I I I C) x I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va----

tr t tr tr bull I r I bull I I I I Craquo( I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr I I I I I I I I Ibull I I bullbull

~ 8va---

tr tr tr trbull I bulltr bull bull I bullbullx I 124 tr tr tr

~I x I 1(+) ~ bullbull8va---

tr tr I I bulltr bull bull bull I I x bull bullbull 125

~ 8va----

tr tr tr tr I I I I I I I 126bull I bull bull bull bull~

x tr xtrJ~rbullbull-+--+--I116(+) tr

l tr

)( I X I I 117

tr tr I I X 0 I I bull I I 1(+)

tr tr tr ~gt-+-If-X~I-e-ilr--+-il 19(+)

1--+1-i)(lrtr-tI-iXlrtr--+I-e-ilr--+-ll 20

11--+1-+-1-+I--+--+-bull-JI--+-I 14 t---drxtrl I I 115(+)

tr tr tr 117(+)bull bull bull bull bull I I xo I

bull tr tr Xtr Xtr bull bull bull I bull I I

tr tr tr 118(+)~ f-OX I X I bull I I

~ tr

bull I bullbull I I

bull I bullbull Jr I

[26]

I

8va---

~ 8va----

~ I_tr~x__t r+-I -+-+-1f-+-j--+-41 27 (+)

~ 8va-----

bull bull Jr ~29

~

14 Anticipate the action of the 1st key to avoid a lag in the response of the interval

15 In spite of this awkward fingering a ready response is afforded Alternate the use of the LH keys with those of the RH

16 This is purposeful for a ff

17 Apply this fingering for a pp

18 Control the action of the trill keys for a clearly defined interval Vent also one-half of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

19 Vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling to effect a pp bull

20 This is used for a ff

21 Vent approximately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH

22 For controllability concentrate on the use of an equal action with the RH fingers

23 The interval responds best when approximately one-half of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH is vented

24 This tremolo by necessity will be executed at a slower speed Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the thumb key and the right hand keys simultaneously

25 This tremolo will need to be executed quite slowly Altershynate the trilling of the G key with the use of the thumb and trill key together

26 Overblow the G~-C~2 fundamental at the 12th

27 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the use of the RH keys

28 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with the use of the RH keys

29 To correct an F that is faulty the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly while trilling

[27]

bull bull bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull

4(c)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

bulli I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I middot1 bull bullbull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 1 bullbull I

tr~ bull I bull bull bull bull I Jr I bull I bull I bull I II

~ trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 bull I I I I

bull tr trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 e e bull I 1 I

tr trbull bull I bull bull bull I Jr I el middot1

bull bulltr bull Ie I Jr I 12

tr trbull I bull bull bull I bull I e I 13 ~ tr tr tr I 1bull I bull bull bull bull I 1 4

bull ~

~ ~ -bull ~ bull

tr tr tr

I 1

bull I bull bull bull tr I

I

Ibull bull bull bulltr

I

tr tr II

tr tr II

e I bull bull Ibull tr tr tr

J

I bullbulltrx bullbull I

15

~rxtrl

xtr

xtr bull I

I I bull 16(+

17

I I Xtrl xtr bull 1

I tr tr Ibull I bull X bull I I 18

I bull I I Xtrl bull I I 19

I I I I I bull bull I I I

I ~r I tr tr bull I bull I bullbull 1

I I I I I I bull I I I

bull bull bull bull

bulltr bull bullbulltr

tr trbull bull bullbull I

tr trbull bull bulltr bull

bulltr bulltr bullbull

tr bulltr bulltr bullbull

bulltr bull bullbull I

bull bull bull o--e

e---jf-----bull-----

bullbull---1-----bull-0-0____

tr1- middotmiddot1 tr ~rl1-41-+1-----4---4----bull-11--+--11 II

bulltr I bull --+-iII~-+~1 12

tr bull I I - I

I - - I

ytrl tr 1--~7lr---+-+--4middotmiddotmiddot-4Imiddott---+-+---1113 I

114(+)

~ tr 115(+)

I bull trl bullbull 11516(+)

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

1 This fingering also applies to the octave above Alternate the use of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 The B is slightly flat

3 This fingering serves more appropriately for a pp bull

4 A more correct interval results with this fingering

5 Apply the use of a large aperture to produce a dispersed air column iQ using this fingering at a pp level The impurities in the C~ thus can be eliminated

6 This fingering is most appropriately used for a pp bull The D may be sharp in pitch

7 Use a strong air column to assist in the correction of a faulty D Alternate the use of the 1st key LH with the trill key

8 Avoid the sounding of extraneous notes in the interval by emshyphasizing control in the action of the RH fingers

9 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to secure coordinashytion with the LH keys being trilled

10 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the simulshytaneous action of the 3rd key LH and the 1st key RH

11 Avoid moving the flute thereby improving the coordination of the fingers

12 The B will respond clearly only if the action of the fingers is equalized

13 A slight accentuation of the G will assist in producing the interval with greater assurance Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with those of the RH

14 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightlyand about one-h~lf of the tone hole 1st key RH to adequately tune the G~ Avoid excessive closing of the embouchure

15 Accentuate the A throughout the tremolo to lend clarity

16 This fingering produces a controlled pp

~(c) TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths) Cont 17 Vent also one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH while

trilling

18 To ensure a tonal response accentuate the lower note

19 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH to properly tune the D This is more suited to playing pp bull

20 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with those of the RH

21 Apply a low B if available

22 An intense air column must be used for this interval Altershynate trilling the thumb key with the 2nd Although this finger- bull ing is awkward the interval responds readily and is enhanced further through the use of a low B

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

~

I Jr I ~r I~ bull bull bull bull I bulltr

I bullbullbull

~ bull I bull bull bull bulltr I Jr l bull I bull I bull bullbull 1

Jr I 1 bull I bull I bullbullbull 2~ bull bull bull tr

tr tr I~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull middot3 bull l

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull

bullbull1IIIIIIl~~~~

lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

~~~~

bull bulltr bullbull

tr trbullbullbullbullbull 111 bullbull 11

tr trbull I bull I bull I bullbull 12bull bull bull bull I

-i tr tr I I bull I bull I bull I bull bull I3

bull bull bull bulltr

tr tr tr I bulltr I bull I bullbull bullbull I

bulltr

I bull I bull I bull I I

bull I bull bull bull I tr I bullbull bull bull 14

~rl bull bull bull

bull I Jr I bull 16 Jr I bull I bull I

Jr I bull bull I 14

I ~r I bull I bull I I I I

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I j5

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I 15 tr trbull bullbullbull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

1 Alternate the trilling of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 Although this fingering demands coordination the tonal reshysponse is aided by the trilling of the 1st key RH

3 The A~ is slightly flat

4 This balan~ed hand position provides maneuverability howshyever the A~ remains flat in pitch

5 Direct the air column inward to achieve adequate response for the low C~

6 This fingering produces a lower pitch level for A~ bull

[31]

bull bull bull

--

I bull I I I I bull I I I

trxtrlI I Xmiddot bull I I 110

Xtr tr X bullbull III

Xtr Xtrl bull I 112

tr tr I bull I I I~r I X

Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 113

tr tr I JrXtrjbull bull I I 114

tr I Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 114

tr tr tr II tlr I bull I bull bull bullbull 15(+)

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)Cont

~ tr tr tr I bull I Ibull I bull bull bull I 17

tr tr I 1 bullbull I I~ - bull bull bull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull bullbull I I I

tr tr tr trbull I I I~ bull bullbull -I middotmiddot1

~ tr trbull I bull bullbull ~rl bull I I bull I I I

tr tr tr tr I~ bull I bull bullbull I middot1

__I tr tr ~8 ~ bull bull bull

tr bull bull Xtrl~ bull I bull bull I I middot1 I 19

[32J

~ ~ ~ V bullbull bull bull

tr tr Jr I

Ibull bull bull bull I

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull I

-1 bull bullbull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull bull

I I

r

I tr tr tr tr

I 115(+)bull bull bull bull bull I-laquogt bull I bull I bull I 13

bull ~ rdr r I bull I bullbull 113(+)

bull bull bull tr

~ bull bull I bull I 118(+)1

bull bull bulltr r I I bull Xtrl bull I 119

tr trbull bull bull bull ~ I bull bull bull bull 118(+)

tr tr 120(+)bull bull bull bull r--laquor-I bull I bull I bull I

1-1t-t-I-+--1-iI-+----+--+----11 21(+)

trbull bull bullbullbull

7 Avoid moving the flute during the tremolo Direct the air column inward to assure response for the D

8 Alternate the trilling of the LH key with the trill key The D is faulty Avoid the lag in response resulting from the LH reacting late This interval will prove to be difficult in sustaining a tremolo

9 The D is flat and requires added breath support Alternate the trilling of the thumb with the trill key [see 8J

10 This tremolo is more correct in pitch if played softly Use a slightly diffused air column to prevent the D from becoming sharp

11 This interval must be played louder than 10 for it to be near corr~ct in its intonation Intensify the air column for the Dli

12 Use greater breath support to raise the pitch level for D bull

13 This interval will be difficult to execute as a sustained tremolo

14 Use the ED key to raise the pitch for the upper note if needed Alternate the G key with the simultaneous trillshying of the RH keys

15 Alternate the G key with the trilling of the keys of the RU The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH This tremolo is difficult to coordinate due to the possishybility of certain tone holes not being covered adequately

16 Anticipate the action of the trill key to aid in the proper coordination

17 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH while trilling The clear response will depend upon this controlled venting

18 The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th A breath emphasis given to this note will assist in its response

19 Adequate breath support for the F may paTtially correct its faulty tone structure

20 Vent ~pproximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH The Gli is a harmonic at the 12th Venting the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling may add distinctness

21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

[33J

r

- - -

tr -I I I 121(+)- -shy

4(d) TREMOLOS ltSixthsSeventhsOctavesgt Cont

-~

tr ~

trbull I bull -

_I

tr r--o I

tr - I -

- 1 bull

-

I

I I

__

21(+)

118(+)

~ - I bull tr

- o----l ~r 1 -I _I __ 118(+)

~ - I tr

bull -~ tr- -I -I I I I 22(+)

-~

tr ~

tr- 1 bull -()-----1

tr I _I --I I-tr tr I -I I- shy

121(+)

122(+)

- ~ tr

j--() I _ I - I - - 12 3(+)

tr ~ -I -I - I I 124(+)

~

bull ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~

~

Jr I tr tr 0-1shy~

~

~

~

tr - shy-

tr trbull I - I- I

-tr I - II I

Jr 1 _I- I I

Jr I _ -- I

tr tr I-I I - I-Jr I I I - Ishy

I Jr II I - 1 shy

tr I tr I Il I

I 124(+)

I I 21(+)

I 125(+)

I 124(+)

1 121(+)

I 121(+)

- 126(+)

I 127

[34]

bull bull bull bull

2nd 3rd

l~~ tr

bull bull bull bull I bull~

bull r ~r bull I I Jr 1 ~r I bull bull I 127

~ tr tr tr tr rr I xI H27bull bull bull bull l bull I

~ r tr ~r Xtrbulltr bull bull I r-+- bull I 127

~ tr tr trbull bull bull bull I I Jr I XI bull I 127

~ tr tr tr

I XI -I 128

~ tr ~I X I

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull I

~ tr tr

Xbull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 129

~ tr tr Xtr bulle-----i bull bull bull bull I X bull bull 11330

~

B~

tr I bullbull 130bull bull bull bull bull

~ tr tr tr I

--I bull bull bull 1 bull 1 bull X I bull bull 11331

~ 21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper

note is a harmonic at the 12th

22 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

23 Vent approximately one-half of the tone holes 2nd key LH and 1st key RH while trilling This produces a G~ harshymonic at the 12th but on a low C fundamental (vented)

24 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

25 Vent one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The A is a harmonic at the 12th

26 Also vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

27 Favor the embouchure and direction of the air column used for the lower note throughout the tremolo

28 The D will be flat and demanding of full breath support

29 This interval may be cumbersome as it requires alternating the trilling of the 1st key LH with the trill key

30 Direct the air column outward and to further the responsiveshyness of the interval lend a breath accentuation to the upper note

31 Alternate the trilling in the LH with that of the RH

[35J

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

4(d)TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths OctavesgtCont

I I xtrI I 1 bull bull 113131

~ tr tr trbull I bull bull bull bull I I X I X bull I bull bull 113~

tr tr X bull bull I bull bull bull I I Xtrl I bull bull 113131

~ trbull I bull bull bull bull tr Xtr I Xtrl bullbull 113

~ tr tr tr

~ Jr Ibull I bull bull bull bull bull x I bull bull 13

pound tr tr trbull I bull bull bull I x I bull bull 11331bull

tr ~rXtrlbull I bull bull bull I I I bull bull 113 131

~ ~r I

tr tr tr I I bull bull 11332(+)[=~

X

[36 ]

bull I I Jr Jrxtr I 113 133bull~ ~ ~ 1tJ= ~va---

8va--bull 8va---bullyen bull

I

~

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bulltr bull

bulltr I I

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

tr trbull I bull bull bull bull

(+)

~rl Jr I I I bullbull 134

tr tr tr middot1 bull x I H 31(+)bull I

tr tr I I I C) )( I bull I H1335

(+)

~rl bull I I bull I I 136(+)

~rl ~r I I bull I I 137(+)

tr ~ I ~r I bull bull H13 138

(+)

~cirl I I 1(+)bulltrbull

140(+

I42(+)

I(+)

140(+

bull I

~~I-+-+-11-----+-1--+--JI 39

I tr tr

j Ll-J

~bull --Xlf-+-+---+-H I I 43 (+)

r-Jr I bull I bull I

i----()-4--I-+-1--+-+----+--J (+)

tr tr bull bull egt--e

tr tr

bull

tr trbull bull bullbullbull

trbullbull--I----(raquo)--+-~

bullbullr----I--r--~o--j

bull bullbull ~ bulltr ---+~-+--~

8va--

~ bull bulltr bull

32 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH Alternate trilling the G~ key with the simultaneous trillingof the RH keys

33 The 2nd key RH is vented imperceptibly while trilling Alternate the LH with the trilling in the RH

34 B~gin the tremolo by giving breath pulsations to the upper G~ to benefit the response of the interval

35 The 2nd key LH is alternated with the synchronized trilling of the 3rd key LH and the RH keys The 2nd key RH is vented slightly

36 Vent about one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

37 The 1st key LH is alternated with the trilling of the RH keys

38 Scarcely vent the 1st key RH The harmonic content of the G adds to the difficulty in its response Regular fingering for this interval might be appropriate

39 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd

40 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

41 Also vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling

42 The 3rd key LH and 1st key RH are vented slightly according to the dictates of the interval in its level of intonation and ease of response

43 Scarcely vent the 2nd key LH while trilling the 3rd key approximately one-half of the tone hole

[37J

bull bull bull bull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Seve-nthsOctaves) 5ALTECont Nearl

the Fren of the f

(a) A 8va~ (b) A

(c) A

bulltr bull bulltr bull (d) E

(e) A~ These tOnal ef

8va~ be most trastsbulltr tr tr I I Jr I 144 (I

1-1-+--+--X~-+-+--+-J -I I Altho

erally i ~ breath p pianissi sitively notes to check til imperati in balao tack tha44 Use the low B key when available

Alter45 Vent about one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH special Hence t with eas

46 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd A firm action by the 1st finger must be accompanied by a slight Howev breath accentuation for the B offering

er breat pitch Ie clined t

At ti use of a followin suggeste ness giv plish th mended t fingerill The adju to the t teristid duct ion dependcn tonal sl oughly t completlO dynamic~

illgS is essenti~

44(+)

trbullbull

tr tr

trbull I 144

I bull I I x tr I bull I I 145(+)

I Jr I I bull I I

trbull bull

trbull bull bull

trbull bullbull

tr Cgt

~r bull I

bull

bullbullbull Itrbull

trbull

trbull

bull

bull bull bull bull

5ALTERED FINGERINGS Nearly all of these altered fingerings will require the use of

the French model flute They produce notes possessing two or more of the following characteristics

(a) A transparent tone structure (b) A higher pitch level than with normal fingerings (c) A variation of timbre (d) Extreme pianissimo with sensitively posed adjustments (e) An added resistance factor for playing fortissimo

These notes retaining a transparency add a new dimension to the tonal effect and used with discretion this blending of sound can be most desirable in phrases that also call for greater dynamic conshytrasts

Although the amount of breath support needed for these notes genshyerally is less than for those played with normal fingerings the breath pressure should be maintained in the usual manner as for a pianissimo The resultant pitch level can be controlled more senshysitively with many of these fingerings and the usual tendency for notes to become flat while playing softly sometimes can be held in check through their application When executing these notes it is imperative that the tongue stroke for the individual attack be used in balance with the dynamic level This avoids an overbearing atshytack that can delay the tonal response of the note

Altered fingerings for the notes of the third octave will be of special interest since the breath support for these can be lessened Hence the adjustment in the level of intonation can be accomplished with ease and flexibility

However some of these fingerings produce an opposite effect By offering substantially more resistance they permit the use of greatshyer breath support in playing a fortissimo Consequently a lower pitch level can be attained for those notes that normally are inshyclined to be sharp These also possess a different timbre

At times it may be difficult or impossible to coordinate the use of an altered fingering with that of a preceding note or one following In each circumstance the fingering must be applied as suggested by the accompanying material and with equal attentiveshyness given to its resulting tone production In order to accomshyplish the maximum result with a degree of practicality it is recomshymended that the various possibilities as offered by more than one fingering for a particular note be explored as much as possible The adjustments for these varicolored notes must be made according to the treatment of the air column and the notes resulting characshyteristics Since each flutist by nature will approach tone proshyduction differently the ventin~ of the tone holes then will be dependent upon this phenomenon The performers capacity to hear tonal shadings nnd minute modificntions of intonntion will be thorshyoughly tested as he nttemllts to develop a technique for venting A complete understanding of this proceduJe for altering the pitch dynamics and tone quality is vital and the use of special fingershyings is a vnlued supplement to the interpretive skills that are essential in the flutists performance

This concentration of fingerings stressing the use of the French model flute will serve as an appropriate introduction to the SUbsequent charts in this book Many of these fingerings can be altered further to vent for a more exacting structure of a quarshyter-tone scale and because of their relationship with the function of the harmonic series they form a fundamental approach in the proshyduction of multiphonics

~ ~- bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 2bull bull bull bull bull 0-+-0 bull bull I 12

12~ bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull bull 12

~- bull bull bull o--i ~ bull bull bull bull 2

bull bull bull 0-1 f-o bull bull bull bull I 12

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull bull 12

0 bull bull bull 112~ bull bull bull bull bull bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull o-e bull bull bull bull bull I 12bull

bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull I 12 bull 0 0bull bull bull bull bull bull I 12

l Vent the tone holes completely Apply a wide aperture and use very little breath support This will lower the pitch signifishycantly and at the same time produce a light and transparent tone structure

2 Each of these fingerings offers a slightly varied tone quality Vent the tone hole(s) as indicated

[39J ALL FINGERINGS ARE USED FOR PIANISSIMO UNLESS DESIGNATED BY()

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cont)

()bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull I 17~-15bull bull bull bull I bull x I bull I

bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 12~- bull I bull bull bull Hgt I I I bull bull 18bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 12 ~- bull I bull bull bull 9

I H I I I bull 110~- bull I bull o-e bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 23 bull bull bull bull I o---e 123bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull bull bull I---igt I bull I bull bullbullbull8

I bull 0 I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull4tyenyent= bull bull ~-

bull I I Hgt I bull I bull I bull bull 18bull I ~ I I I I bull I I 13 bull bull bullbull ~-

I bullbullbull3bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull egt-e 10~ ~- bullbull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull egt--- bull I bull 1 bull I bullbullbull11 I bull () bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I 14 bull I bull bull o---e bull I I I bull I 112

() I I I I 110M- I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I 13 ~- bull I bull I I bull I bull I 13 I () bull I I bull I bull bull I I 113bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bullbull I bull I bull bull o---i I bull I bull bull I I I 1114

I I 0 I I I 17bull bull bull I bull I

bull I

I I 15sect2g bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull I ~- bull I bull () bull 1 I bull bull I bullbull j I 113 I bull X bull I bull I 15 bull bull bull I bull bull bullbull bull bull I o---e I I bullbull3

I 15~- bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull bull I bull I bull bull bull I bull I 0 I j 17

I bull bull bull bull I bull X bull I bull 15 ~- bull I bull 0 bull I bull [ bull bull I 115

bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I () bull I 16

[40J THESE ARE USED FOR FORTISSIMO ONLY

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

-

bull bull bull I bull () bull 17 ~- bull bull bull f-4gt bull bull bull bull bull 8

bullbull bull f--O bull bullbull 19

I bull I bull~- () Hgt I bull bull bull ~ I bull

f-ltgtbull bull bull I bull bull egt---i I Ibull~- I I bull bull bull I I I X 0

1--4gt I bull~

()

0pound- bull bull 0

0bull bull bull Ibulla- bull

8va---

bull bull bull I 0 ~- bull

0bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull ~

116

bull bull 1817

bull bull bull 18

bullbull 19bull bull 110

118

bull I 119

bull I bull bull 113

X I I 1820 bull

I bull I 113 X

I bull I bull I 118

818

bull 118

bull 110

3 This fingering makes possible a dynamic level that is louder than that produced with regular fingering

4 Vent the ~nd key LH slightly

3 Vent by using the trill key but only according to the desired level of intonation

6 Adjust the intonation by venting approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key RH

7 Scarcely vent the 2nd key ~H

8 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 The entire tone hole of the 1st key RIl is vented Use a sparse air column for the tone support to be used in maintainshying the level of intonation

10 Vent the tone hole according to the existing level of intonation while executing a diminuendo bull

II Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH

12 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH

13 Scarcely vent the tone hole of the ~nd key LH for added conshytrol of the pitch level This fingering noticeably produces an immediate tonal response nnd with tllis a veiled tone quality isproduced with ease

14 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH This produces a transparent tonal effect

15 Vent about three-fourths of the tone hole 2nd key LH If this is vented less the note may be played louder and a greater content of harmonics will result in its tone structure bull The note will be lower in pitch

16 Use an extremely soft attack to ensure greater sensitivity in the production of a light and clear tone structure

17 Gently raise the 1st key LH slightly This aids in eliminating the sound of the harmonic in the tone

18 The tone hole of the 2nd key RIl is vented completely

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality is desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch bull

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly bull

[41J Ij

I

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cant]

bull 0 bull bull 118~- bull ~ bullbull--+-__---+--__bull--1 0 bull bull 118bull

8va---- laquogt 119bull bull bull bull I bull I bull Isect==

bull bull bull bull I o----t-ltgt I I 21~-8va-----

~-~ t-----J-+I---t--+---~-+-11 10

I bullbull I I r-41~X~cgt-+--+--4It-+--+----i1 22

Ir--+I--X)f----jl-+I~bull-+-+---+-ll 23fiF=--bull middotbull -1---+---middotbull -1 1-0 X I X I I 924

~- bull bull I--t--A-X---t-I--JlX~~bull-lI--+-j1 8va----

~- bull bull bull bull middot1

~_~ bull j bullbull 1

8va---

bull 11-$shybull ~

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality ip desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly

21 TIle entire tone hole of each key 2nd and 3rd RH is vented Close a portion of the 2nd tone hole RH to adjust the pitch further if necessary

22 The (D) trill key is opened gently to raise the pitch At the same time vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key RH

23 Use a lip attack for added control of the pitch level

24 Depress the 0 trill key only slightly for the purpose of raising the pitch level if needed during the execution of a diminuendo

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute)

QUARTER-TONES To pursue the study of the quarter-tone scale one may wish to begin

by learning the notes in the chart on Altered Vingcrings When used apshypropriately they could establish n general background for the techniques that are related to this scale Altered fingerings can produce new timshybres that result from certain alterations of the physical properties of the air column Such alterations reveal multiple tube-lengths in the air column of the flute and are caused by the venting of various fingering combinations Tllis is noted wIlen using some of the fingerings for tremshyolos as well as altered lIotes As an acoustical phenomenon this emerges with greater prominence as tlw fingerings then arc vented further through the use of the French model flute It is by this modification of the finshygerings that the tonal responRe is transformed to produce a wide range of

[42J

tone colors Identifying these timbres and adjusting to their accompashynying physical sensations will enhance the performers adaptabilities in the development of embouchure control Also the application of a posishytive approach to the function of the air column will occur with greater sensitivity

To establish the scale of microtones(quarter-tones) it is necessary for these new sounds to be accepted in the traditional sense and played with firm conviction It is a known fact that when the flutist possesses a well developed tone structure for the semitones the prevailing intonashytion also will be appealing This same standard of performance would apshyply and hopefully should exist when developing the quarter-tone scale Therefore adjusting to the array of timbres that accompany the various notes of the quarter-tone scale should become natural and their tonal characteristics accepted as being ordinary

The fingerings included in this chart are based on an elaboration of the harmonic series The conventional response of the overtones is alshytered by venting certain tone holes which brings about the formation of the multiple tube-lengths This departure from the fixed overtone arshyrangement permits the sounding of the neighboring harmonics and with this occurrence a chromatic quarter-tone scale can evolve in an organshyized manner The use of these fingerings can bring about a greater flexshyibility when endeavoring to achieve absolute control of pitch

The listening required for the proper placement of the microtone inshytervals is indeed acute and becomes intensified with each effort This hopefully ought to assure the guiding of the intervals of semitones

As the quarter-tones are learned they must be treated as new fundashymental notes The tone control for these ought to be developed justas it has been for the regular semitones and an understanding of their placement in the schema will add immeasurably to their eventual evolushytion in the production of multiphonics ~Qqing of pitches normalshyly executed by the accepted practice of rolling the headJoint in or out to alter the direction of the air column need not be an exclusive apshyproach to the tempering of the pitches for the microtone scale Too ofshyten this technique seems unreliable although in a number of instances it can prove to be beneficial and will assist in the effectiveness of a particular fingering

Frequent adjustments of the embouchure in conjunction with the use of breath pressure and the directional change of the air column will be necessary for most of the notes Instructions for such treatment will be given for each note

The French model flute is an absolute necessity in the production of a great many of these notes since there is no way in which the closed-hole flute can tune quarter-tone~ as accurately The use of only the basic fingerings can become restrictive and will limit the degree of variation

A reeducation in tonal imagery and pitch relationships is vital to the development of a microtone scale This could eliminate the aleatory approach to tuning Therefore it is imperative that the player should determine the proper venting of the tone holes for these fingerings by seeking the correct pitch levels In fact as a result of the experience that was gained by the venting for the notes in the charts on tremolos and altered fingerings the flutist now must treat this as an accepted technique and consider the proper venting to be in balance with the emshybouchure habits in tone production Hence the text material in this chart will not dictate the amount that the tone hole is to be vented since each player varies the basic approach to tone production

The exclusive use of straight tone is not necessary for these notes and the application of vibrato certainly is in order Of course the

usual considerations would apply for its expression and it should be used with discretion

In most cases due to complexities that may be encountered with some of these fingerings there will be very little dexterity or facility for rapid passages Flutists must determine which fingerings will serve best in a given situation At the same time it is assumed that equal conshysideration will have been shown by composers in their compositional deshymands and that the musical structures can be clear of technical hazards

The notes of the chromatic scale of semi tones have been illustrated (in parentheses) with the quarter-tones in this chart To adjust for the tuning of each microtone properly the regular semi tone should be played first Following this each fingering for each quarter-tone ought to be tried in order to establish the correct interval as closely as possible At the same time one must be attentive to each fingerings tonal charshyacteristics With this the player then should react to the resistance factor which is set up in the flute This is resolved by recognizing a physical sensation that is demonstrated by the manner in which the tone responds At this time the embouchure should be adjusted accordingly Reshycalling this experience each time that the fingering is used should reshysult in the performer cultivating a familiarity with a more definitive approach to these tones and an anticipation of their prevailing pitch levels

Contemporary composers have used a variety of signs and symbols to indicate the sharps and flats for the quarter-tones In order to give this chart readability arrows extending from the stems of the convenshytional alterations have been used These denote that the pitch is raised or lowered a quarter-step Although only sharps have been used here the player must assume that the enharmonic notation would be used in performance

At same as 8~ Et same as ot etc

Also the enharmonic pitches apply as follows

A~ same as 8f or A1 ot or cl same as o~ etc

Unquestionably a great deal of experimentation with fingerings such as these will result in acquiring added facility in the manner in which all facets of tone production are studied Other fingerings may be conceived for notes of this scale However the criteria inshyvolving their adaptability will be similar to that already described in the preceding paragraphs

QUAIITER-TONE TIULLS

These fingerings create quarter-tone trills either ascending or descending Many of the notes include the possibility of a trill in either direction emanating from the principal note and are indicated as such by the text materials The instructions are given in an abbreshyviated form and are interpreted as follows

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The note this pro-letter identifying the to be activated duces and its tend-note ~ encies if any

Ex-( 4F C key DOWN to Q )

The flutist may wish to research these fingerings further in as much as they offer a seemingly limitless display of intervals of varshyious degrees Mini-microtones(sixth-tones or eighth-tones) also are possible and these will be referred to as pitch-pulsations in the subshysequent charts

[43]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

IPIO I C) 1 I 1 I I bull I 1 13~ bull I I I 14bull bull I bull I bull bull I bull I

~ I bull bull I bull I bullbull 15

0 I bull I I I I bull I bull I bullbullbull6- e-+ bull bull bull bull I bull bull 12 ~ bull bull I I f----o I bull 1 bull I bull bull 17Cgtbull bull I

iCO)~ IAIB I bull e bull I bull I 0 bull I I 13 IR I --0 I I I 14bull ~ bull bull bull bull I bullbull I bull bull bull bull I 0 I bull I bull bull middot12 I I bull I bull I bull bull I I 14

bull I bull bull f----o I bull I bull I bullbullbull4 ICIO I I 0 I I bull I I 13~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 4

bull I bull bull bull f----o I bull bull I bull bull 1I

~ IElFe I r-o 13 I (U)qgg ISIT I bull I bull I bullbull I I 14

IS I I bull () 1 I I I bull I I 141Ge---l bull bull bull r-o I bull 1 3

IS~ I I bull I --t-1 8

I (~~ bull I bull bull D---i I bull bull I bull I bull bull II IU I () bull I I bull bull 1 bull I bull 19~

I IV jIH bull D------i r-o bull I bull I bull I 14 I bull I bull x bull I bull bull I 15~ bull bull IVIW IIH bull bull o-------j I bull I bull I I bull bull 14 bull I 5bull

IJ e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 14 fXIY I e e bull I ex bull I bull I 13

IJ 5e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull 1 ~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I () I 110 I(e)~ IKIL bull ()----e I 1 I I I I bull I 13 IZ2A I I I 14bull bull bull X bull bull

IMIN~ If-O bull I bull bull 15

I bull bull o----e I bull I I ICia) M 2B2C bull bull bull I bull I bull I o bull 13bull bull bull bull bull 5 ~

bull I I bull I bull bull 15 I bull e bull bull I bull x bull I 311

[44J The preferred fingering for each note is illustrated first

bullbull bull bull 0 bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

~2F2 bull bull I 0 l_l I bullbull I 13bull -shy2H I I j 13bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 2J bull bull bull I f-cgt X I I bull bull la

~2~L bull bull o-j bull I bull bull 112 I X 0 I 112bull bull bull I bull

2M bull bull bull I I I bull bull bullbull1213

bull bull () bull I I I bull bullbull I 114

1 Apply a mlmmum amount of breath support using a wide apertureThis note lacks the usual tonal presence of the low register and its use is limited to extremely soft attacks

~ Direct the air column downward to adjust for the level of intoshynation This effort must be exaggerated when using a low C

3 This fingering produces a tonal response that is similar to that of the notes of the tempered chromatic scale of semitones A firm breath support may be applied and a resonance as well as a variation of dynamic levels are possible

4 Direct the air column downward in order for the note to attain as much tone center as possible and a proper adjustment for its intonation A light volume of air is applied but a medium dynamic level seems possible

5 Direct the air column upward in order to raise the pitch level A large aperture and the use of a dispersed air column will renshyder a distinct contrast in tone quality for some of the notes

6 Since there is no suitable fingering for a more accurate tuning of this note the air column must be aimed exaggeratedly downshyward However an interesting tone color emerges and a near correct level of pitch can be attained

7 If a split-E attachment is available this fingering may be alshytered to produce a correct pitch level Otherwise an unorthoshydox method of closing the 1st key RH is necessary to vent apshyproximately one-half of the B hole This seems impractical

8 This fingering effectively produces a subdued tone quality and is suitable for a soft dynamic level

9 The sounding of multiple harmonics in the tone must be elimishynated as the key is vented Attempt to favor the sounding of the upper pitch

10 A slight venting of the tone hole 3rd key RH will assist in the control of the intonation in a soft dynamic level

11 bull The 3rd finger RH should lean gently on the trill key in order to vent for the appropriate degree of intonationbull

12 bull This fingering serves best when playing loudly Apply an intense air column and use as wide an aperture as possible without altershying the tonal standard

10 The keys of the low B foot joint must be closed securely to preshyvent any unnecessary venting otherwise the F cannot be altered auequately Direct the air column upward

14 The tone holes as indicated are to be vented imperceptibly A translucent tonal structure is indigenous to most of these fingerings

lA I 3rd RH I UP to E

IB I E~ key I DOWN to Q(Sharp)

lC I 2nd RH I UP to I

ID I 3rd RH I DOWN to ~(sharp)

IE I 2nd Rff I DOWN to I

IF lIst RH I UP to 1

IG I 2nd amp 3rd RH I DOWN to F

IH I 1st ~nd UP t (( I )and (3rd) RII I 0 ~ S WIP

IJ lIst 2nd UP to G and 3rd RII I

lK I 3rd LH(vented) I UP to A

lL I G key I DOWN to ~~

1M I G key I UP to A

IN I 3rd RH DOWN to G(sharp)

IP I 2nd LH(vented) I UP to A

lQ I 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) I

lR I 2nd LH UP to C amp 1st RH I

IS I Thumb key I UP to ~

IT I 2nd amp 3rd LH DOWN to C (depress G~ key) I I

IV I 1st RH I DOWN to ~

IV I Thumb key I UP to Q

lW I 1st LH I UP to Q

lX I G~ key I DOWN to D

lY I E~ key I UP to J)

lZ I D Trill key I UP to D

2A I 2nd LH I DOWN to D(ring only)

2B I 3rd RH I UP to I

2C I E~key I DON to Q

2D I 2nd RH I UP to F

2E I 3rd RII I DOWN to (shllrp)

21 I 1st HH I UP to f

2G I 2nd RIl DOWN to f(half-vented) I 211 I 2nd RII I UP to r 2J I D Trill key I DOWN to I

(sharp)shy

2K I 2nd RH I UP to Q (sharp)

2L I )rd RII DOWN t ro (ring only) I a _

~-1 I )rd HII I UP to Q

[45]

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

8(a QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

2N bull 0---1 I bull I bull I 13bull 2P I I I bull 114- 2a bull 1 I bull 115bull I

4 m 2S2T I bull bull o--t f-o bull I bull I bull I 13

2T 1 bull bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I bull 13

bull I bull () bull bull I 1 I I bull 1 114

2S2U I bull bull o---e I I I I bull I 13rztt=22W bull I 0 I i I I I bull -t-+-3 2V2X~ I I 116bull I bull I bull I

(~)~ 2Y I bull I I bull I 0 I bull I I 116bullI 2Z~A I bull bull bull I I bull I bull I o bull I 13

f--(gt I 114bull I bullbullbull Ibull I bull bull bull I 38 I Q---j I 116bull I bull I bull I bullbull

I(n)qn ~ 3C I bull bull I I bull bull I bull I I I 116

bull I bull 0--+--1 f-ltgt I bull I bullbull 15 3D I bull bull bull I f---Cgt I bull I I I 114 3E I bull bull I I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

3E30 I 0 I I I 13bull bull bull I I bull I

f 1 t

bull bull 1

(~q~~ 3Fe

I bull bull middot1

I

3G

3H3J I

(~I~~ 3K I bull I I

I bull ()-e-j3L I

(0) qn ~3M3N I I I

bull ()I bull If

3P I bull 3Q

f (0) n ~~ 3R3S bull bull bull bull I 3S3Te

3T

3R3S3U

(~) ~-amp ~Q 3V

I 3W3X

bull 3Y

(0) ~o~ 3Z

1 4A

bull bull o--e ()

bull bull o--e

I bull bullbull I bull I bull I I o--+-Jbull I bull 0 bull I

I bull +---cr--l I bull bull I

tI I x I I bull 13

~ 115bull I bull I bull I I I I x I bull I I 118

1---0 I bull I bull I I I 1919

I 0 112 I bull I bull I bull I I I 317 r bull I bull I I bull I

j I bull I x bullbull 13 I

I bull I bull I bull bull 110 115I bull I bull I bullbull

1 I I x I bull 1310

13 I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

I bull x bull x I bull I I 116

I bull I () I bull I I 115

t---o I I I bull 1 bull 11920

I I I I I bull 119 bull X

[46J

B +

~ 48 bull bull bull bull I bull 112 4C

40 bull bull

bull bull bull

X bull I bull

bull 116

121 8va I

~4E4F bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13 4E4F bull bull bull bull 117 4G4F

middot8va 1rrplusmnt5=4H4J bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull I bull I bull

bull 0

0

bull bull

bull bull 119

112

bull 117

4JI bull () bull bull 1-0 bull bull bull 117 8va I (-Q)J-e- -eshy 4K4L I

I 4M4L I

4Me

bull ()

bullbull bull bull e

bull I X 1 bull X f---Q X

bullbull

114 11622 119

15 This is used advantageously for n pianissimo The intonation level is controllnble by venting the tone hole of the 2nd key L H slightly

16 A firm breath support with a vnrinble volume of air may be apshyplied to produce a reasonable range of dynamic coloring The intonation seems controllable as the flow of air iR directed upward

17 A relaxation of breath pressure seems possible ith this fingershying The tonal structure is altered nccordingly and at the same time a medium range of dynamic level can be controlled

18 This fingeringwill demand coordination when ascending from D and again to D The pitch level can be controlled by directshying the air coumn downward

19 The tone structure may become excessively airy but this as well as the intonation level can be corrected by adding subshystantially to its breath support

20 The use of the 3rd key RH aids only in the balanced hand position Thus the application of the fingering either in an ascending or descending paRsage is facilitnted

21 Overblow the low G at the 15th as softly as possible The harmonic content of the tone structure will be of contrasting quality The air column must be directed donward

22 To facilitate tuning this note ly vent the tone hole 2nd key

2N Low C key UP to ~~

2P 2ntl HII DOWN to ~

2Q )st I 2ntl HH UP to G~

2H 1 st HII UP to ~~

2S 1rtl LII UP t A (ring only) 0

2T 1st 2ntl DOWN to G~ anti 1rtl RH shy

2U G~ key DOWN to ~

2V 2nd LH UP to A~ (ring only)

2W 3rd LH (ring only) DOWN to A

2X Low C~ key DOWN to A

2Y Low C~ key DOWN to A~

2Z 3rd RH UP to 8

3A ED key DOWN to A~

38 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) shy

3C 1st RH UP to pound

3D 3rd RH DOWN to _8 (ring only)

3E 2nd RH UP to pound 3F 2nd amp 3rd RH DOWN to C

3G 1st Rn UP to C(flat)(ring only)

3H 1st RH DOWN to pound(ring only)

3J Thumb key UP to pound

3K 1st LH UP to Q

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

at a soft dynamic level scarceshyLH

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

3M 1st LH DOWN to 0

3N 0 Trill key UP to Q

3P Low C key UP to Q

3Q ED key liP to 1)

3R 1st RH DOWN to 0

35 3rd LH UP to E

3T 3rd RH UP to E

3U 1st amp 2nd RH UP to ~

3V 2nd RH UP to I

3W 2nd LH DOWN t E (ring only) 0 _

3X 2nd amp 3rd RH UP to I

3Y 3rd RH DOWN to ~

3Z 1st LH UP to I

4A 0 Trill key DOWN to F

48 G key UP to ~

4C D~ Trill key DOWN to I~

40 Thumb key UP to ~

4E jIst LH UP to G~

4F G~ key DOWN to G

4G 3rd RH UP to G

4H 1st amp 2nd RH DOWN to G~

4J 3rd LH UP to ~

4K 3rd LH(vented) DOWN to A

4L 0 Trill key DOWN to ~

4M 2nd LH UP to A~

[47J

II

1iibull bull bull

Sea) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

8va I_4N4PI bull r---ox x 123

40 I I X I 119

4N4R I 1317bull bull I X bull X 8va i

(o)~ft ~ I e19bull bull bull bull bull bull bull I 451 ()---1 x e e 119bull 8va i

(-e-)~-e- ~ 4Te bull bull bull I bull X I I 24

I bull e 0--- f-O I X bull bull 124

it

23 When descending from the regular B the 1st and 3rd keys LH may remain closed

24 This note may be played only at a loud dynamic level A firm breath pressure is vital to the control of the intonation alshythough the note tends to be sharp

4N D~ Trill key DOWN to ~

4P 1st HH(vented) UP to B

4Q 2nd LH UP to ~

4H D Trill key UP to _Band 2nd HH

45 2nd HH DOWN to ~

4T D Trill key DOWN to f

[48J

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo)

In this chart the fingerings for both the alto flute and picshycolo are combined The concepts of tone production and pitch disshycernment that were discussed in the preceding section on quartershytones for the C flute would apply to these instruments also Due to the limitations in venting the fingerings there will be less flexibility in the tuning of these notes In fact some noiesof the scale have been omitted because of unsuitable fingering comshybinations and a lack of control for the pitches However if an open-tone-hole model piccolo is available to the player other fingerings from the previous chart could be applied It will be noted that a great deal of emphasis is placed on the exaggerated change of direction of the air column for the purpose of tuning This will compensate for the lack of venting for most of these notes

QUARTER-TONE TRIllS

The text materials for these trills are presented here in the same manner as for those in the previous chart In some instances the direction of the air column has to be exaggerated either upward or downward in order to reach the proper intonashytion level for a single note in the quarter-tone scale This precludes the proper tuning of the quarter-tone trill When it occurs the smaller interval that results is termed a pitchshypulsation However prior to playing the trill special effort must be made to tune the quarter-tone from which the trill is to emanate otherwise even the small interval(pitch-pulsation) will be nonexistent Occasionally when only one fingering is given for both instruments the text will indicate the instrushyment for which the trill fingering is intended

bull bull e bull bull I bull I bull bull bull e I I~ e(o)~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull 12

reg - ALTO FLUTE

j ~

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull

f (e)~eF IA bull bull bull bull bull bull bull IA

Sb

+ l(ie)~ IQ I bull bull bull bull bull bullbull

I bull bull bull bull bull bull bull The little finger nlI must open the IP key and at the same

IS time close the footjoint keys The air column must be dishybull bull bull 30~ bull bull bull rected dowmarct to lower the pitch 1 eve IS bull bull bull bull bull bull 12reg

2 Exaggerate the ctowlllVilnl directioll of the njr column The apshyerture must relilain il~ opcn ttl possj) 1c otlerwjse the tone structure becomes sllpplcsilted This fi lIferinf i~ more appro-

IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13reg priate for il sort 1Ild subdued efrcct~ bull IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 14reg 3 Apply the techniques noS ill )- nlll u--( vcry I it tIc volume

of air This note milY lack ndeqllnte tOllnl projection

4 Using very little bleilth support direct the nil columnI(e)~ ID bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 120 dowmarct to Ilchieve the lIeceSiltary Jevel of pitch 1I0wever the tone qUilli ty of the lower register 01 the piccolo willIE bull bull bull bull bull 14reg project substllntiillly

5 Use a slightly victe Ilperture ilnd il direction of the air col-IF 140 umn that is similllr to that of the preceding note bull~ bull bull bull bull bull bull IG 14reg 6 Direct the air column downward but slightly for the evenshy

tual adjustment of intonAtion

7 The air column is directed upward~ IH bull bull bull bull bull bull I 150

8 It may be difficult to maneuver the fingers adequately butIJ bull bull bull I 14reg if the trill keys can be scarcely opened the note can be

properly tuned

I (ci)qng IK I bull bull bull bull bull 150 UP(pitch-pulsation) IJ I 2nd amp 3rd LH I UP to elA I 3rd RH I

IK I 14reg lK I Thumb key I UP to e~IB I 2nd RH I UP to F~ (flat)

lL I Thumb key I UP to D (Piccolo)Ie I 1st 2ndlIL 1 160 UP to G~ (sharp)3rd RIlFfft)~ bull bull bull X bull bull 1M I Thumb key I UP to D~10 I 3rd RH I UP(pitch-pulsation)IL bull bull I X bull 170

IN I 1st amp 2nd LH I DOWN to DIE I 1st 2nd amp 3rd RH I UP to A

IP I D Trill key I UP (pitchshy1M X X bull bull 150 IF I 2nd amp 3rd RII I UP to A~ Jlulsa t ion)(fla t)

INIP I I I X bull 16reg A~ lQ I 3rd LH I DOWN to D ~ bull bull bull

IG I 3rd LH I UP to (fla t)

0- PICCOLO IH I 2nd LII amp 1st RII I UP to e

bull bull bull bull bullbull

- IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull I I 124reg

IT 16bull bull bull I bull bull I bull~ IT bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14reg

l(~e)~ bull I bull bull bull X I bull bull IIOreg

IU 17g-QdegfO bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull IUIV bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull IGreg

~WX bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 17

bull bull bull bull bull I I x I bull I IIO IY bull bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull I 12reg

~ IZ bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull 6bull IZ2A 1 I I Iregbull I bull I I bull I

[50]

I(0) ~o ~e 2B bull bull bull I bull bull I 16middot0 2C20 16reg I bull

I(~~ Me 2E2F I I I I I bull 16middot0bull 2F2G I bull I I bull I bullbull 16reg

(~t~~ 2H I bull bull I 2J

(ft) ~n ~2K~L I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I Ibullbull 190 bullIR bull bull bull bull I bull I

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo) Cont

1 (Ito-) ~ ~-e- 2M2N 17

f

bull bull bull bull I bull I bull x bullbull 2P bull II bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull 16~P

(~) ~~ ~Q 2Q~R bull bull bull I bull I bull bullbull 16~I 2

(n) qn ~ 2T bull 1 bull 1 I bull 1I1

I bull 1 bull X

2U2V bull I bull bull I 11rreg 8 va 0i

~2~X bull bull I 1 bull bull I bull I 170

8va regI

I I I 1712rrplusmnyen==2~ bull bull bull I bull 8 va i

I I x bull 1110et-ECilDbull bull bull bull bull bull

reg

8 va I

(-amp)]-amp ~3E3F I I I bull 17I bull X 8va

I

I I bull I I I X bull X I I IIIO3H bull

9 Direct the air column as in 2 However the tone strucure will permit an acceptable projection at a medium dynamic level

10 Vent imperceptibly by opening the trill key gently The air colshyumn should be directed downward only slightly but the aperture is to be somewhat larger than for the preceding note Thisfinshygering serves best when ascending from the regular semitone

11 This is suitable only for a loud dynamic level The note deshymands full breath support and the air column should be directshyed upward slightly

12 The additional resistance that this fingering lends to the piccolo may cause undue forcing of the tone unless the performshyer displays control of the embouchure in this octave However the use of this fingering is not as problematical when applyshying it to the alto flute

lR 3rd RH UP to P

IS 1st LH UP(pitch-pulsation)

IT 2nd RH UP to r~ (Piccolo) (flat)

lU 1st RH UP to G~

IV 2nd amp 3rd RH

lW 1st RI DOW

IX 3rd LH L~ to

lyen 1st amp 2nd RH

lZ 3rd LH UP to

2A 2nd RH DOWN

DOWN to G (flat)

to G~ (flat)

A

UP to A

A

to A

2B 2nd RH UP to C

2C b Key DOWN to B

2D 3rd nH UP to C

2E 1st RH DOWN to C

2P Thumb key UP to C

2G 1st RH DOWN to C

2H 2nd LH DOWN to C

2J 1st LH UP to D

2K Eb key UP to D

2L G key DOWN to D(Alto flute)

2M 1st RH DOWN to D

2N 3rd LH

2P 3rd RH

2Q 3rd RH

2R 1st LH

2S Eb key

UP to E

UP to E UP to r (Piccolo)

UP to r(Alto flute)

DOWN(pitch-pulsation) (Piccolo)

2T D Trill key DOWN to r

2U 1st LH UP to P (flat)

2V 2nd RH DOWN to P

2W G key UP to G

2X Low C key DOWN to r

2Y 1st RH UP to G (Piccolo)

2Z 1st LH UP to G

3A 3rd RH DOWN to G(Piccolo)

3B 2nd RH DOWN to G (Alto flute)

3C G key DOWN to G

3D 1st LH UP to A (flat)

3~ 2nd LH UP to A

3P D Trill key DOWN to A

3G D Trill key DOWN to A

3H 2nd RH UP to B (flat)

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES MULTIPHONICS

No longer can the flutist expect that a traditional flute tone is the only attractive or acceptable sound structure Sound pheshynomenon must be valued as significant structure which the aspiring performer must embrace in order to add to the variety of musical exshypression in contemporary music In the various periods of music the goal of each generations performers has been to enrich and augment the sometimes restrictive character of the sound of the flute Hence with this standard of excellence in flute playing the evolution of compositional techniques has paralleled the instrumentalists develshyopment Accordingly more and more is expected of the flutists technical skills and resources

The or ani tion of many-voiced sounds is now a vital part of the f~ts technique ana for this all of the aspects of tone

-proouction are to be considered Rultiphonics involve the layerin ~ developin an understandin of the n use Q ere ones ~n e over one series of the flute~coustical the orma ionof _ muitiJHe tube-lengtns in the air column g e a number 0 requency vibrations with whic to produce added pitches simultaneously TOis affords an array of chord groups that are controllable Such pheshynomenon is observed when a short tube-length and a larger one are formed in the air column as additional keys are vented in a fingershying combination This causes a modification of the fixed overshytone arrangement of the flute

The composition of many of the fingerings for the multiphonics v ~can be traced directly to those presented for tremolos(especially

sixths sevenths and octaves) altered fingerings and quartershytones Interestingly many of the quarter-tones can be identified as fundamental tones for a number of these chords However the fingerings for these have been changed somewhat in order to facilshyitate the tonal response of the multiphonics

The tonal characteristics of these chords seem to fit into (3) different categories according to their timbres and dynamic levels They can be studied further by referring to these groups in part(B) of this section

The chords illustrated in this chart have included only the notes that possess a reasonable amount of prominence stableness and immediacy in tonal response Quite possibly some performers may be capable of elaborating on these structures to produce upto five tones However this would require considerable experience and a phenomenal control of techniques Except for those few inshydividuals who have such technical skill most flutists will need to devote some practice time to these peculiar techniques

~A flexible_~bnuchUI~_togetherwith sensitivit~ for the approshypriare use of the air column are an absolute must w en exper~mentshy~ng with new auditory experiences As the mUltiple tube-lengths are felt via the resistance of the flute the physical reaction to these must be repeated in virtually all of these chords The transformashytion of this resistance factor from its normal state in the flute tube must be recognized then the air column can be effectively used in balance with this

Those chords that react readily do so because the resistance is not posing a major hazard Thesetwo-note chords require little breath support with a slight alteration of the embouchure However

[51J

~the multiphonics that include1hr~~ or four notes offer muchgreatshyer resistance As a barrier this must be permeated by applying inshyensity to e breath pressure and at times with a large volume of

air Consequently more attention must be given to embouchure corshyrection for these Usin a w~ aEertur the air column needs to be directed so that a--segment of the flute range can be sounded in one air blast By diffusing the air column the tone is spread and thereby capable of including several notes at once These can sound simultaneously as a chord spanning more than one octave of the flute All of this is contradictory to the normal procedure that prevails for playing single-line notes For these the apershyture needs to decrease in size as the air pressure is increased

The volume of breath support for a multiphonic is an equally important matter The qeterminant is evidenced by the demands for each multiphonic and as the player adjusts to these the physical sensations that are to be recalled should be used as guides for the proper maneuvering of the embouchure

The text materials which accompany the fingering for each chord suggest the embouchure movements and technical modifications of the air column However the performance of these sounds cannot be achieved with only these directives More importantly the player must adapt to these sensitively by feel and become accustomed to reacting to the response of the chord with perceptiveness

Many of the chords can be sustained with reasonable success and sufficient duration However vibrato cannot be used because it would disturb the steadiness of the air flow Straight tone is the prime mover in establishing stability for the multiphonics

It is impossible to effect an instantaneous response from a chord Inorder to create the illusion that all of the notes are sounding at the same time the necessary corrections must occurat once These are realized by attacking the lowest note first or for some chords the highest This method assists in the use of the wide-angle aim of the air column for an equal response of the other notes of the tone-group The effect is one of a broken chord as is often played on a keyboard instrument or the harp If the response should lag and the notes of the chord are not soundingin balance with one another then those notes that are positioned at the opposite level from the attacking note either the lowest or highest of the chord must be favored This is done by directing the air column toward that level in the range that seems weakest

The chords have been placed according to their lower fundamenshytals in ascending order This is only approximate and in some inshystances when these pitches were the same the total effect of the chord was considered although the placement is purely arbitrary

The arrows on the alterations do not necessarily indicate quarter-tone pitches Some of these notes could be mini-microshytones In fact many of these notes may not always impart their ~itch levels as originally conceived in as much as the techniques of tone production are variable But this pitch discrepancy also can be extolled as a virtue since so many notes that have the same pitch level would also be capable of lending an impressive range of timbres When isolating the lowest or highest note of each chord and its intonation seems controllable a new dimension in tone coloring can be imagined for any single-line phrase

[52J

This arrangement of fingerings is not a complete collection of multiphonics Rather it is presented as a systematic study and a survey of possibilities for tone clusters There are fingerings which have not been included capable of producing virtually the same notes as some found in this chart Probably there are still other fingerings that may be ascertainable However those shown here seem to lend substantial control for a clear image of eachmulshytiphonic and are to be accepted only on this basis Therefore once the flutist has developed the technique for these additional finshygerings producing new chord structures could evolve through the efforts of individual research

The following points may be considered when the multiphonics are played for the first time As possible solutions to some probshylems that involved technical deficiencies these applications conshytributed to the learning process

(~) Do not isolate the individual tones of the chord as ~ the direction of the air column is adjusted

(b) Avoid an excessive covering of the embouchure hole on the flute and prohibit the forming of a small aperture A diffusion of the air column and a spreadshying of the tone structure should result

(c) A low B must be used when advisedotherwise the inshytervals may not respond with the same assuredness

(d) A wider than normal aperture must prevail for most chords

(e) The air column must be directed in favor of the opposshying note If the chord is attacked via the lower note then the air is to be directed slightly upward etc

(f) Learn to identify the resistance factor first to best judge the necessary breath support for a response

(g) Ascertain the proper venting of the fingerings

(h) Avoid moving the flute on the embouchure this ensures a functional application of straight tone

(j) Minimize the action of the embouchure when it becomes necessary to adjust the direction of the air column Extreme sensitivity is essential

(k) Avoid any exertion of external pressure of the flute against the lip Provide for mobility of the embouchure

(m) Adapt the embouchure and the air column to the sounds Do not attempt to alter the peculiarities of the timbres so radically otherwise the idea of having varieties of tone qualities at hand will be defeated These chords must be played convincingly or they will become repulsive

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-I

SPECIAL SONORITIES

When applying these fingeringsthe flutists and composers may wish to explore a variety of sonorities through the use of the chords Numerous effects are discussed in these sections that follow The position numbers and code numbers with letters have been assigned to the multiphonics These are to be referred to as each part is consulted for study

(A) Multiple Trills and Multiple Effects

Control of the multiphonic must be assured for the proper exshyecution of these effects The flute must be held steady to ensure the adequate dispersion of the air column so as not to obstruct the sounding of the multiphonic Practice by moving the fingers slowly at first in order to achieve a lightness in the action of the keys This will prevent a jarring of the flute on the embouchure

The following are possible using the illustrated fingerings

(a) MULTIPlE TRILLS UP or DOWN--- The lower and upper notes of a chord trill simultaneously and in the same direction

(b) MULTIPlE TRILL - CONVERGING -- One note trills upward while another trills in a downward direction This is created by the sounding of a common note onto which each trill converges

(c) Single trills in any direction are possible while other notes of the chord sustain

(d) MULTIPlE PITCH - PULSATIONS -- These account for trills of microtonessmaller than quarter-tones

(e) Together with multiple pitch-pulsations other tones can be sustained

The instructions for the above effects have been abbreviated(as in sections on quarter-tones) and the words lower upper and sometimes middle refer to the particular notes in the chord This is followed by the indication of the direction in which the trill is moving

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The resul tant letter identifying the to be activated effect note

Ex- ( IE 1st RH Multiple Trill-UP )

tJ) 0 A

~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull 1 0

(2) yen-- bull bull bull bull I 0 bull I bull bull 2

(3)~ IA bull bull bull bull I bull o bull 13 -eshy

(4) 0yen--IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 12 -fi

(5)~ IC 0 bull bull I 13

(6) ~-ICID bull bull f-o bull I bull bull bull 1bull

~--e-(7) fyen IE bull bull bull 1-0 bull bull 13

bull bull bull bull bull bullbull3 =--e- 10 (8) ~-IB bull bull bull f---O I bull bull bull 13

1 Using a wide aperture direct a dispersed air column downward Little breath support is needed Close the keys for low B with certainty

2 Direct the air column upward Intensify the breath pressure sufficiently to effect the response of the upper partials but allow for adequate openness of the aperture to permit an immeshydiate sounding of the lower note as well Only a minimum of breath support is necessary Close the keys for low Bsecurel~

3 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the lower notes Avoid changing the size of the aperture when adding to the breath support for the upper notes Close the keys for low B securely

lA

18

3rd RH Multiple Trill-UP

Thumb Upper sustains key Middle trills DOWN IE

ID

1st RH

3rd RH

Multiple Trill-UP

Multiple Trill Converging

lC 2nd RH MUltiple Trill-UP

[53]

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7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cont

~

(9) ~ e-

IEIF bull bull bull bull I bullbull middot2

1I0) ~-IE bull bull bull 3 (II) (f -IBIG bull bull bull I 0 I bullbull middot4

0 Ibull I bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14

(12) ~-IAH o-j bull I bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (I3)~ 15IAIJ~ bull I bull bull I bull I

eshy(14) ~ fA IK IL bull I 16Ibull bull 0-+

I bull bull I

(15)11 -IJILIM bull o-j I 16 bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I

IAIH(16) -0 I bull I bull I I 17IN~ bull bull 0-

(17 ~ -IMIP bull bull o---j ~I bull bullbull 178

l8) ~ ~-IAIJ 15bull 0 bull I I bull bull rmiddot

tt (l9)~--IQIR bull o----j bull I bull I I I bull bull 17bull

(20) _ -IEIS 0bull bull bull bull bull I I bull I 17

~ ~) I

bullbull I

f~ ~bull lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

8deg 8 ~ G+ + f-eshy

(21l~~IUIT I bullbull bullbull f-O I bull bull I I 17

(22)~ -IJIP~ 1-0 bull I bull I bull 15 ~n

(23)~ IV I bull bull o-l H bull I bullbull I 1-i98 e

(24) ~-ILIM~ 0bull I bull I I bull bull 15

(25)~- IMIWIX I bull 0 bull bull I 0 bull I bull I 15 ~Q

(26) ~ -IMIJ I I bull I I 0 I I 15bull 0 bull bull (27)rW-IJIQIYe--1 0 o bull I I l6bull bull bull I bull

(28) ~-IQIB bull bull I 01bull o bull I bull bull middot3 ~~~

(29)~-IQIZ bull 0 bull I bull I bull I bullbull 19

(30) ~~ ~ILIQ~ bull I 0 I bull bull 19IR2A

t-n (31) ~ -IMIN2S I bull 0 bull I Hgt I bull I 16

D (32) ~ IQIY~ 162C2D I bull I bull A

(33)~-IJIQlVIY~ I bull I 01 bullbull I 16

(34) ~_rNQbull I bull 0 bull I f-ltgt bull I bullbull 16IL [54]

~~~JI~~I

Isf Th Th 2nd 3rd

~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ (35)~ IDILIQ2C~

(361 ~-IL bullbull o--e ~~

t37J ~n ~-ILIQIW~

(38) 111~ IQIR~ 2C2D- I bull - I

(39) Qi ~-IMIV2E~

-eshy(40)~

~-2F2G bullbull~+-_--(O bull

(41) ui ~ - 2C2G2H bullbull--I-----(O bull

p-u (42) ~ 2~iH~ -amp

(43)~ -IQIR2L~ lB

44J ~ 2E2M~ (45)~--2D2N~

~1gt-+-o---+---+--+--+-----1 68

t--iI~I--tt-tI H__+-1-t---ll 9

r--laquogt I bull I I bull bull 178

r-o--t- bull I I bull bull III

bull I

t-o I

bull I

bull I

310

bull bullbull7

bullbull 19

f--o

bull bull I

bull I bull 19

bull bull 1912

bull bull bull

bull bull

I II

16

4 Direct the air column upward slightly and intensify the breath using an embouchure that favors the middle register

5 Adjust the aperture mainly for the lower note and direct the air column inward Use only a light tone support

6 The air column is to be directed upward very slightly with the embouchure favoring the upper note

7 Use a wide aperture with substantial breath support and direct the air column upward

8 Also vent approximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 Use an aperture more appropriately adapted to the upper notes but direct the air column downward slightly Only a medium amount of breath support is needed

10 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH imperceptibly

11 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the middle range This chord is to be supported robustly

12 Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd key LH also

IF 2nd RH MUltiple Trill- IX (ring only) DOWN

IG 1st RH Upper sustains lY (ring only) Lower trills DOWN

IH

IJ

lK

lL

1M

IN

IP

lQ

lR

IS

IT

lU

IV

lW

1st RH Upper sustains lZ Lower trills UP

1st RH MUltiple Trill 2A Converging

3rd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP 28

2nd LH Multiple Trill-UP 2C

3rd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2D

EP key Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2E

3rd LH MUltiple Trill-UP 2F

2nd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

2G Low C Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWNkey Upper trills DOWN

2H 1st RH Lower sustains2nd RH Upper sustains Upper trills UPLower trills UP 2K 2nd RH Multiple tones susshyLow C Multiple Pitchshy (ring only) tain Middle noteskey Pulsations Middle pulsatetrills UP 2L 3rd RH Upper sustains1st RH MUltiple Pitchshy Lower trills DOWNPulsations Upper

sustains 2M 1st RH Lower sustainsMulshytiple Trills ConshyEP key Lower sustains vergingmiddot

Upper trills DOWN 2N 3rd RH Multiple Trill-DOWN

G key Upper sustain~i Lower trills UP

[55]

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills UP

G key Multiple Trill Converging

1st RH Multiple Trill Converging

3rd RH MUltiple tones sustain middle notes pulsate

1st RH Lower sustains Upper trills DOWN

Thumb key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

Thumb key MUltiple Trill-UP (wide intervals)

2nd RH MUltiple Trill Converging

2nd RH Lower sustains

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bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES

07(

Cont

~

(46) 1 -IL 2P 20 19I I -0- bull bull bull I bull I bull bull

(47)~ IAIL2R 16

~ bull 0 bull bull bull I bull I bullbull (48) ~ __ 252T bull o-o--j bull I bull I I bull 17

~2X(49) IEIO 2U bull I bull I bull 1 bull bull 4

~A bull

(50)~ - -2U2V2W bull I bull I 0 I I I II bull

IE2U(51) It ~ 02X bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull3

(52)~-ICIE2U2Y 0--1 bull I bull I I 15I bull bull ~n

(53) ~ 2C2U 2Z bull 0---1 bull 1 0 I 1 bull III

n (54) ~ly2Z3A383C bull bull I bull 1 bull 1 16

(55) ii-lEI bull bull t--o bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (56) 11-amp

~-IH2T3D I f--o bull I bull I bull I 15 D

(57) ~_IHIP I bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I 152T3D I

(58) If --IEIY bull bull f--o I bull I bull bull bullbull3

[56]

( 1~(O~)~ 2Z I I bull I bull I I I bull bull 12I

~Q-6shy(60) ~-IYI2H I I bull bull I 1-0 I bull I bull I bull bull 15 =~

(61) ~--3C3E I I I

(62) t~ -3F I

~ (63)1~

( 3E I I laquogt---ebull (64) d-Qshy-0- ~-2H3G~

(65) ~ - IP3G3H I I I

(66) ~ - IMIP3KI

- bull bull bull bull (67) 0shy

lt1 ~ I P283L3M I I

-(68) ~~4l-~IM2BI Itba 3K bull

(69) = ~--IM3N1

=1l-6shy(70) ~ ~ I] II IP I I bullbullbull bull

(71) ~~ ~--(X3P~ (72) qA gIX2H~

1-0 I bull I bull I bull I 15

I bull I I I I 1 bull bull I II

bull I bull 1 I I I I 1113

f--O I I I I I bull bull 15

I I I I I I bull I I 15

L bull I bull I 0 I bull I 16

1 bull I I 15

bull I bull I o bull I I 16

914

I bull 0-+-----0 bull 1914

1---0 I bull I bull I bull I I 613

1-0 bull 1 bull J bull I ~16

bull bull

13 Approximately one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH is to be vented

14 Vent also one-fourth of the 2nd key RH~

~ ~o (73)~

E= - 3K3Q3R 1-1--I--~-4a--o---e

(74) ~ ~2G3K3RI bull 0 bull

~ a (75) ~2B2G3Q3R3Sr----t------oshy

(76) t~ ~ 3R3T3U 1-1--l-~-egt----J--1

(77)I~i - -- 2P3 L 1-1--I~~----4 --shy

n __

(78) g _ 1-1-+--+-~----3V ___ ~

t79)ff ~ - I B2Y3V 1-1--I--+--4a-4~bullbull

~-e-(80) ~ 2H 3L __-+ ----ia-+_~ ~ 3W bull 1

(811 _ 2H 2U bullbull~gt---~+-__

(82) 1- ~ - bull --shy2U3Xbullbull~-l---

(83) Qg ~- ILfQ30bullbulll--+--bull--0 bull

j~

qt (84) EQ IR zu ----1

EE 3W3Y bullbull~~~-l---I~----

t9 t85) ~

~~ 3Y3W3Xbullbullf------+--+-~o__1

bull I bull I bullbull 19

~~X--+-I-+--+-+-f----t---il 6

7

~x I I bull I

bull loX I I 13

x I bull I bullbull 14

I--+I---4-X~----+-1-+---+1 4

3L

3M

3N

3P

3Q

3R

35

3T

3U

3Y

D Trill MUltiple Trill-UP key

2nd LH Multiple Trill Converging

Thumb key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

1st RH ~ MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

3rd LH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

D Trill key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

G key Lower sustains Upper trills UP

3rd LH Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWN

D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills UP

1st LH MUltiple Trill-DOWN

3W D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills DOWN

3X 1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

3Y 2nd LH Multiple Pitchshy(ring only) Pulsations

2P

2Q

2R

25

2T

2U

2Y

2W

2X

2Y

2Z

3A

3B

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

3K

3rd LH

E~ key

1st RH

2nd RH

MUltiple Trill-DOWN

MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

Lower trills UP Upper and middle

interpose

Multiple notes sustain Middle trills DOWN

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills DOWN

2nd LH Multiple Trillshy(ring only) DOWN

Low C Multiple Pitch-key

3rd RH (vented)

3rd RH

3rd RH

1st LH

2nd LH (ring only)

2nd LH

3rd LH

Pulsations

Lower sustains Upper and Middle

interpose

Multiple Tones sustain Upper trills DOWN

Multiple PitchshyPulsations

Multiple Trill-UP

Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

Upper sustains Lower tremolo DOWN

Multiple Trill Converging

G key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd RH MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

D TrillHigh C sustains key Middle trill UP

D and D MUltiple Trill-UP Trill keys

D Trill key MUltiple Trill-UP

1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

[57J

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7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cant

0bullI X I bull 1 2

bull bull I bull X bull 1 19

bull bull bull X bull I 17

bull bull I I bull X 19

bull bull e- r-oX I I bull I 15

bull bull I bull I X 16

bull r--o X I I 15bull bull I bull I bull X 1 15bull ()----j X bullbull middot11015bull o---j X I bull I 11315bull

o-ebull r-o-I I X bull bull 17

0--1 I I X I X I I 16

t-e-D

19S) It II -3P3Qbull I Ibullb6shy

199) 11~

0shy~-2H4E bull egt---l

lIOO)~ IE bull bull bull

1I01l

U-eshy1I02)~

~-~

-eshy

-2C

JO IPJQ4F I

bull bull bull bull bull bull bullbull bull bull bull

1I03)~ -2Y4G bull bull o-----e

UA1I04)fshy

-1L2H30 bull () bull lI05) ~

~ ~-IL2P I bull bull I bull II06I~r~

-2H3H4A~n lion xx

IBJR3H I~ I bull bull bull qn 1I0S)rD

-- IL3K l----+-----o-shyt-e

1I09)r 2U3K3L I I I e-bull

I I x x I I 115

rox X I bull 1913

2

I--cgt bull I bull I bullbullbull78

I I I I 17 I bull 0 I bull I I I II

1-0 I bull bull I 1713

-o bull I bull I bullbull 1712

7 8

f-I bull I I 115

I bull I I bull bull 14 shy

4

4

15 Approach the attack for this chord via the top note but widen the aperture sufficiently to accommodate the placement of the lowest note Direct the air column downward and apply a sUbshystantial amount of breath support

4D I 2nd LH Lower sustains3Z I D Trill I Multiple Trill-DOWN (ring only) IUpper trills DOWN

4A I G~ key I Lower sustain~i

key

4E I D~ Trill I MUltiple Trill-DOWN Uppertrills uuWN key

4F I 3rd RH I Lower sustains46 I D~ Trill I Upper sustains Upper trills DOWNkey Lower trills DOWN

4G I G~ key I Upper sustains4C lIst RH I Multiple Tri1lshy Lower trills DOWN(ring only) DOWN

3PECJAL SONORITIES

(B) The Tonal Characteristics And Dynamic Ranges

of multiphonics are shown here as three predominant effects Each chord-group possesses a built-in quality of tone and the player should permit this to subsist according to the resistance that is evidenced As the control of the embouchure improves those chords capable of sounding with a full dynamic range may alsobe controllable using a lighter tone quality and played at a softer dynamic level For this reason some chords have been listed in more than one category The numbers used toidenshytify the multiphonics in the main chart appear here in the approshypriate categories

(1) Subdued Quality of Tone Reasonably Soft Dynamics

1 15 34 65

2 18 37 73

24 54 6 25 55 80

12 26 56 90

13 27 57 91

14 33 64 92

(2) Some Degree of Resonance (3) Blaring or Strident Tone Medium Dynamic Range Fairly Loud Dynamics

4 27 57 74 2 37 60 89

5 28 58 75 3 39 62 93

7 29 60 5 94

8 31 61 76 9 41 63 95

9 32 62 80 11 42 70 96

10 33 64 83 16 43 71 97

14 34 65 86 17 44 72 98

15 35 66 90 19 45 77 99

18 36 67 91 20 46 78 100

20 37 68 92 21 47 79 101

22 38 69 93 23 48 80 102

23 40 71 97 26 49 81 103

25 41 72 103 27 50 82 104

26 54 73 106 28 51 84 105

30 52 85 107

32 53 87 108

36 59 88 109

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(C) Suppressed Chords

Often the term smorzato has been used to signify the effect of diminishing or extinguishing tones As is described here a controlled suppressing of tones in the chord can occur while the lowest note continues to sustain This can be accomplished withshyout altering the fingering

By releasing the firmness of the embouchure slightly and pershymitting the breath support to diminish the upper partials can be made to disappear When in some cases this does not produce the effect completely then a directional change of the air column must implement this technique Since the modification of the air column can be regulated voluntarily the suppression of the chords can be realized in any desired rhythmic pattern

In a few instancesanother note of the chord can be sustained simultaneously with the fundamental while the higher one is diminshyishing In other chords certain notes can be suppressed intershychangeably These variables have been indicated in the listingbelow As a result of this added peculiarity these other notes too can be sustained either prior to or following the suppression of the chord This effect is related to that described in part(D) of this section

[59]

In this list the fundamental note is illustrated together with the number that applies to its multiphonic The arrows on the altershyations have been omitted Attention is drawn to the fact that as an added advantage these tones for their distinctive timbres may be used also as single-line notes

The following multiphonics are the most responsive and easiest to control for this effect Two-note multiphonics are listed first and are the most facile

Two-note Chords

6 E 27 G 65 C 91 D

12 G 32 G 66 C 92 D

13 - G 33 - G 67 - C 93 - D

14 - G 34 - G 71 - C 97 - EO 15 - G 52 - So 72 - C 102 - G 22 - G 54 - So 73 - C 104 - G 24 - G 58 - S 76 - C 107 - S 25 - G 60 - C 80 - C 108 - S

26 - G 61 - C 90 - D 109 C

Three and Four-note Chords

36 - Low and middle Gs will sustain as the upper note

2 - E

3 - E is suppressed Alter the 5 - E air columns direction

8 - F (Middle G and possibly 37 - AO middle E can be altershy 38 - AO (The C or G may benated with d) interchanged with the

9 - F sounding of F by altershying the direction of air)10 - F (C can be alternated

with F) 40 - A (C alternates with G) 11 - F 41 - A (F alternates with C) 16 - G 42 - A

17 - G 43 - A

19 - G (E can be alternated 45 - A with F) 46 - A

20 - G 47 - A 21 G

48 - A 23 - G 49 - So (A and B sound simultashy28 Low and middle Gs will neously as the chord is

sustain to~ethet as the suppressed) upper note is suppressed

50 - BO and A sustain as the 29 - G top note is suppressed 30 - G 53 - BO 35 - G 57 - B

[60J

70 - C 87 - D (A can be alternated with E by releasing the breath74 - C pressure interchangeably)

75 - C 88 - D 77 - C 89 - D 78 - C 94 EO (B can be alternated 79 - C with GO) 82 - d 98 - EO

99 - E83 - C (E alternates with C) 100 - F84 - D 105 - A85 - D 106 - B86 - D (f can be alternated with

C~ by changing the direcshytion of the air column)

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(D) Connecting Single Notes to MUltiphonics

The suppressing of chords (part C) indicates that it is posshysible to sustain a single note and connect this to a chordassumshying of course that the fingering being used initially is that of the multiphonic A flexibility in this procedure results from the fact that either the lowest or highest note in each multiphonic can be sustained when going into or coming out of the chord This occurs without any perceptible interruption of the sound oraltershyation of the fingering However it will be found that some chords do not lend themselves to a controllable responsiveness when they are approached via the highest note This can only be determined by trial and error

The middle note in many of the three-note chords can also be sustained The chords listed below have been selected as thosehavshying this characteristic and a few added effects have been noted with several others The letter after each number applies to the middle note of the multiphonic In the case of four-note chords then the note from the middle octave which may lend the easiest response is listed As mentioned previously it is automatically assumed that the lowest and highest notes from each chord can be isolated and sustained without difficulty

In some instances a radical change in the direction of the air column and a simultaneous release of the breath pressure may be necessary to effect the linking of tones to chords portions of which are then to be suppressed Only by experimenting with the process of isolating the tones can the player acquire a famshyiliarization with the physical sensation involved This will dicshytate any modifying of the air columns direction and maneuvershying of the embouchure

The two-note chords are quite simple to execute in this proshyduction and either note can be sustained with ease

Page 7: A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the Flute

BASIC FINGERINGS (CONTJ

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If~-- I I bull bull I

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I I I I I

I

bull I

I bull

bullbull I bull

I I I

I

15

bull bullbull~~--I ~II----+--+--4~

I

bull I

I

bullbull

I

I

I

I)

~ I bull bull I

bull I 1 bull I I I I bull I I I

~-~ bull bull I

bull I

bull X

I X

I I

I

bull

I

1

I 8

19

I ~

8va 8v bull I bull bull I I X I 1

bull I bull I X X 110bullf I bull I X bull ~bull I 110 bull8va---

I bull bull bull I bull I I I middot11~--- I I 12

-shy

bull bull bull bull bull I bull 1 I 7 WI I 0

I I I I 1 I 14 8 T bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bull bull 113

bull bull bull bull bull bull I k

8va--

f 9 TII I bull I bull I I I bullbull 115

iJ I til1 I bull bull bull I I bull I bull bull 115

TI I bull I bull I I I I I I 15 10

11 W I I I I f

8va bull bull bull I bull bull bull

12 T S~

13 T8va-- fI I I Ibull I X bull~_I bullr

I I bull I I bull bull 114 14 Tbull middot)( n I I bull bull 114 vbull bull I middot)(

I 15 bullbull I X

I bullbull Tbull bull bull bull bull 08va

bull I bull o---j I X 116 16 W

bull I bull bull I X bull bull bull 117 17 T

h~ X

I

s

i

8va----- 1-+--+--middotmiddot--+- f-----+-+-IXl(---+I-+---+-H 15

7 When playing If this fingering produces a lower level of pitch and an altered tone quality as well

8 To facilitate the execution of rapid passages the ED key may remain open

9 This alternate fingering will aid the adjustment of the intonation for a PP Avoid the use of an excessive volshyume of air as the note responds with ease

10 This lowers the pitch level for alf bull

11 When using a flute with a iow C foot joint the little fingerRH is raised

12 This fingering affords a slightly lower level of pitch See item 11

13 This fingering demands added breath support but the resulting pitch level is lower Use this Blso on a flute with a low C foot joint

14 This fingering produces a lower level of pitch but the note lacks an immediate response However this may vary on different flutes

15 These fingerings are applicable when using a low C or low B foot joint

16 When possible vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightly This may improve the response of the note

17 This fingering as well as 16 will respond on flutes having a low C or B foot joint

A SECURE PLAYING POSITION

The basic elements involving position and balance in holding the flute properly are of ultimate importanceat all levels of performance Much has been written onthis subject by many prominent flutists Therefore only the salient features relevant to fingerings are repeated now

1 Develop a secure hand position with the arms remaining free from tension to form an equalshyization of balance for the flute

2 Avoid any cramping of the musculature in hands wrists and arms which could bring about stiffshyactioned fingers

3 Encourage the use of a light action with the finshygers remainlng on the keys at all times Added inflections or accentuations in the music are the only occasions for which the fingers may be raised slightly higher on the keys

4 Permit the keys to lower and raise with all of the sensitivity possible The keys must be lifted not the fingers

5 Maintain a naturally arched position of the fingers This signifies the existence of freedom from any tension A flexibility and maneuverability of the fingers should be the result

Security in a playing position when achieved will bring controllabilitYand a solid technique with dexterity This must be available at any tempo

[9J

INTRODUCTION

An advanced flutist has reached that performance level because of the extreme sensitivity with which all facets of flute technique have been applied Certainly one of the most important of these instrumental techniques has to be the disciplined approach to the use of proper finshygerings It is assumed that this is a major concern of the professional performer but it should be equally so of each developing flutist

Too often due to negligence undesirable fingerings become firmly implanted in the playing habits of the young performers Correcting these faults in the early stages of their careers can result in a functional use of fingershyings as the flutists progress into the higher levels of proficiency This can be evidenced in their execution of extremely technical passages as well as the production of exotic tonal effects

Learning to use the appropriate fingerings for various situations ought to be considered a vi tal segment of basic musicianship since the application of the correct or corshyrective fingerings parallels the importance of other flute techniques This concept should become a part of each flutists daily routine and hopefully will guide the playshyer in the aspiration of becoming a sensitive musician

This compilation is presented as a methodology for finshygerings by offering a wide range of selected fingerings for the flutist and directing their use in diverse techshyniques It is hoped that this reference guide will encourshyage an exploitation of the flutes potentialities which should be the ultimate goal of every ambitious student of the flute

James J Pellerite Professor of Flute Indiana University

HOW TO READ THE CHARTS

These fing~rings apply to the Boehm system flute with the closed G~ key In many instances a low B foot joint is necessary although a low C will be acceptable for many of these fingerings Auxiliary keys that are someshytimes found on specially made flutes have not been conshysidered However the French model flute will be essenshytial for those charts in which the fingerings call for venting the various tone holes

A number appearing next to the illustration for each fingering will refer to the text material The correshysponding number is followed by a brief statement which relates to the fingerings purposefulness

The fingerings have been illustrated using the symbol ( ) and will indicate only that the keys are depressed For this reason it is not necessary to give considerashytion to whether or not a key remains open

The other familiar symbol (0) will apply exclusiveshyly to the use of the French model flute and be used solely to signify that a key is to be vented in its enshytirety

bull The key is depressed

C) The tone hole is vented accordingly

0 Vent the tone hole in its entirety

Apply the French model flute+ X Use the D or D Trill key

PI Pianissimo

If Fortissimo

R H Right Hand

L H Left Hand

[5J

2(a) HARMONICS

The production of overtones is a basic technique with which all flutists must become familiar Not only does -it represent the foundation for proper tone production but also it offers additional opportunities to simplify many complex technical passhysages which occur in the 3rd octave of the flute The fingering combinations for such phrases become moderately easy by using the fingerings for the fundamental notes to produce the harmonshyics Created by overblowing the fundamentals these are generally indicated as follows

0 g0 a 0 12

0 8 0 amp

To produce D3 (2nd overtone) use the fin~ering for fundamental Gl for E3 AI for F3 B l etc

To overblow the fundamental tone an intense air column must be applied This can be formed by diminishing the size of the aperture and increasing the breath pressure(subsequently the air speed) The air column needs to be directed more horishyzontally across the embouchure plate as one progresses into the higher harmonics Treating the fundamental tones in this manner will produce the following overtones in succession

[see Overtone Series chart (first measure)]

(a) 1st overtone - octave (b) 2nd - 12th (octave and a fifth) (c) 3rd - 15th (double octave) (d) 4th 17th (two octaves and a third) (e) 5th 19th (two octaves and a fifth)(0 6th 21st (two octaves and a seventh)

Frequently students find it difficult to reach the full gamshyut of overtones that are shown here This stems from the fact that sometimes they lack proper control of the embouchure and the air column However should this not be the case then the source of the problem may be the existing properties of the headshyjoint It is an accepted fact that no two headjoints ever will respond alike(even made by the same manufacturer) This varishyance means that one flute may possess either more or less resistshyance in its bloWing characteristics It is this added resistance that often may deter the production of the extremely high harshymonics However further development of the embouchure is asshysured as the production of these overtones is attempted and pracshyticed The resultant physical capability enables the flutist to create a greater number of overtones for each fundamental With this facility extremely technical passages in the upper ocshytaves are simplified by the use of left-hand-fingerings eg low G and A overblown can produce the overtone which would afford easier performance in a rapid passage of the 3rd octave

[10]

Due to the acoustical construction of the flute these harshymonics in the 3rd octave possess a rather veiled character of tone quality and a somewhat lower level of intonation than that produced when the regular fingerings are used The presence of the lower fundamental note causes this phenomenon since the reshyquired vent hole which is normally open in the regular fingershying is closed For example the regular fingering for D2 i properly vented by raising the 1st key LH ~he ton~ qoa11ty is muffled and its pitch level lowered when th1s key 1S closed In fact so many students accidentally produce this tone quality by using the incorrect fingerings and are not aware of the resultshying faulty tone structure One must discriminate and exercise discretion as to the use of these nshort cut fingerings Often the tonal beauty of a melodic passage is impaired by the obtuse sound of harmonics Their use in performance should be limitshyed to the most difficult passages in orchestral or band litershyature and even then only in rapidly moving phrases where it will ~ot be detected that harmonic assist has been applied

On the other hand there may be a desire for moments of tonal coloring in isolated cases Thus using the tone quality of some of these notes the harmonics become a purposeful and effecshytive display They can be used advantageously so long as the notes are played with conviction and will sou~dcorrect In actushyality many compositions now call for ~he add1t10nal tonal shadshyings that are possible when the harmon1cs are properly managed

The low register fingerings presented in thechart on Basic Fingerings are applied to the fundamental notes 1n the Overtone Series chart As the flutist progresses and studies the charts for trills tremolos etc he will discover that the application of the harmonic series will appear inexhaustible

Overtone Series 0)

Q it0Q ao ~ ~ e ~ ~ A

Q

- L g

2~ (0) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

~~ ltIi D ~

A ~ ~ ~

0 ~ IA 11amp I ~ IT 21 ~I

0 0 i~ lI- j- (2)

0 ltIi b b Q ~ ~ A shy1J ~ -amp - -- ~ = r ~ oa t ~ t 9 k

(2)1bullbull 1 v bullbull I

(3) (5)(6)(4)

Q

bull amp ~ ~Q Q

e- a Q ~

~ 6shy

~ ~Q ~v if Rk iv P V t v ~ I (2)

QQ ~ 6shy0 ~ ~

~o Q ~ -amp e

8 8 bull V R V 0 9J lit lit a 0~ ~

Note The following alterations may be applied when practicing from this chart These will assist in performing the upper harmonics with greater ease and their physical placement in the ocshytave would be identified more readily Followshying a degree of proficiency in the execution of the harmonic series these intervals should be practiced legato[slurred]

1 Vent the 2nd key RH 2 Use the Gn ~ey 3 Close the EP key 4 Use the low B key if available 5 Close the C key 6 Close the Cn key

2(b) FRENCH MODEL FLUTE Also referred to as the open tone hole model this flute is

identified by its perforations in the centers of the five keys that are activated by the fingers The relevancy of the French model flute is noteworthy Its prominence in the flutists career has been brought about by a variety of technical applications through which its advantages seem compounded

A substantial number of fingerings specifically for this instrushyment can be learned from these charts that follow The special finshygerings are for purposes of varying the pitch dynamics or tone quality or any of these in combination They also will effect a more realistic pitch relationship in the intervals for trills or tremolos according to the instructions as may be directed by the numbered comments There are some fingerings that are traditionally for the closed hole flute For these the use of the French model possibly could be supplemental to improve upon some of the original fingerings

The technique of venting the various tone holes is one that ought to be introduced to the lesser experienced flutist as soon as practicable The astute professional always has recognized the value of this application To develop the technique of sliding over the tone holes one must emphasize a subtle movement of the fingers with utmost sensitivity and vent cautiously for absolute control Almost immediately this reveals the ease with which it is possible to exeshycute a glissando of the scale bull

or a slide[portamento] to or from various notes

The left hand fingers should glide away from the flute in an outshyward motion while the right hand fingers move in the opposite direcshytion and towards the key mechanism This seems to be the most adaptshyable approach to venting However since each individuals hand position is subject to a mUltiformity due to basic differences in musculature other methods may be devised and considered equally successful The expertise of an artist teacher will be vital in considering each situation that is problematical To vent the hole by a fraction the finger is to be moved in a calculative fashion The pitch is raised according to the amount of the hole exposed The opposite is true when the desired pitch level is to be lowered By depressing the key ring by its edge it is possible to vent the enshytire tone hole The numbered comments accompanying each chart will suggest the appropriate venting combinations for each fingering

The acoustical principle applied to the vented fingerings is based upon the production of the harmonic series The overtones (see Overtone Series chart) can be altered conveniently by ventshying the fingerings for their fundamental tones This produces an array of pitches in a composite of overtones and results in total flexibility for the ensuing techniques that are to be applied By gliding these pitches the notes are altered to possess a wider range of intonation as well as a broad spectrum of tone content This development takes place as the fingerings alter the tubeshylengthsCdistance air column travels] for tone production These are either extended or contracted depending upon the location of the key being activated and the amount that its tone hole is to be vented Also with these fingerings the resistance factor of the instrument sometimes is transformed from its traditional response to an entirely different sensation in the production of certain notes Examples of this condition will be discovered when reading from the charts on tremolos altered notes quarter-tones etc

These modifications as provided by the use of the French model flute are beneficial in all facets of musical performance not only in contemporary music but in the standard repertoire as well

[llJ

bull bull

I TRILLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step)

bull bull bull I

I bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull I bullbull I

I bull I bull I bull I bulltr I I

bull I bull I tr bull II 0 I I 1(+)

tr I bull I bull I bullbull I I I

tr I I Ibull I bull I bull I

bull I bull I bulltr bull II I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull bull I I I

I I Ibull bull bull I bull I bulltr I bull I

bull bull bull I I bulltr I bull I I bull I I I 2

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

~-~ _ a--f----=-________

~_~----J

~-~ _ trtr ---------bull-bull- I bull I I

tr tr bull I bull bull bull bull bullbull-+--+--+-+-+-1-iIJ-+I-+---t1

bull bull I ~r I - I 4

~ tr j~ - bullbull--+-1---eillE-la--j---j I bull I bull

bulltr I bull I I bull bull I bull

bulltr I I I

(+) Applicable to the French model flute

I bull I

tr I bull I bull

bull f---1f--l--+-+-+--af-+-+--l1 5

f--tt-+-+-+------r---ilbull-t-+--ll 6

bullbull-+-1--t---t--+--+-f-+--t---11 6

tr Ibull I bull I

bull I

1--+---+---1a--t ---1bull--+---+---I1 7 (+)

~~r--+---+--+---+----II tr bull I~ bullbullgt---~+--+-------o---J bull bull bullbull I 7 (+)

XtrI I I 181bull

Xtr II bull I 1---4~XE--tr--l--+-----tIt-+-+---l1 9

1---4a-l--l--4llXctr-+I_-+-+--11 9bull

I bull I bull I bullbull~--I bull bull bull tr

trFR=--() bullbullbull 1--iIIbull --+-__t---tIIt-+--+---+---I1 10

EUI= 1-1-+---~a-bull-+ bull bull ~r I I

TRILLS [Half-step and Whole-step]

1 This is possible only with the use of the French model flute Depress the 3rd key-ring RH by hooking the thumbnail underneath and behind the key trilling the tone hole Adequate time is necessary for the preparation of this unshynatural hand position

2 When possible begin the trill by using regular F fingering (3rd RH) to establish the proper level of intonation

3 This may be used for added facility when the trill is followed by the note E However the F~ is slightly flat in pitch

4 This fingering produces a flat BP(A) It is acceptable in a If and its use may facilitate technical passages

5 Appropriately used for a PP this fingering produces a higher level of pitch for C2 and C3 bull

6 Use this fingering for a ff since a lower pitch level for C2and C will result3 7 The intonation for C(DP) is lowered by venting approximately

one-half of tbe tone hole of the 3rd key LH

8 When possible begin the trill by using the regular D fingering to establish the proper pitch level for the interval

9 This lowers the C for a near correct interval

10 When possible lower the 1st key L4H~ slightly until the intoshynation and tone quality for D and Di(EP) is improved

x- Use Trill Key [l3]

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull

3 TRILLSltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

bull bull bull bull bull bull

I trbull middot1 bull bull I

I middot1 tr

Ibull bullbull I 110

~--bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull I Jr

J ~r I Jr I

Ibullbull III I 1112

M---1 bull bull bull bull I Jr l I 1

~--e-j bull bull bull ~ 2

~-- I bull bull bull I Jr I I I bullbull I I I

~--_I bull bull bull tr ~

~-- bull bull bull ~

~-- tr

bull bull bull bull ~

~--e-j tr

bull bull bull bull [14J

bull bull Jr I~-

~ I bull bull tr bullbull tr tr

~_ bull bull bull bull tr tr

I Jr bullbull bull I

I Jr l-i~_ bull ~r I Ibull bull I

bull bull bulltr I II

~-- bull bulltr H

~-- bull

tr I~_ I bull

bull I tr Ibull

bull I bulltr I

t-rl I I I bull I I I I

H-+++-e-+-+-t--

I I I I I I 1 I Ibull -+-1 I I bull I I I I H--+--++-+++-1 4

~ f--I I I I bull I ~-H

H-+-++e-++-H

Jr- I I I I I Ibull I ~r I I bull H---H

1-+--1 f==1 bull 5 I ~ 1--1 6

bull I II- I bull 16

Smiddot +

bulltr I I bull I I I

I I bull I

1------l----il)(e--tr+1--+-~-tIt-t--+-I1 13

I bull I I I

I------l--+-+I-Xlrt---jrIr--tIbull -+1-+1-II 14

I I

)(tr I Xtrl IbullU--I II bull1-1--+--t-----Cgt----i X

tr I Xtrj 15(+)

bullbullbull I I I bull I Ia~--I Xtrl

O-Depress the key by its edge

I I I Ibull bull bulltr bull

bull bull J--i 1--0 bull bull 116(+)

bull bull bull tr bull bull I bull I bullbull I I I

bull bull I I

1----tbull -+-CgtIgt--+--i-+-+----I117 (+)

tr trbullbullbullbull 1 bullbull 111

II Begin the trill by using the 1st key LH open for E~(D)

12 F2 is lower in pitch when this fingering is applied 13 While using the trill key apply proper tone support to simulate

the tone quality of regular C Adjust the direction of the air column downward

14 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for D Then apply the trill key and proper tone support to sustain a more correct interval

15 Depress the 3rd key LH venting the entire tone hole This assists in correcting the intonation level for a ff

16 Begin the trill by using regular fingering for E then apply the trill fingering venting the entire tone hole of the 1st key RH When playing PP the 3rd key LH is to be vented slightly during the trill

17 Almost the entire tone hole of the 2nd key R H is to be vented In a pp the tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be slightly vented while trilling

[15]

8va---

3TRilLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

r-- tr ~~ I bullbullbull I I I I I I I bull I 126

f--(gt I bull I bull bull I I 27(+)~~ I I bullbullbull

tr I I II e I 1

8va--- bull I I bull bull I I Jr Xtr I I I bull I I 28

~ ~I Imiddotmiddotmiddottr Xtr I I bull I I I bull () bullbull 1--+1--+-1-+-1~ -~I-+--II 29(+)

8va-

~I bullbullbull tr tr

f-I- bull -+-~bull-bull- bull I bullbull ~ 8va---

1---e~1+1~XF-tr+1 -bull-r---i--tl 30~ ---H bullbull I I I ~r I bull I I I I bull I

bull tr 1---e~1+-1lh a---fI-+--+--J1 31bull I bull bull bull8va--- tr

r4--~ bullbullbull I~J~r f-I+-1lhbullbull=-+I-+-1-+1--1 32(+)

~ bull I Jr l bull 11----+-1~II---+-I -tI~1 -+1=-11 33

~ tr

1~-l)(If-+~11---+-1-+1-1bull-+1--1 34(+)

8va---- bull I bullbulltr

0-1 ~r I I I I I I 135(+)

t---eJ--r)(If-tr-+I-l)(1E-+-1-+1-+1-+I---li 36(+)

~~ Jr )(trI I I I I I I 1---a~JrX-+rI~IeA----4l-+r-+1-1 37

bull I bull I bull ~rX I I I I I I Ibull I bull I bull

8va---

I bullbull I~~

bull I bull

gt--+---+I~o

I bull

I ~r I tr ~ I I

I Jr I bull I I Jr 1

bull

I f--+----t--lto

I I Xtrl

I I bull I I bull bull I

X bull I I

I bullbull I

118

119(+)

120

I I

I I 1121

I bullbull I I

I I bull I I I Jr I bull I

I bullbull I I I I bull I I

I 122 I 23(+)

I 124

I bullbull I I I I bull I bull I I 25(+)

I I bull I I I

-[16]

__========-==========~~========~=====~ ~-_ 1

8va---

~ ~rll bull bull bull---I--r--bulltr-e~~r-iIIIt--t bull x bull bullbull 138

8va--D- tr x bull ~--bullbull-+--jo-r-+-tJ-I X oJ-+---f---+--1 39(+)

8va---

~ tr I tr bull I ~__-+--- ---t---e--i I )( I 140

8va-- tr tr

bull bullbull bull -I )(1---4a-+--e-4--+--+-+-+--e 4 O ~--IJgt-r-III---1----lt~ 1----41-+-+---+---+--+--+-+--4140bull bull bull bull I

8va--- tr tr

1---4~-+--+--+-1 -lt+--+-+-1-- 40~_ bull bull bull bull bull I

18 Although a basic fingering this does produce a faulty F

19 Vent the entire tone hole of the 2nd key RH If necessary the interval can be adjusted further by venting the 2nd key LH while trilling

20 The tone quality and pitch level of this interval is inadequate but in a ff this trill is acceptable

21 This fingering is appropriately applied in a PP On French model flutes vent the 1st tone hole RH while trilling to execute a secure diminuendo

22 To adjust the intonation for a more correct interval apply proper tone support

23 This fingering is useful in a PP bull Vent the tone hole of the 2nd key LH according to the desired level of pitch

24 Although the F is flat this fingering is acceptable in a ff 25 Depress the 2nd key RH to lower the level of pitch for

a If 26 Fundamental tones G] and A] are overblown in the production

of this trill HenCe a greater amount of tone support is necessary

27 Vent approximately one-third of the tone holes of the 2nd key LH and the 1st keyRH The intonation for G may be imshyproved by venting the 3rd key LH slightly during the trill

28 The A is faulty Throughout the trill apply firm tone supshyport to improve upon its tone structure

29 Begin the trill by using regular fingerings for G and A Then vent the 2nd key LH approximatell one-third of the tone hole [appropriately used for a PP J

30 This fingering offers suitable control for a PP bull

31 Use this fingering in a ff bull 32 The tone hole of the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly to

provide for an immediate tonal response in a pp bull

33 Fundamental tones A] and Bl are overblown to produce this trill It is recommended fOr a ff level only

34 This fingering is applicable for a softer dynamic level Vent the 2nd key LH approximately one-third of the tone hole bull

35 The problem of coordinating this fingering may effect the tonal production Avoid moving the flute while blowing Vent approxshyimately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH and one-half of the tone hole of the 1st key RH or as may be needed to adjust the intonation for A

36 The 1st key RH may be vented slightly while trilling to raise the pitch level of the BP in a PP bull

37 This is appropriate for a 17 bull 38 The note C is lower in pitch 39 The intonation can be improved by vegting the entire tone hole

of the 3rd key RH 40 This trill demands substantial breath support Apply low C for

flutes without a low B foot joint

[17]

bull bullbull

bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull

bull

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

I bull I bull I ~I bull bull I 1(+)

bull I bull bullbull I bull I bull I Jr I bullbull 1 2

I bull I bull bulltr II bull I 12

I bull tr tr

I bull I bull I bull I I 2

trbull I I ~rl I H2

bull I bull bullbull

bull I bullbullbull I ~r I Jr I bull bull I I I 2

[18J

bull bull ~ Jr I I bull I 12

bull bull ~r I bull I bull I I bull I Imiddot I 23

trbull bullbull I I I I I bull I I 123

bull ~r I I I I I r bull 1--+-1 2

I I I I bullbull I I 12bull bull bull tr I

bulltr bullbullI ~1---I---+-----lI---+---+---1124 ~I-J--+----JI~ t-+---+--i1 2

tr tr I ---11-+-11--+-1-4-+---+----11 2

Jr ~r I ~I-J--+----J--t--J-t-I---+--il 2 bull--~tr tr--1I bull I bull I 12

f--i--j-+-t--t--j-l-t----+--il 24 tr tr I 1--+-4--+--1-+1l-t---t--il 2

bull I bull

bullbull I

bullbull I

bull I bull

Ibull

bull I

bull bull I bull__-+---

bull

I

~ trbull bull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull bull bull bull

124

12 ~ --+---+-H I xtrl xtrl bull I I I

~ tr trbull bull bullbull bull bull tr bull bulltr bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bullbull

12

15

16 ~ e---+-+-+--+--1

-i tr tr Ibull bull bull ~I Xtrl xtrl bull f-e-I bull I bullbull

16

19

~

~ ~

~

bull 4rbull I tr trbull bull bull I

tr tr trbull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr Ibull I tr bullbull I tr I I tr bullbull tr I I Ibullbull I ()----jbull bull bullbullbull bull

I tr

l

X 1

bull I

bull I I I I 1 I Xtr

Jr I Xtrl

I I Xtrl

bullbull

bullbull bull bullbull bull bull bull

124

127

127

16

12

12

12 18(+)

I 16

TREMOLOS (Major and Minor Thirds)

1 Firm the hand position by anchoring the little fingerLH against the flute and underneath thi G lever Then apply the technique as described for the C -D trill [See TRILLS]

2 This fingering also applies to the octave above

3 Firm the hand position to avoid unnecessary movement of the flute against the embouchure The interval will sound more correct if it is produced with a less intense air column

4 This fingering affords a secure hand position The interval is faulty but may be acceptable at a ff level

5 The Cmiddot is flat and will demand the use of greater breath support

6 This is appropriately used for a PP level

7 To achieve a balanced ~and position while executing the tremolo depress the G lever

~ bull bull

bull bull

XtrlI ~r I 1

I I bull Xtrl bull

I 16

8 Apply this fingering at a PP level only When using a French model flute vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole of the 3rd key LH

9 Begin the interval with the use of regular fingering for the lower note then proceed with the fingering as shown

[19]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

1

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

~ bull I tr trbull bull bull I bull middot1 I middot1 I 19

~ trbull tr bullbullbull I I I 19middot

~ Jr tr trbull bull bull I middot1 I I I bull 1 1 19

~fJf ~

bull

Apply lower octave fingerings

Jr I Jr II bull bull bull I I bullbull I I 110

~ bull I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I trbull bull I I I II

bull I bull I I Xtr Xtrj middot1 112bull

~r I Jr 1 I bull I 113bull I bull bull I~ bull

~ a ~ ~

~

~

bull bulltr bull bull

bull

bull I

bull bull bull bulltr I1

bull I bull bull Jr I ~r I tr bullbull I I

bullfr I bulltr 1 bull I tr tr I

I

tr tr I tr tr

tr trbull I bull bull bull I

x tr I I I bull I

xtr I Xtrl bull I

I I X tr

I Xtr 1

I Jr 1 1 I I bull I

I bullbull tr I bullX

19

114

I I

I 115(+)

116

19

I bull I bull J9

I bullbull 117

bull I I bull I 18

I I 118

I I I I I I I 119

[20J

bull bull tr tr I f------1-+--+--+--+-e_f-t-i1 25

~--+-__+_-+-----1I__-II-+-l1 24

tr f----tt-+I--bullI---iIII~e-f-t-i1 20

~--+-I__+_-+-----1If--agt-+-+-1 22

f-+-+---+--+----If--agt-t--+---11 23

~a___+__f--+----+--+---ll 20

1--1-+---+---+--+1---+---+-11 21

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull

tr trbull bull bull bull trbull bull bullbull

tr trbull bull bull bull tr trbull bull bull bull

bull

bull

bull

trbull

bull

bull

8va-----

~(lt

8va----

~

r~~t-rXt-1--+--t-+1~I-+I-I 26(+)

f----4III~-rX--1r 1--+--11--+-1~I-+---li 27(+)~ tr t

bull 1 bullbullbull 1 1----1--t--+-+--it-r-+I-e-t--ll 28

10 Overblow the fundamentals(D-F) at the 12th

11 Overblow the fundamentals(E~-G) at the 12th

12 The D is better in tune as the tremolo is played pp bull

13 The fundamentals (E-G) are overblown at the 12th

14 Apply this fingering at a ff level

15 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown at the 12th When using the French model flute vent the 2nd keyLU and the 1st keyRU slightly while trilling This improves the intonation and affords control at a pp level

16 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

17 Overblow the fundamentals(F-A)at the 12th

18 The fundamentals(G-BP) are overblown at the 12th

19 The fundamentals(G-B) are overblown at the 12th

20 This fingering is more difficult to coordinate however it produces a more correct interval

21 Overblow the fundamentals(G-B) at the 12th

22 Overblow the fundamentals(AP-C) at the 12th

23 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

24 The fundamentals (A-C) are overblown at the 12th

25 Overblow the fundamentals (BP-DP) at the 12th

26 These harmonics are produced by overblowing BP at the 12th and F at the 17th This fingering is applicable also when using a closed-hole flute however the French model will produce the tremolo with clarity The tone holes of the 2nd and 3rd keys LU are vented slightly

27 Same as 26 but apply the harmonics B at the 12th and F at the 17th

28 The fundamentals (F-A) are overblown to produce the harmonics at the 15th

4(a) TREMOLOS (Major and MinorThirdsgt CONT

8va------

~ bull bull trbull r-cirxtr I I I I bull I I 29(+)

8va-

~

8va----

~fit bull

bullbull

trbulltrbull

tr trbullbull I I

I I tr

X I

I I I

I bull I 131

bull 1 I 130

8va----

~ bull I bull

tr tr bull bull bull I I I I bull I I 132

8va----

bull bull bull bull I Jr l I I I I I 133

8va--

bull tr trbull bull bull I I I I I I bullbull 134

[22J

8va----

~r bull o--e I bull I I I I I M 35(+)

f

29 Overblow B2 to produce the harmonic at the 12th On French model flut~s the response of the interval is improved by depressing the 1st key ring RH

30 Overblow the fundamentals (G-BP) at the 15th

31 Overblow C2 at the 12th to produce Gbull

32 The fundamentals (G-B) are overblown at the 15th

33 When using a flute with a B foot joint depress the low B key only

34 Overblow the fundamentals (A-C) at the 15th

35 On French model flutes depress the 3rd key ring LH The tonal response when using this fingering may vary with some flutes if so use the EP key instead of low C

I I

These charts include as many fingerings as are pracshyticable in the execution of tremolos involving intershyvalsinfourths fifths sixths sevenths and octaves Those intervals which have been omitted lacked acceptshyable fingerings that would offer adequate facility with the necessary tonal response Probably these intervals could be played with a degree of proficiency by using the regular fingerings resulting in a superior effect

Tremolos other than thirds or fourths are used inshyfrequently but being knowledgeable in their technical production would prove most beneficial to the performer Their physical demands would add a totally new dimenshysion to the flutists technique Embouchure flexibilishyty and the coordination of the fingers are the initial benefits that accrue from the execution of these wide intervals

It will be noted that a resemblance to the regular fingerings will exist in some of these and the addishytion of the G~ or thumb or trill keys serving as vents lend an added distinctness to the intervals In many instances these keys bring about a response as efshyfectively as would an octave key on other woodwind inshystruments

Apart from their function as tremolos there are nushymerous advantages which these fingerings offer The conshytrol of technical passages by applying these as short cut fingerings the production of tonal effects in lyrshyical phrases or the purposeful application of tone coloring simply by reiterating these intervals slowly are all distinct merits that would contribute to a pershyformers technical skills However the individual situations in present-day repertoire must be researched experimentally in order to apply the various fingerings These will promulgate a more comprehensible approach to the application of the harmonic series as well as provide for an extended view in the use of the French model flute

4(b) TREMOLOSCPerfectFourths and Tritones

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

tr1middot1middot bullbullbull I bull I Jr I Jr I bull bullbull

tr trI bull I bull I I bullbull II

tr tr ~ bull I bull I bullbull II

II

I tr I tr I tr I I I1---iIbull-I--iIIIIr--+-ja-t-1IIbull-+------1 I

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones)

1 Apply these fingerings one octave above

[23)

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritones) Cant

tr tr trbull I bull I bull 1 I I IIbull bullbull I

bull bull tr

bullbull I tr

bull I bull I bull I I I 11)2

tr tr bull bull bullbull bull I bull I bullbull I I 11)2

tr bull bull bull I I I bull I bullbull I I 11 1 3

trbullbullbull I 11 I 1 I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I bull I I bull I I II

tr tr bull bullbull I I I I I I bull I I II

I 1 I I I bullbull I 1 11)5

I I I I I I bull Jshy 1L

I I I I I bullbull I I II

bull ~r bull I I Jr I I I I bull I I 114

tr trbull bull bull

tr trbull bullbull

tr tr Ibull bull bull

bull bull I Xtrl I bull I 16bulltr tr bull I I I I I bull I 11)7bull bull

I

Xtrlbull bull bull I I bull I 16- bull

t

trbulltr bulltr bull bull bull I I I I I bull I I 1)7

I XtrlI I I I 18bull bull bull bull bull I~- tr

bull bull I I I x bull I 19~-

I I~ bull ~r I I bull bull I bull Ibull [24J

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

y ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~

bull bull I bull 19

bull bullbull

bull bulltr

Ibull bull I I tr trbull bull bull bull I

trbull bull bull ~r I tr Jr I

tre----1 bull bull bull bull I bull bull

tr bull tr

Apply lower

tr tr tr

bull bull I

Xtrl Xtrl bull 19

bull bull I bull bull I

tr trbull bull X l bull 110

bull bull I bull I II

tr tr middot1 bull I I bull I II tr Jr Xtrlmiddot1 bull 110

Jr l XtrlI bull I 112

octave fingerings 13

~rl ~rl tr I bull 1 I bull I

~ Apply lower octave fingerings

~fJf 13

2 It is acceptable to trill only the G key for a PP level otherwise alternate the trilling of the G key with the 1st key RH

3 Use an intense air column to produce a more correct tone quality for Abull

4 Coordinate the action of both fingers to avoid lagging the response of the interval

5 For added facility trill only the 2nd key however the B will remain faulty bull

6 At a pp level this fingering may be acceptable

7 Although difficult to coordinate this fingering is preferred

8 Adequate breath support and directed inward will assist toward the production of a more appropriate tone quality for the D

9 As the upper note is faulty direct the air column inward to match the tone quality of the lower

10 This responds with ease and is suitable for app 11 The upper note will respond more readily as the interval

is played If 12 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to ensure clarity

13 Apply the fingerings given(See 1)

[25J

4(b)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fourths and Tritonesgt Cant

bull I I 11 21(+)

~ 8va--

tr tr bull lOX I bull I I I 22(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr bull I ~r I bull I I I I C) x I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va----

tr t tr tr bull I r I bull I I I I Craquo( I bullbull I 23(+)

~ 8va-----

tr tr I I I I I I I I Ibull I I bullbull

~ 8va---

tr tr tr trbull I bulltr bull bull I bullbullx I 124 tr tr tr

~I x I 1(+) ~ bullbull8va---

tr tr I I bulltr bull bull bull I I x bull bullbull 125

~ 8va----

tr tr tr tr I I I I I I I 126bull I bull bull bull bull~

x tr xtrJ~rbullbull-+--+--I116(+) tr

l tr

)( I X I I 117

tr tr I I X 0 I I bull I I 1(+)

tr tr tr ~gt-+-If-X~I-e-ilr--+-il 19(+)

1--+1-i)(lrtr-tI-iXlrtr--+I-e-ilr--+-ll 20

11--+1-+-1-+I--+--+-bull-JI--+-I 14 t---drxtrl I I 115(+)

tr tr tr 117(+)bull bull bull bull bull I I xo I

bull tr tr Xtr Xtr bull bull bull I bull I I

tr tr tr 118(+)~ f-OX I X I bull I I

~ tr

bull I bullbull I I

bull I bullbull Jr I

[26]

I

8va---

~ 8va----

~ I_tr~x__t r+-I -+-+-1f-+-j--+-41 27 (+)

~ 8va-----

bull bull Jr ~29

~

14 Anticipate the action of the 1st key to avoid a lag in the response of the interval

15 In spite of this awkward fingering a ready response is afforded Alternate the use of the LH keys with those of the RH

16 This is purposeful for a ff

17 Apply this fingering for a pp

18 Control the action of the trill keys for a clearly defined interval Vent also one-half of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

19 Vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling to effect a pp bull

20 This is used for a ff

21 Vent approximately three-fourths of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH

22 For controllability concentrate on the use of an equal action with the RH fingers

23 The interval responds best when approximately one-half of the tone hole of the 2nd key RH is vented

24 This tremolo by necessity will be executed at a slower speed Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the thumb key and the right hand keys simultaneously

25 This tremolo will need to be executed quite slowly Altershynate the trilling of the G key with the use of the thumb and trill key together

26 Overblow the G~-C~2 fundamental at the 12th

27 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the use of the RH keys

28 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with the use of the RH keys

29 To correct an F that is faulty the 2nd key LH may be vented slightly while trilling

[27]

bull bull bullbull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull

4(c)TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

bulli I bull bull bull I I Jr I Jr I middot1 bull bullbull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 1 bullbull I

tr~ bull I bull bull bull bull I Jr I bull I bull I bull I II

~ trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 bull I I I I

bull tr trbull I bull bull bull I I 1 e e bull I 1 I

tr trbull bull I bull bull bull I Jr I el middot1

bull bulltr bull Ie I Jr I 12

tr trbull I bull bull bull I bull I e I 13 ~ tr tr tr I 1bull I bull bull bull bull I 1 4

bull ~

~ ~ -bull ~ bull

tr tr tr

I 1

bull I bull bull bull tr I

I

Ibull bull bull bulltr

I

tr tr II

tr tr II

e I bull bull Ibull tr tr tr

J

I bullbulltrx bullbull I

15

~rxtrl

xtr

xtr bull I

I I bull 16(+

17

I I Xtrl xtr bull 1

I tr tr Ibull I bull X bull I I 18

I bull I I Xtrl bull I I 19

I I I I I bull bull I I I

I ~r I tr tr bull I bull I bullbull 1

I I I I I I bull I I I

bull bull bull bull

bulltr bull bullbulltr

tr trbull bull bullbull I

tr trbull bull bulltr bull

bulltr bulltr bullbull

tr bulltr bulltr bullbull

bulltr bull bullbull I

bull bull bull o--e

e---jf-----bull-----

bullbull---1-----bull-0-0____

tr1- middotmiddot1 tr ~rl1-41-+1-----4---4----bull-11--+--11 II

bulltr I bull --+-iII~-+~1 12

tr bull I I - I

I - - I

ytrl tr 1--~7lr---+-+--4middotmiddotmiddot-4Imiddott---+-+---1113 I

114(+)

~ tr 115(+)

I bull trl bullbull 11516(+)

TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths)

1 This fingering also applies to the octave above Alternate the use of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 The B is slightly flat

3 This fingering serves more appropriately for a pp bull

4 A more correct interval results with this fingering

5 Apply the use of a large aperture to produce a dispersed air column iQ using this fingering at a pp level The impurities in the C~ thus can be eliminated

6 This fingering is most appropriately used for a pp bull The D may be sharp in pitch

7 Use a strong air column to assist in the correction of a faulty D Alternate the use of the 1st key LH with the trill key

8 Avoid the sounding of extraneous notes in the interval by emshyphasizing control in the action of the RH fingers

9 Concentrate on the action of the trill key to secure coordinashytion with the LH keys being trilled

10 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with the simulshytaneous action of the 3rd key LH and the 1st key RH

11 Avoid moving the flute thereby improving the coordination of the fingers

12 The B will respond clearly only if the action of the fingers is equalized

13 A slight accentuation of the G will assist in producing the interval with greater assurance Alternate the trilling of the 1st key LH with those of the RH

14 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightlyand about one-h~lf of the tone hole 1st key RH to adequately tune the G~ Avoid excessive closing of the embouchure

15 Accentuate the A throughout the tremolo to lend clarity

16 This fingering produces a controlled pp

~(c) TREMOLOS (Perfect Fifths) Cont 17 Vent also one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH while

trilling

18 To ensure a tonal response accentuate the lower note

19 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH to properly tune the D This is more suited to playing pp bull

20 Alternate the trilling of the 2nd key LH with those of the RH

21 Apply a low B if available

22 An intense air column must be used for this interval Altershynate trilling the thumb key with the 2nd Although this finger- bull ing is awkward the interval responds readily and is enhanced further through the use of a low B

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

~

I Jr I ~r I~ bull bull bull bull I bulltr

I bullbullbull

~ bull I bull bull bull bulltr I Jr l bull I bull I bull bullbull 1

Jr I 1 bull I bull I bullbullbull 2~ bull bull bull tr

tr tr I~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull middot3 bull l

bull bull bull

bull bullbull

bull

bullbull1IIIIIIl~~~~

lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

~~~~

bull bulltr bullbull

tr trbullbullbullbullbull 111 bullbull 11

tr trbull I bull I bull I bullbull 12bull bull bull bull I

-i tr tr I I bull I bull I bull I bull bull I3

bull bull bull bulltr

tr tr tr I bulltr I bull I bullbull bullbull I

bulltr

I bull I bull I bull I I

bull I bull bull bull I tr I bullbull bull bull 14

~rl bull bull bull

bull I Jr I bull 16 Jr I bull I bull I

Jr I bull bull I 14

I ~r I bull I bull I I I I

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I j5

trI bull I bull I bull I bull I 15 tr trbull bullbullbull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)

1 Alternate the trilling of the G~ key with the 1st key RH

2 Although this fingering demands coordination the tonal reshysponse is aided by the trilling of the 1st key RH

3 The A~ is slightly flat

4 This balan~ed hand position provides maneuverability howshyever the A~ remains flat in pitch

5 Direct the air column inward to achieve adequate response for the low C~

6 This fingering produces a lower pitch level for A~ bull

[31]

bull bull bull

--

I bull I I I I bull I I I

trxtrlI I Xmiddot bull I I 110

Xtr tr X bullbull III

Xtr Xtrl bull I 112

tr tr I bull I I I~r I X

Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 113

tr tr I JrXtrjbull bull I I 114

tr I Jr I I Xtrl bull I I 114

tr tr tr II tlr I bull I bull bull bullbull 15(+)

4(d) TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths Octaves)Cont

~ tr tr tr I bull I Ibull I bull bull bull I 17

tr tr I 1 bullbull I I~ - bull bull bull

tr tr tr~ bull I bull bull bull bullbull I I I

tr tr tr trbull I I I~ bull bullbull -I middotmiddot1

~ tr trbull I bull bullbull ~rl bull I I bull I I I

tr tr tr tr I~ bull I bull bullbull I middot1

__I tr tr ~8 ~ bull bull bull

tr bull bull Xtrl~ bull I bull bull I I middot1 I 19

[32J

~ ~ ~ V bullbull bull bull

tr tr Jr I

Ibull bull bull bull I

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull I

-1 bull bullbull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bull bull

bull bull

I I

r

I tr tr tr tr

I 115(+)bull bull bull bull bull I-laquogt bull I bull I bull I 13

bull ~ rdr r I bull I bullbull 113(+)

bull bull bull tr

~ bull bull I bull I 118(+)1

bull bull bulltr r I I bull Xtrl bull I 119

tr trbull bull bull bull ~ I bull bull bull bull 118(+)

tr tr 120(+)bull bull bull bull r--laquor-I bull I bull I bull I

1-1t-t-I-+--1-iI-+----+--+----11 21(+)

trbull bull bullbullbull

7 Avoid moving the flute during the tremolo Direct the air column inward to assure response for the D

8 Alternate the trilling of the LH key with the trill key The D is faulty Avoid the lag in response resulting from the LH reacting late This interval will prove to be difficult in sustaining a tremolo

9 The D is flat and requires added breath support Alternate the trilling of the thumb with the trill key [see 8J

10 This tremolo is more correct in pitch if played softly Use a slightly diffused air column to prevent the D from becoming sharp

11 This interval must be played louder than 10 for it to be near corr~ct in its intonation Intensify the air column for the Dli

12 Use greater breath support to raise the pitch level for D bull

13 This interval will be difficult to execute as a sustained tremolo

14 Use the ED key to raise the pitch for the upper note if needed Alternate the G key with the simultaneous trillshying of the RH keys

15 Alternate the G key with the trilling of the keys of the RU The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH This tremolo is difficult to coordinate due to the possishybility of certain tone holes not being covered adequately

16 Anticipate the action of the trill key to aid in the proper coordination

17 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 1st key RH while trilling The clear response will depend upon this controlled venting

18 The upper note is played as a harmonic at the 12th A breath emphasis given to this note will assist in its response

19 Adequate breath support for the F may paTtially correct its faulty tone structure

20 Vent ~pproximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH The Gli is a harmonic at the 12th Venting the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling may add distinctness

21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

[33J

r

- - -

tr -I I I 121(+)- -shy

4(d) TREMOLOS ltSixthsSeventhsOctavesgt Cont

-~

tr ~

trbull I bull -

_I

tr r--o I

tr - I -

- 1 bull

-

I

I I

__

21(+)

118(+)

~ - I bull tr

- o----l ~r 1 -I _I __ 118(+)

~ - I tr

bull -~ tr- -I -I I I I 22(+)

-~

tr ~

tr- 1 bull -()-----1

tr I _I --I I-tr tr I -I I- shy

121(+)

122(+)

- ~ tr

j--() I _ I - I - - 12 3(+)

tr ~ -I -I - I I 124(+)

~

bull ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~

~

Jr I tr tr 0-1shy~

~

~

~

tr - shy-

tr trbull I - I- I

-tr I - II I

Jr 1 _I- I I

Jr I _ -- I

tr tr I-I I - I-Jr I I I - Ishy

I Jr II I - 1 shy

tr I tr I Il I

I 124(+)

I I 21(+)

I 125(+)

I 124(+)

1 121(+)

I 121(+)

- 126(+)

I 127

[34]

bull bull bull bull

2nd 3rd

l~~ tr

bull bull bull bull I bull~

bull r ~r bull I I Jr 1 ~r I bull bull I 127

~ tr tr tr tr rr I xI H27bull bull bull bull l bull I

~ r tr ~r Xtrbulltr bull bull I r-+- bull I 127

~ tr tr trbull bull bull bull I I Jr I XI bull I 127

~ tr tr tr

I XI -I 128

~ tr ~I X I

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull I

~ tr tr

Xbull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 129

~ tr tr Xtr bulle-----i bull bull bull bull I X bull bull 11330

~

B~

tr I bullbull 130bull bull bull bull bull

~ tr tr tr I

--I bull bull bull 1 bull 1 bull X I bull bull 11331

~ 21 Vent the 2nd key LH scarcely while trilling The upper

note is a harmonic at the 12th

22 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

23 Vent approximately one-half of the tone holes 2nd key LH and 1st key RH while trilling This produces a G~ harshymonic at the 12th but on a low C fundamental (vented)

24 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH while trilling The upper note is a harmonic at the 12th

25 Vent one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH The A is a harmonic at the 12th

26 Also vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd keyLH

27 Favor the embouchure and direction of the air column used for the lower note throughout the tremolo

28 The D will be flat and demanding of full breath support

29 This interval may be cumbersome as it requires alternating the trilling of the 1st key LH with the trill key

30 Direct the air column outward and to further the responsiveshyness of the interval lend a breath accentuation to the upper note

31 Alternate the trilling in the LH with that of the RH

[35J

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

4(d)TREMOLOS (Sixths Sevenths OctavesgtCont

I I xtrI I 1 bull bull 113131

~ tr tr trbull I bull bull bull bull I I X I X bull I bull bull 113~

tr tr X bull bull I bull bull bull I I Xtrl I bull bull 113131

~ trbull I bull bull bull bull tr Xtr I Xtrl bullbull 113

~ tr tr tr

~ Jr Ibull I bull bull bull bull bull x I bull bull 13

pound tr tr trbull I bull bull bull I x I bull bull 11331bull

tr ~rXtrlbull I bull bull bull I I I bull bull 113 131

~ ~r I

tr tr tr I I bull bull 11332(+)[=~

X

[36 ]

bull I I Jr Jrxtr I 113 133bull~ ~ ~ 1tJ= ~va---

8va--bull 8va---bullyen bull

I

~

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

bull I bull bull bulltr bull

bulltr I I

tr tr Ibull I bull bull bull

tr trbull I bull bull bull bull

(+)

~rl Jr I I I bullbull 134

tr tr tr middot1 bull x I H 31(+)bull I

tr tr I I I C) )( I bull I H1335

(+)

~rl bull I I bull I I 136(+)

~rl ~r I I bull I I 137(+)

tr ~ I ~r I bull bull H13 138

(+)

~cirl I I 1(+)bulltrbull

140(+

I42(+)

I(+)

140(+

bull I

~~I-+-+-11-----+-1--+--JI 39

I tr tr

j Ll-J

~bull --Xlf-+-+---+-H I I 43 (+)

r-Jr I bull I bull I

i----()-4--I-+-1--+-+----+--J (+)

tr tr bull bull egt--e

tr tr

bull

tr trbull bull bullbullbull

trbullbull--I----(raquo)--+-~

bullbullr----I--r--~o--j

bull bullbull ~ bulltr ---+~-+--~

8va--

~ bull bulltr bull

32 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH Alternate trilling the G~ key with the simultaneous trillingof the RH keys

33 The 2nd key RH is vented imperceptibly while trilling Alternate the LH with the trilling in the RH

34 B~gin the tremolo by giving breath pulsations to the upper G~ to benefit the response of the interval

35 The 2nd key LH is alternated with the synchronized trilling of the 3rd key LH and the RH keys The 2nd key RH is vented slightly

36 Vent about one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

37 The 1st key LH is alternated with the trilling of the RH keys

38 Scarcely vent the 1st key RH The harmonic content of the G adds to the difficulty in its response Regular fingering for this interval might be appropriate

39 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd

40 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

41 Also vent the 2nd key LH slightly while trilling

42 The 3rd key LH and 1st key RH are vented slightly according to the dictates of the interval in its level of intonation and ease of response

43 Scarcely vent the 2nd key LH while trilling the 3rd key approximately one-half of the tone hole

[37J

bull bull bull bull

TREMOLOS (Sixths Seve-nthsOctaves) 5ALTECont Nearl

the Fren of the f

(a) A 8va~ (b) A

(c) A

bulltr bull bulltr bull (d) E

(e) A~ These tOnal ef

8va~ be most trastsbulltr tr tr I I Jr I 144 (I

1-1-+--+--X~-+-+--+-J -I I Altho

erally i ~ breath p pianissi sitively notes to check til imperati in balao tack tha44 Use the low B key when available

Alter45 Vent about one-half of the tone hole 2nd key LH special Hence t with eas

46 Alternate the trilling of the 1st key with the 2nd A firm action by the 1st finger must be accompanied by a slight Howev breath accentuation for the B offering

er breat pitch Ie clined t

At ti use of a followin suggeste ness giv plish th mended t fingerill The adju to the t teristid duct ion dependcn tonal sl oughly t completlO dynamic~

illgS is essenti~

44(+)

trbullbull

tr tr

trbull I 144

I bull I I x tr I bull I I 145(+)

I Jr I I bull I I

trbull bull

trbull bull bull

trbull bullbull

tr Cgt

~r bull I

bull

bullbullbull Itrbull

trbull

trbull

bull

bull bull bull bull

5ALTERED FINGERINGS Nearly all of these altered fingerings will require the use of

the French model flute They produce notes possessing two or more of the following characteristics

(a) A transparent tone structure (b) A higher pitch level than with normal fingerings (c) A variation of timbre (d) Extreme pianissimo with sensitively posed adjustments (e) An added resistance factor for playing fortissimo

These notes retaining a transparency add a new dimension to the tonal effect and used with discretion this blending of sound can be most desirable in phrases that also call for greater dynamic conshytrasts

Although the amount of breath support needed for these notes genshyerally is less than for those played with normal fingerings the breath pressure should be maintained in the usual manner as for a pianissimo The resultant pitch level can be controlled more senshysitively with many of these fingerings and the usual tendency for notes to become flat while playing softly sometimes can be held in check through their application When executing these notes it is imperative that the tongue stroke for the individual attack be used in balance with the dynamic level This avoids an overbearing atshytack that can delay the tonal response of the note

Altered fingerings for the notes of the third octave will be of special interest since the breath support for these can be lessened Hence the adjustment in the level of intonation can be accomplished with ease and flexibility

However some of these fingerings produce an opposite effect By offering substantially more resistance they permit the use of greatshyer breath support in playing a fortissimo Consequently a lower pitch level can be attained for those notes that normally are inshyclined to be sharp These also possess a different timbre

At times it may be difficult or impossible to coordinate the use of an altered fingering with that of a preceding note or one following In each circumstance the fingering must be applied as suggested by the accompanying material and with equal attentiveshyness given to its resulting tone production In order to accomshyplish the maximum result with a degree of practicality it is recomshymended that the various possibilities as offered by more than one fingering for a particular note be explored as much as possible The adjustments for these varicolored notes must be made according to the treatment of the air column and the notes resulting characshyteristics Since each flutist by nature will approach tone proshyduction differently the ventin~ of the tone holes then will be dependent upon this phenomenon The performers capacity to hear tonal shadings nnd minute modificntions of intonntion will be thorshyoughly tested as he nttemllts to develop a technique for venting A complete understanding of this proceduJe for altering the pitch dynamics and tone quality is vital and the use of special fingershyings is a vnlued supplement to the interpretive skills that are essential in the flutists performance

This concentration of fingerings stressing the use of the French model flute will serve as an appropriate introduction to the SUbsequent charts in this book Many of these fingerings can be altered further to vent for a more exacting structure of a quarshyter-tone scale and because of their relationship with the function of the harmonic series they form a fundamental approach in the proshyduction of multiphonics

~ ~- bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 2bull bull bull bull bull 0-+-0 bull bull I 12

12~ bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull bull 12

~- bull bull bull o--i ~ bull bull bull bull 2

bull bull bull 0-1 f-o bull bull bull bull I 12

bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull bull 12

0 bull bull bull 112~ bull bull bull bull bull bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull bull 12

bull bull bull o-e bull bull bull bull bull I 12bull

bull bull o---e bull bull bull bull I 12 bull 0 0bull bull bull bull bull bull I 12

l Vent the tone holes completely Apply a wide aperture and use very little breath support This will lower the pitch signifishycantly and at the same time produce a light and transparent tone structure

2 Each of these fingerings offers a slightly varied tone quality Vent the tone hole(s) as indicated

[39J ALL FINGERINGS ARE USED FOR PIANISSIMO UNLESS DESIGNATED BY()

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cont)

()bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull I 17~-15bull bull bull bull I bull x I bull I

bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 12~- bull I bull bull bull Hgt I I I bull bull 18bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 12 ~- bull I bull bull bull 9

I H I I I bull 110~- bull I bull o-e bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 23 bull bull bull bull I o---e 123bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bull bull bull I---igt I bull I bull bullbullbull8

I bull 0 I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull4tyenyent= bull bull ~-

bull I I Hgt I bull I bull I bull bull 18bull I ~ I I I I bull I I 13 bull bull bullbull ~-

I bullbullbull3bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull egt-e 10~ ~- bullbull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull egt--- bull I bull 1 bull I bullbullbull11 I bull () bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I 14 bull I bull bull o---e bull I I I bull I 112

() I I I I 110M- I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I 13 ~- bull I bull I I bull I bull I 13 I () bull I I bull I bull bull I I 113bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bullbull I bull I bull bull o---i I bull I bull bull I I I 1114

I I 0 I I I 17bull bull bull I bull I

bull I

I I 15sect2g bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull I ~- bull I bull () bull 1 I bull bull I bullbull j I 113 I bull X bull I bull I 15 bull bull bull I bull bull bullbull bull bull I o---e I I bullbull3

I 15~- bull bull bull bull bull X bull bull bull I bull I bull bull bull I bull I 0 I j 17

I bull bull bull bull I bull X bull I bull 15 ~- bull I bull 0 bull I bull [ bull bull I 115

bull I bull bull bull bull I bull I () bull I 16

[40J THESE ARE USED FOR FORTISSIMO ONLY

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

-

bull bull bull I bull () bull 17 ~- bull bull bull f-4gt bull bull bull bull bull 8

bullbull bull f--O bull bullbull 19

I bull I bull~- () Hgt I bull bull bull ~ I bull

f-ltgtbull bull bull I bull bull egt---i I Ibull~- I I bull bull bull I I I X 0

1--4gt I bull~

()

0pound- bull bull 0

0bull bull bull Ibulla- bull

8va---

bull bull bull I 0 ~- bull

0bull bull bull I bull bull bull bull ~

116

bull bull 1817

bull bull bull 18

bullbull 19bull bull 110

118

bull I 119

bull I bull bull 113

X I I 1820 bull

I bull I 113 X

I bull I bull I 118

818

bull 118

bull 110

3 This fingering makes possible a dynamic level that is louder than that produced with regular fingering

4 Vent the ~nd key LH slightly

3 Vent by using the trill key but only according to the desired level of intonation

6 Adjust the intonation by venting approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key RH

7 Scarcely vent the 2nd key ~H

8 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 The entire tone hole of the 1st key RIl is vented Use a sparse air column for the tone support to be used in maintainshying the level of intonation

10 Vent the tone hole according to the existing level of intonation while executing a diminuendo bull

II Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH

12 Vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 3rd key LH

13 Scarcely vent the tone hole of the ~nd key LH for added conshytrol of the pitch level This fingering noticeably produces an immediate tonal response nnd with tllis a veiled tone quality isproduced with ease

14 Vent approximately one-fourth of the tone hole 3rd key LH This produces a transparent tonal effect

15 Vent about three-fourths of the tone hole 2nd key LH If this is vented less the note may be played louder and a greater content of harmonics will result in its tone structure bull The note will be lower in pitch

16 Use an extremely soft attack to ensure greater sensitivity in the production of a light and clear tone structure

17 Gently raise the 1st key LH slightly This aids in eliminating the sound of the harmonic in the tone

18 The tone hole of the 2nd key RIl is vented completely

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality is desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch bull

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly bull

[41J Ij

I

5ALTERED FINGERINGS (Cant]

bull 0 bull bull 118~- bull ~ bullbull--+-__---+--__bull--1 0 bull bull 118bull

8va---- laquogt 119bull bull bull bull I bull I bull Isect==

bull bull bull bull I o----t-ltgt I I 21~-8va-----

~-~ t-----J-+I---t--+---~-+-11 10

I bullbull I I r-41~X~cgt-+--+--4It-+--+----i1 22

Ir--+I--X)f----jl-+I~bull-+-+---+-ll 23fiF=--bull middotbull -1---+---middotbull -1 1-0 X I X I I 924

~- bull bull I--t--A-X---t-I--JlX~~bull-lI--+-j1 8va----

~- bull bull bull bull middot1

~_~ bull j bullbull 1

8va---

bull 11-$shybull ~

19 This fingering should be applied when a harmonic tone quality ip desired It is not for purposes of producing subtle dynamics The note demands the application of firm breath support Vent the tone holes indicated for the necessary adjustments of pitch

20 Also vent the tone hole 2nd key LH slightly

21 TIle entire tone hole of each key 2nd and 3rd RH is vented Close a portion of the 2nd tone hole RH to adjust the pitch further if necessary

22 The (D) trill key is opened gently to raise the pitch At the same time vent approximately one-half of the tone hole 2nd key RH

23 Use a lip attack for added control of the pitch level

24 Depress the 0 trill key only slightly for the purpose of raising the pitch level if needed during the execution of a diminuendo

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute)

QUARTER-TONES To pursue the study of the quarter-tone scale one may wish to begin

by learning the notes in the chart on Altered Vingcrings When used apshypropriately they could establish n general background for the techniques that are related to this scale Altered fingerings can produce new timshybres that result from certain alterations of the physical properties of the air column Such alterations reveal multiple tube-lengths in the air column of the flute and are caused by the venting of various fingering combinations Tllis is noted wIlen using some of the fingerings for tremshyolos as well as altered lIotes As an acoustical phenomenon this emerges with greater prominence as tlw fingerings then arc vented further through the use of the French model flute It is by this modification of the finshygerings that the tonal responRe is transformed to produce a wide range of

[42J

tone colors Identifying these timbres and adjusting to their accompashynying physical sensations will enhance the performers adaptabilities in the development of embouchure control Also the application of a posishytive approach to the function of the air column will occur with greater sensitivity

To establish the scale of microtones(quarter-tones) it is necessary for these new sounds to be accepted in the traditional sense and played with firm conviction It is a known fact that when the flutist possesses a well developed tone structure for the semitones the prevailing intonashytion also will be appealing This same standard of performance would apshyply and hopefully should exist when developing the quarter-tone scale Therefore adjusting to the array of timbres that accompany the various notes of the quarter-tone scale should become natural and their tonal characteristics accepted as being ordinary

The fingerings included in this chart are based on an elaboration of the harmonic series The conventional response of the overtones is alshytered by venting certain tone holes which brings about the formation of the multiple tube-lengths This departure from the fixed overtone arshyrangement permits the sounding of the neighboring harmonics and with this occurrence a chromatic quarter-tone scale can evolve in an organshyized manner The use of these fingerings can bring about a greater flexshyibility when endeavoring to achieve absolute control of pitch

The listening required for the proper placement of the microtone inshytervals is indeed acute and becomes intensified with each effort This hopefully ought to assure the guiding of the intervals of semitones

As the quarter-tones are learned they must be treated as new fundashymental notes The tone control for these ought to be developed justas it has been for the regular semitones and an understanding of their placement in the schema will add immeasurably to their eventual evolushytion in the production of multiphonics ~Qqing of pitches normalshyly executed by the accepted practice of rolling the headJoint in or out to alter the direction of the air column need not be an exclusive apshyproach to the tempering of the pitches for the microtone scale Too ofshyten this technique seems unreliable although in a number of instances it can prove to be beneficial and will assist in the effectiveness of a particular fingering

Frequent adjustments of the embouchure in conjunction with the use of breath pressure and the directional change of the air column will be necessary for most of the notes Instructions for such treatment will be given for each note

The French model flute is an absolute necessity in the production of a great many of these notes since there is no way in which the closed-hole flute can tune quarter-tone~ as accurately The use of only the basic fingerings can become restrictive and will limit the degree of variation

A reeducation in tonal imagery and pitch relationships is vital to the development of a microtone scale This could eliminate the aleatory approach to tuning Therefore it is imperative that the player should determine the proper venting of the tone holes for these fingerings by seeking the correct pitch levels In fact as a result of the experience that was gained by the venting for the notes in the charts on tremolos and altered fingerings the flutist now must treat this as an accepted technique and consider the proper venting to be in balance with the emshybouchure habits in tone production Hence the text material in this chart will not dictate the amount that the tone hole is to be vented since each player varies the basic approach to tone production

The exclusive use of straight tone is not necessary for these notes and the application of vibrato certainly is in order Of course the

usual considerations would apply for its expression and it should be used with discretion

In most cases due to complexities that may be encountered with some of these fingerings there will be very little dexterity or facility for rapid passages Flutists must determine which fingerings will serve best in a given situation At the same time it is assumed that equal conshysideration will have been shown by composers in their compositional deshymands and that the musical structures can be clear of technical hazards

The notes of the chromatic scale of semi tones have been illustrated (in parentheses) with the quarter-tones in this chart To adjust for the tuning of each microtone properly the regular semi tone should be played first Following this each fingering for each quarter-tone ought to be tried in order to establish the correct interval as closely as possible At the same time one must be attentive to each fingerings tonal charshyacteristics With this the player then should react to the resistance factor which is set up in the flute This is resolved by recognizing a physical sensation that is demonstrated by the manner in which the tone responds At this time the embouchure should be adjusted accordingly Reshycalling this experience each time that the fingering is used should reshysult in the performer cultivating a familiarity with a more definitive approach to these tones and an anticipation of their prevailing pitch levels

Contemporary composers have used a variety of signs and symbols to indicate the sharps and flats for the quarter-tones In order to give this chart readability arrows extending from the stems of the convenshytional alterations have been used These denote that the pitch is raised or lowered a quarter-step Although only sharps have been used here the player must assume that the enharmonic notation would be used in performance

At same as 8~ Et same as ot etc

Also the enharmonic pitches apply as follows

A~ same as 8f or A1 ot or cl same as o~ etc

Unquestionably a great deal of experimentation with fingerings such as these will result in acquiring added facility in the manner in which all facets of tone production are studied Other fingerings may be conceived for notes of this scale However the criteria inshyvolving their adaptability will be similar to that already described in the preceding paragraphs

QUAIITER-TONE TIULLS

These fingerings create quarter-tone trills either ascending or descending Many of the notes include the possibility of a trill in either direction emanating from the principal note and are indicated as such by the text materials The instructions are given in an abbreshyviated form and are interpreted as follows

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The note this pro-letter identifying the to be activated duces and its tend-note ~ encies if any

Ex-( 4F C key DOWN to Q )

The flutist may wish to research these fingerings further in as much as they offer a seemingly limitless display of intervals of varshyious degrees Mini-microtones(sixth-tones or eighth-tones) also are possible and these will be referred to as pitch-pulsations in the subshysequent charts

[43]

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull

6(a) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

IPIO I C) 1 I 1 I I bull I 1 13~ bull I I I 14bull bull I bull I bull bull I bull I

~ I bull bull I bull I bullbull 15

0 I bull I I I I bull I bull I bullbullbull6- e-+ bull bull bull bull I bull bull 12 ~ bull bull I I f----o I bull 1 bull I bull bull 17Cgtbull bull I

iCO)~ IAIB I bull e bull I bull I 0 bull I I 13 IR I --0 I I I 14bull ~ bull bull bull bull I bullbull I bull bull bull bull I 0 I bull I bull bull middot12 I I bull I bull I bull bull I I 14

bull I bull bull f----o I bull I bull I bullbullbull4 ICIO I I 0 I I bull I I 13~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull bullbull 4

bull I bull bull bull f----o I bull bull I bull bull 1I

~ IElFe I r-o 13 I (U)qgg ISIT I bull I bull I bullbull I I 14

IS I I bull () 1 I I I bull I I 141Ge---l bull bull bull r-o I bull 1 3

IS~ I I bull I --t-1 8

I (~~ bull I bull bull D---i I bull bull I bull I bull bull II IU I () bull I I bull bull 1 bull I bull 19~

I IV jIH bull D------i r-o bull I bull I bull I 14 I bull I bull x bull I bull bull I 15~ bull bull IVIW IIH bull bull o-------j I bull I bull I I bull bull 14 bull I 5bull

IJ e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull I 14 fXIY I e e bull I ex bull I bull I 13

IJ 5e bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bull 1 ~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I () I 110 I(e)~ IKIL bull ()----e I 1 I I I I bull I 13 IZ2A I I I 14bull bull bull X bull bull

IMIN~ If-O bull I bull bull 15

I bull bull o----e I bull I I ICia) M 2B2C bull bull bull I bull I bull I o bull 13bull bull bull bull bull 5 ~

bull I I bull I bull bull 15 I bull e bull bull I bull x bull I 311

[44J The preferred fingering for each note is illustrated first

bullbull bull bull 0 bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

~2F2 bull bull I 0 l_l I bullbull I 13bull -shy2H I I j 13bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 2J bull bull bull I f-cgt X I I bull bull la

~2~L bull bull o-j bull I bull bull 112 I X 0 I 112bull bull bull I bull

2M bull bull bull I I I bull bull bullbull1213

bull bull () bull I I I bull bullbull I 114

1 Apply a mlmmum amount of breath support using a wide apertureThis note lacks the usual tonal presence of the low register and its use is limited to extremely soft attacks

~ Direct the air column downward to adjust for the level of intoshynation This effort must be exaggerated when using a low C

3 This fingering produces a tonal response that is similar to that of the notes of the tempered chromatic scale of semitones A firm breath support may be applied and a resonance as well as a variation of dynamic levels are possible

4 Direct the air column downward in order for the note to attain as much tone center as possible and a proper adjustment for its intonation A light volume of air is applied but a medium dynamic level seems possible

5 Direct the air column upward in order to raise the pitch level A large aperture and the use of a dispersed air column will renshyder a distinct contrast in tone quality for some of the notes

6 Since there is no suitable fingering for a more accurate tuning of this note the air column must be aimed exaggeratedly downshyward However an interesting tone color emerges and a near correct level of pitch can be attained

7 If a split-E attachment is available this fingering may be alshytered to produce a correct pitch level Otherwise an unorthoshydox method of closing the 1st key RH is necessary to vent apshyproximately one-half of the B hole This seems impractical

8 This fingering effectively produces a subdued tone quality and is suitable for a soft dynamic level

9 The sounding of multiple harmonics in the tone must be elimishynated as the key is vented Attempt to favor the sounding of the upper pitch

10 A slight venting of the tone hole 3rd key RH will assist in the control of the intonation in a soft dynamic level

11 bull The 3rd finger RH should lean gently on the trill key in order to vent for the appropriate degree of intonationbull

12 bull This fingering serves best when playing loudly Apply an intense air column and use as wide an aperture as possible without altershying the tonal standard

10 The keys of the low B foot joint must be closed securely to preshyvent any unnecessary venting otherwise the F cannot be altered auequately Direct the air column upward

14 The tone holes as indicated are to be vented imperceptibly A translucent tonal structure is indigenous to most of these fingerings

lA I 3rd RH I UP to E

IB I E~ key I DOWN to Q(Sharp)

lC I 2nd RH I UP to I

ID I 3rd RH I DOWN to ~(sharp)

IE I 2nd Rff I DOWN to I

IF lIst RH I UP to 1

IG I 2nd amp 3rd RH I DOWN to F

IH I 1st ~nd UP t (( I )and (3rd) RII I 0 ~ S WIP

IJ lIst 2nd UP to G and 3rd RII I

lK I 3rd LH(vented) I UP to A

lL I G key I DOWN to ~~

1M I G key I UP to A

IN I 3rd RH DOWN to G(sharp)

IP I 2nd LH(vented) I UP to A

lQ I 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) I

lR I 2nd LH UP to C amp 1st RH I

IS I Thumb key I UP to ~

IT I 2nd amp 3rd LH DOWN to C (depress G~ key) I I

IV I 1st RH I DOWN to ~

IV I Thumb key I UP to Q

lW I 1st LH I UP to Q

lX I G~ key I DOWN to D

lY I E~ key I UP to J)

lZ I D Trill key I UP to D

2A I 2nd LH I DOWN to D(ring only)

2B I 3rd RH I UP to I

2C I E~key I DON to Q

2D I 2nd RH I UP to F

2E I 3rd RII I DOWN to (shllrp)

21 I 1st HH I UP to f

2G I 2nd RIl DOWN to f(half-vented) I 211 I 2nd RII I UP to r 2J I D Trill key I DOWN to I

(sharp)shy

2K I 2nd RH I UP to Q (sharp)

2L I )rd RII DOWN t ro (ring only) I a _

~-1 I )rd HII I UP to Q

[45]

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

8(a QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

2N bull 0---1 I bull I bull I 13bull 2P I I I bull 114- 2a bull 1 I bull 115bull I

4 m 2S2T I bull bull o--t f-o bull I bull I bull I 13

2T 1 bull bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I bull 13

bull I bull () bull bull I 1 I I bull 1 114

2S2U I bull bull o---e I I I I bull I 13rztt=22W bull I 0 I i I I I bull -t-+-3 2V2X~ I I 116bull I bull I bull I

(~)~ 2Y I bull I I bull I 0 I bull I I 116bullI 2Z~A I bull bull bull I I bull I bull I o bull I 13

f--(gt I 114bull I bullbullbull Ibull I bull bull bull I 38 I Q---j I 116bull I bull I bull I bullbull

I(n)qn ~ 3C I bull bull I I bull bull I bull I I I 116

bull I bull 0--+--1 f-ltgt I bull I bullbull 15 3D I bull bull bull I f---Cgt I bull I I I 114 3E I bull bull I I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

3E30 I 0 I I I 13bull bull bull I I bull I

f 1 t

bull bull 1

(~q~~ 3Fe

I bull bull middot1

I

3G

3H3J I

(~I~~ 3K I bull I I

I bull ()-e-j3L I

(0) qn ~3M3N I I I

bull ()I bull If

3P I bull 3Q

f (0) n ~~ 3R3S bull bull bull bull I 3S3Te

3T

3R3S3U

(~) ~-amp ~Q 3V

I 3W3X

bull 3Y

(0) ~o~ 3Z

1 4A

bull bull o--e ()

bull bull o--e

I bull bullbull I bull I bull I I o--+-Jbull I bull 0 bull I

I bull +---cr--l I bull bull I

tI I x I I bull 13

~ 115bull I bull I bull I I I I x I bull I I 118

1---0 I bull I bull I I I 1919

I 0 112 I bull I bull I bull I I I 317 r bull I bull I I bull I

j I bull I x bullbull 13 I

I bull I bull I bull bull 110 115I bull I bull I bullbull

1 I I x I bull 1310

13 I bull I bull I bull bull I bull I bull I bull I bullbull 1317

I bull x bull x I bull I I 116

I bull I () I bull I I 115

t---o I I I bull 1 bull 11920

I I I I I bull 119 bull X

[46J

B +

~ 48 bull bull bull bull I bull 112 4C

40 bull bull

bull bull bull

X bull I bull

bull 116

121 8va I

~4E4F bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13 4E4F bull bull bull bull 117 4G4F

middot8va 1rrplusmnt5=4H4J bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull I bull I bull

bull 0

0

bull bull

bull bull 119

112

bull 117

4JI bull () bull bull 1-0 bull bull bull 117 8va I (-Q)J-e- -eshy 4K4L I

I 4M4L I

4Me

bull ()

bullbull bull bull e

bull I X 1 bull X f---Q X

bullbull

114 11622 119

15 This is used advantageously for n pianissimo The intonation level is controllnble by venting the tone hole of the 2nd key L H slightly

16 A firm breath support with a vnrinble volume of air may be apshyplied to produce a reasonable range of dynamic coloring The intonation seems controllable as the flow of air iR directed upward

17 A relaxation of breath pressure seems possible ith this fingershying The tonal structure is altered nccordingly and at the same time a medium range of dynamic level can be controlled

18 This fingeringwill demand coordination when ascending from D and again to D The pitch level can be controlled by directshying the air coumn downward

19 The tone structure may become excessively airy but this as well as the intonation level can be corrected by adding subshystantially to its breath support

20 The use of the 3rd key RH aids only in the balanced hand position Thus the application of the fingering either in an ascending or descending paRsage is facilitnted

21 Overblow the low G at the 15th as softly as possible The harmonic content of the tone structure will be of contrasting quality The air column must be directed donward

22 To facilitate tuning this note ly vent the tone hole 2nd key

2N Low C key UP to ~~

2P 2ntl HII DOWN to ~

2Q )st I 2ntl HH UP to G~

2H 1 st HII UP to ~~

2S 1rtl LII UP t A (ring only) 0

2T 1st 2ntl DOWN to G~ anti 1rtl RH shy

2U G~ key DOWN to ~

2V 2nd LH UP to A~ (ring only)

2W 3rd LH (ring only) DOWN to A

2X Low C~ key DOWN to A

2Y Low C~ key DOWN to A~

2Z 3rd RH UP to 8

3A ED key DOWN to A~

38 3rd LH DOWN to A (ring only) shy

3C 1st RH UP to pound

3D 3rd RH DOWN to _8 (ring only)

3E 2nd RH UP to pound 3F 2nd amp 3rd RH DOWN to C

3G 1st Rn UP to C(flat)(ring only)

3H 1st RH DOWN to pound(ring only)

3J Thumb key UP to pound

3K 1st LH UP to Q

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

at a soft dynamic level scarceshyLH

3L 1st LH DOWN to C~

3M 1st LH DOWN to 0

3N 0 Trill key UP to Q

3P Low C key UP to Q

3Q ED key liP to 1)

3R 1st RH DOWN to 0

35 3rd LH UP to E

3T 3rd RH UP to E

3U 1st amp 2nd RH UP to ~

3V 2nd RH UP to I

3W 2nd LH DOWN t E (ring only) 0 _

3X 2nd amp 3rd RH UP to I

3Y 3rd RH DOWN to ~

3Z 1st LH UP to I

4A 0 Trill key DOWN to F

48 G key UP to ~

4C D~ Trill key DOWN to I~

40 Thumb key UP to ~

4E jIst LH UP to G~

4F G~ key DOWN to G

4G 3rd RH UP to G

4H 1st amp 2nd RH DOWN to G~

4J 3rd LH UP to ~

4K 3rd LH(vented) DOWN to A

4L 0 Trill key DOWN to ~

4M 2nd LH UP to A~

[47J

II

1iibull bull bull

Sea) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (C Flute) Cont

8va I_4N4PI bull r---ox x 123

40 I I X I 119

4N4R I 1317bull bull I X bull X 8va i

(o)~ft ~ I e19bull bull bull bull bull bull bull I 451 ()---1 x e e 119bull 8va i

(-e-)~-e- ~ 4Te bull bull bull I bull X I I 24

I bull e 0--- f-O I X bull bull 124

it

23 When descending from the regular B the 1st and 3rd keys LH may remain closed

24 This note may be played only at a loud dynamic level A firm breath pressure is vital to the control of the intonation alshythough the note tends to be sharp

4N D~ Trill key DOWN to ~

4P 1st HH(vented) UP to B

4Q 2nd LH UP to ~

4H D Trill key UP to _Band 2nd HH

45 2nd HH DOWN to ~

4T D Trill key DOWN to f

[48J

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo)

In this chart the fingerings for both the alto flute and picshycolo are combined The concepts of tone production and pitch disshycernment that were discussed in the preceding section on quartershytones for the C flute would apply to these instruments also Due to the limitations in venting the fingerings there will be less flexibility in the tuning of these notes In fact some noiesof the scale have been omitted because of unsuitable fingering comshybinations and a lack of control for the pitches However if an open-tone-hole model piccolo is available to the player other fingerings from the previous chart could be applied It will be noted that a great deal of emphasis is placed on the exaggerated change of direction of the air column for the purpose of tuning This will compensate for the lack of venting for most of these notes

QUARTER-TONE TRIllS

The text materials for these trills are presented here in the same manner as for those in the previous chart In some instances the direction of the air column has to be exaggerated either upward or downward in order to reach the proper intonashytion level for a single note in the quarter-tone scale This precludes the proper tuning of the quarter-tone trill When it occurs the smaller interval that results is termed a pitchshypulsation However prior to playing the trill special effort must be made to tune the quarter-tone from which the trill is to emanate otherwise even the small interval(pitch-pulsation) will be nonexistent Occasionally when only one fingering is given for both instruments the text will indicate the instrushyment for which the trill fingering is intended

bull bull e bull bull I bull I bull bull bull e I I~ e(o)~ bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull 12

reg - ALTO FLUTE

j ~

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull

f (e)~eF IA bull bull bull bull bull bull bull IA

Sb

+ l(ie)~ IQ I bull bull bull bull bull bullbull

I bull bull bull bull bull bull bull The little finger nlI must open the IP key and at the same

IS time close the footjoint keys The air column must be dishybull bull bull 30~ bull bull bull rected dowmarct to lower the pitch 1 eve IS bull bull bull bull bull bull 12reg

2 Exaggerate the ctowlllVilnl directioll of the njr column The apshyerture must relilain il~ opcn ttl possj) 1c otlerwjse the tone structure becomes sllpplcsilted This fi lIferinf i~ more appro-

IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 13reg priate for il sort 1Ild subdued efrcct~ bull IC bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 14reg 3 Apply the techniques noS ill )- nlll u--( vcry I it tIc volume

of air This note milY lack ndeqllnte tOllnl projection

4 Using very little bleilth support direct the nil columnI(e)~ ID bull bull bull bull bull bull bull 120 dowmarct to Ilchieve the lIeceSiltary Jevel of pitch 1I0wever the tone qUilli ty of the lower register 01 the piccolo willIE bull bull bull bull bull 14reg project substllntiillly

5 Use a slightly victe Ilperture ilnd il direction of the air col-IF 140 umn that is similllr to that of the preceding note bull~ bull bull bull bull bull bull IG 14reg 6 Direct the air column downward but slightly for the evenshy

tual adjustment of intonAtion

7 The air column is directed upward~ IH bull bull bull bull bull bull I 150

8 It may be difficult to maneuver the fingers adequately butIJ bull bull bull I 14reg if the trill keys can be scarcely opened the note can be

properly tuned

I (ci)qng IK I bull bull bull bull bull 150 UP(pitch-pulsation) IJ I 2nd amp 3rd LH I UP to elA I 3rd RH I

IK I 14reg lK I Thumb key I UP to e~IB I 2nd RH I UP to F~ (flat)

lL I Thumb key I UP to D (Piccolo)Ie I 1st 2ndlIL 1 160 UP to G~ (sharp)3rd RIlFfft)~ bull bull bull X bull bull 1M I Thumb key I UP to D~10 I 3rd RH I UP(pitch-pulsation)IL bull bull I X bull 170

IN I 1st amp 2nd LH I DOWN to DIE I 1st 2nd amp 3rd RH I UP to A

IP I D Trill key I UP (pitchshy1M X X bull bull 150 IF I 2nd amp 3rd RII I UP to A~ Jlulsa t ion)(fla t)

INIP I I I X bull 16reg A~ lQ I 3rd LH I DOWN to D ~ bull bull bull

IG I 3rd LH I UP to (fla t)

0- PICCOLO IH I 2nd LII amp 1st RII I UP to e

bull bull bull bull bullbull

- IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull I I 124reg

IT 16bull bull bull I bull bull I bull~ IT bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14reg

l(~e)~ bull I bull bull bull X I bull bull IIOreg

IU 17g-QdegfO bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull bull IUIV bull bull bull bull bull I I I bull IGreg

~WX bull bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I bull 17

bull bull bull bull bull I I x I bull I IIO IY bull bull I bull bull I bull I bull bull I 12reg

~ IZ bull I bull I bull bull I bull bull 6bull IZ2A 1 I I Iregbull I bull I I bull I

[50]

I(0) ~o ~e 2B bull bull bull I bull bull I 16middot0 2C20 16reg I bull

I(~~ Me 2E2F I I I I I bull 16middot0bull 2F2G I bull I I bull I bullbull 16reg

(~t~~ 2H I bull bull I 2J

(ft) ~n ~2K~L I bull bull bull bull I bull I bull I Ibullbull 190 bullIR bull bull bull bull I bull I

6(b) QUARTER-TONES AND QUARTER-TONE TRILLS (Alto Flute and Piccolo) Cont

1 (Ito-) ~ ~-e- 2M2N 17

f

bull bull bull bull I bull I bull x bullbull 2P bull II bull bull I bull I bull I bull bull 16~P

(~) ~~ ~Q 2Q~R bull bull bull I bull I bull bullbull 16~I 2

(n) qn ~ 2T bull 1 bull 1 I bull 1I1

I bull 1 bull X

2U2V bull I bull bull I 11rreg 8 va 0i

~2~X bull bull I 1 bull bull I bull I 170

8va regI

I I I 1712rrplusmnyen==2~ bull bull bull I bull 8 va i

I I x bull 1110et-ECilDbull bull bull bull bull bull

reg

8 va I

(-amp)]-amp ~3E3F I I I bull 17I bull X 8va

I

I I bull I I I X bull X I I IIIO3H bull

9 Direct the air column as in 2 However the tone strucure will permit an acceptable projection at a medium dynamic level

10 Vent imperceptibly by opening the trill key gently The air colshyumn should be directed downward only slightly but the aperture is to be somewhat larger than for the preceding note Thisfinshygering serves best when ascending from the regular semitone

11 This is suitable only for a loud dynamic level The note deshymands full breath support and the air column should be directshyed upward slightly

12 The additional resistance that this fingering lends to the piccolo may cause undue forcing of the tone unless the performshyer displays control of the embouchure in this octave However the use of this fingering is not as problematical when applyshying it to the alto flute

lR 3rd RH UP to P

IS 1st LH UP(pitch-pulsation)

IT 2nd RH UP to r~ (Piccolo) (flat)

lU 1st RH UP to G~

IV 2nd amp 3rd RH

lW 1st RI DOW

IX 3rd LH L~ to

lyen 1st amp 2nd RH

lZ 3rd LH UP to

2A 2nd RH DOWN

DOWN to G (flat)

to G~ (flat)

A

UP to A

A

to A

2B 2nd RH UP to C

2C b Key DOWN to B

2D 3rd nH UP to C

2E 1st RH DOWN to C

2P Thumb key UP to C

2G 1st RH DOWN to C

2H 2nd LH DOWN to C

2J 1st LH UP to D

2K Eb key UP to D

2L G key DOWN to D(Alto flute)

2M 1st RH DOWN to D

2N 3rd LH

2P 3rd RH

2Q 3rd RH

2R 1st LH

2S Eb key

UP to E

UP to E UP to r (Piccolo)

UP to r(Alto flute)

DOWN(pitch-pulsation) (Piccolo)

2T D Trill key DOWN to r

2U 1st LH UP to P (flat)

2V 2nd RH DOWN to P

2W G key UP to G

2X Low C key DOWN to r

2Y 1st RH UP to G (Piccolo)

2Z 1st LH UP to G

3A 3rd RH DOWN to G(Piccolo)

3B 2nd RH DOWN to G (Alto flute)

3C G key DOWN to G

3D 1st LH UP to A (flat)

3~ 2nd LH UP to A

3P D Trill key DOWN to A

3G D Trill key DOWN to A

3H 2nd RH UP to B (flat)

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES MULTIPHONICS

No longer can the flutist expect that a traditional flute tone is the only attractive or acceptable sound structure Sound pheshynomenon must be valued as significant structure which the aspiring performer must embrace in order to add to the variety of musical exshypression in contemporary music In the various periods of music the goal of each generations performers has been to enrich and augment the sometimes restrictive character of the sound of the flute Hence with this standard of excellence in flute playing the evolution of compositional techniques has paralleled the instrumentalists develshyopment Accordingly more and more is expected of the flutists technical skills and resources

The or ani tion of many-voiced sounds is now a vital part of the f~ts technique ana for this all of the aspects of tone

-proouction are to be considered Rultiphonics involve the layerin ~ developin an understandin of the n use Q ere ones ~n e over one series of the flute~coustical the orma ionof _ muitiJHe tube-lengtns in the air column g e a number 0 requency vibrations with whic to produce added pitches simultaneously TOis affords an array of chord groups that are controllable Such pheshynomenon is observed when a short tube-length and a larger one are formed in the air column as additional keys are vented in a fingershying combination This causes a modification of the fixed overshytone arrangement of the flute

The composition of many of the fingerings for the multiphonics v ~can be traced directly to those presented for tremolos(especially

sixths sevenths and octaves) altered fingerings and quartershytones Interestingly many of the quarter-tones can be identified as fundamental tones for a number of these chords However the fingerings for these have been changed somewhat in order to facilshyitate the tonal response of the multiphonics

The tonal characteristics of these chords seem to fit into (3) different categories according to their timbres and dynamic levels They can be studied further by referring to these groups in part(B) of this section

The chords illustrated in this chart have included only the notes that possess a reasonable amount of prominence stableness and immediacy in tonal response Quite possibly some performers may be capable of elaborating on these structures to produce upto five tones However this would require considerable experience and a phenomenal control of techniques Except for those few inshydividuals who have such technical skill most flutists will need to devote some practice time to these peculiar techniques

~A flexible_~bnuchUI~_togetherwith sensitivit~ for the approshypriare use of the air column are an absolute must w en exper~mentshy~ng with new auditory experiences As the mUltiple tube-lengths are felt via the resistance of the flute the physical reaction to these must be repeated in virtually all of these chords The transformashytion of this resistance factor from its normal state in the flute tube must be recognized then the air column can be effectively used in balance with this

Those chords that react readily do so because the resistance is not posing a major hazard Thesetwo-note chords require little breath support with a slight alteration of the embouchure However

[51J

~the multiphonics that include1hr~~ or four notes offer muchgreatshyer resistance As a barrier this must be permeated by applying inshyensity to e breath pressure and at times with a large volume of

air Consequently more attention must be given to embouchure corshyrection for these Usin a w~ aEertur the air column needs to be directed so that a--segment of the flute range can be sounded in one air blast By diffusing the air column the tone is spread and thereby capable of including several notes at once These can sound simultaneously as a chord spanning more than one octave of the flute All of this is contradictory to the normal procedure that prevails for playing single-line notes For these the apershyture needs to decrease in size as the air pressure is increased

The volume of breath support for a multiphonic is an equally important matter The qeterminant is evidenced by the demands for each multiphonic and as the player adjusts to these the physical sensations that are to be recalled should be used as guides for the proper maneuvering of the embouchure

The text materials which accompany the fingering for each chord suggest the embouchure movements and technical modifications of the air column However the performance of these sounds cannot be achieved with only these directives More importantly the player must adapt to these sensitively by feel and become accustomed to reacting to the response of the chord with perceptiveness

Many of the chords can be sustained with reasonable success and sufficient duration However vibrato cannot be used because it would disturb the steadiness of the air flow Straight tone is the prime mover in establishing stability for the multiphonics

It is impossible to effect an instantaneous response from a chord Inorder to create the illusion that all of the notes are sounding at the same time the necessary corrections must occurat once These are realized by attacking the lowest note first or for some chords the highest This method assists in the use of the wide-angle aim of the air column for an equal response of the other notes of the tone-group The effect is one of a broken chord as is often played on a keyboard instrument or the harp If the response should lag and the notes of the chord are not soundingin balance with one another then those notes that are positioned at the opposite level from the attacking note either the lowest or highest of the chord must be favored This is done by directing the air column toward that level in the range that seems weakest

The chords have been placed according to their lower fundamenshytals in ascending order This is only approximate and in some inshystances when these pitches were the same the total effect of the chord was considered although the placement is purely arbitrary

The arrows on the alterations do not necessarily indicate quarter-tone pitches Some of these notes could be mini-microshytones In fact many of these notes may not always impart their ~itch levels as originally conceived in as much as the techniques of tone production are variable But this pitch discrepancy also can be extolled as a virtue since so many notes that have the same pitch level would also be capable of lending an impressive range of timbres When isolating the lowest or highest note of each chord and its intonation seems controllable a new dimension in tone coloring can be imagined for any single-line phrase

[52J

This arrangement of fingerings is not a complete collection of multiphonics Rather it is presented as a systematic study and a survey of possibilities for tone clusters There are fingerings which have not been included capable of producing virtually the same notes as some found in this chart Probably there are still other fingerings that may be ascertainable However those shown here seem to lend substantial control for a clear image of eachmulshytiphonic and are to be accepted only on this basis Therefore once the flutist has developed the technique for these additional finshygerings producing new chord structures could evolve through the efforts of individual research

The following points may be considered when the multiphonics are played for the first time As possible solutions to some probshylems that involved technical deficiencies these applications conshytributed to the learning process

(~) Do not isolate the individual tones of the chord as ~ the direction of the air column is adjusted

(b) Avoid an excessive covering of the embouchure hole on the flute and prohibit the forming of a small aperture A diffusion of the air column and a spreadshying of the tone structure should result

(c) A low B must be used when advisedotherwise the inshytervals may not respond with the same assuredness

(d) A wider than normal aperture must prevail for most chords

(e) The air column must be directed in favor of the opposshying note If the chord is attacked via the lower note then the air is to be directed slightly upward etc

(f) Learn to identify the resistance factor first to best judge the necessary breath support for a response

(g) Ascertain the proper venting of the fingerings

(h) Avoid moving the flute on the embouchure this ensures a functional application of straight tone

(j) Minimize the action of the embouchure when it becomes necessary to adjust the direction of the air column Extreme sensitivity is essential

(k) Avoid any exertion of external pressure of the flute against the lip Provide for mobility of the embouchure

(m) Adapt the embouchure and the air column to the sounds Do not attempt to alter the peculiarities of the timbres so radically otherwise the idea of having varieties of tone qualities at hand will be defeated These chords must be played convincingly or they will become repulsive

bull bull bull bull

-I

SPECIAL SONORITIES

When applying these fingeringsthe flutists and composers may wish to explore a variety of sonorities through the use of the chords Numerous effects are discussed in these sections that follow The position numbers and code numbers with letters have been assigned to the multiphonics These are to be referred to as each part is consulted for study

(A) Multiple Trills and Multiple Effects

Control of the multiphonic must be assured for the proper exshyecution of these effects The flute must be held steady to ensure the adequate dispersion of the air column so as not to obstruct the sounding of the multiphonic Practice by moving the fingers slowly at first in order to achieve a lightness in the action of the keys This will prevent a jarring of the flute on the embouchure

The following are possible using the illustrated fingerings

(a) MULTIPlE TRILLS UP or DOWN--- The lower and upper notes of a chord trill simultaneously and in the same direction

(b) MULTIPlE TRILL - CONVERGING -- One note trills upward while another trills in a downward direction This is created by the sounding of a common note onto which each trill converges

(c) Single trills in any direction are possible while other notes of the chord sustain

(d) MULTIPlE PITCH - PULSATIONS -- These account for trills of microtonessmaller than quarter-tones

(e) Together with multiple pitch-pulsations other tones can be sustained

The instructions for the above effects have been abbreviated(as in sections on quarter-tones) and the words lower upper and sometimes middle refer to the particular notes in the chord This is followed by the indication of the direction in which the trill is moving

A number and a caPitalThe key or keys The resul tant letter identifying the to be activated effect note

Ex- ( IE 1st RH Multiple Trill-UP )

tJ) 0 A

~ bull bull bull bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull 1 0

(2) yen-- bull bull bull bull I 0 bull I bull bull 2

(3)~ IA bull bull bull bull I bull o bull 13 -eshy

(4) 0yen--IS bull bull bull bull I bull bull bull 12 -fi

(5)~ IC 0 bull bull I 13

(6) ~-ICID bull bull f-o bull I bull bull bull 1bull

~--e-(7) fyen IE bull bull bull 1-0 bull bull 13

bull bull bull bull bull bullbull3 =--e- 10 (8) ~-IB bull bull bull f---O I bull bull bull 13

1 Using a wide aperture direct a dispersed air column downward Little breath support is needed Close the keys for low B with certainty

2 Direct the air column upward Intensify the breath pressure sufficiently to effect the response of the upper partials but allow for adequate openness of the aperture to permit an immeshydiate sounding of the lower note as well Only a minimum of breath support is necessary Close the keys for low Bsecurel~

3 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the lower notes Avoid changing the size of the aperture when adding to the breath support for the upper notes Close the keys for low B securely

lA

18

3rd RH Multiple Trill-UP

Thumb Upper sustains key Middle trills DOWN IE

ID

1st RH

3rd RH

Multiple Trill-UP

Multiple Trill Converging

lC 2nd RH MUltiple Trill-UP

[53]

bull bullbull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cont

~

(9) ~ e-

IEIF bull bull bull bull I bullbull middot2

1I0) ~-IE bull bull bull 3 (II) (f -IBIG bull bull bull I 0 I bullbull middot4

0 Ibull I bull bull bull I bull bull bull 14

(12) ~-IAH o-j bull I bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (I3)~ 15IAIJ~ bull I bull bull I bull I

eshy(14) ~ fA IK IL bull I 16Ibull bull 0-+

I bull bull I

(15)11 -IJILIM bull o-j I 16 bull bull bull I bull I bull bull I

IAIH(16) -0 I bull I bull I I 17IN~ bull bull 0-

(17 ~ -IMIP bull bull o---j ~I bull bullbull 178

l8) ~ ~-IAIJ 15bull 0 bull I I bull bull rmiddot

tt (l9)~--IQIR bull o----j bull I bull I I I bull bull 17bull

(20) _ -IEIS 0bull bull bull bull bull I I bull I 17

~ ~) I

bullbull I

f~ ~bull lsI Th Th 2nd 3rd

8deg 8 ~ G+ + f-eshy

(21l~~IUIT I bullbull bullbull f-O I bull bull I I 17

(22)~ -IJIP~ 1-0 bull I bull I bull 15 ~n

(23)~ IV I bull bull o-l H bull I bullbull I 1-i98 e

(24) ~-ILIM~ 0bull I bull I I bull bull 15

(25)~- IMIWIX I bull 0 bull bull I 0 bull I bull I 15 ~Q

(26) ~ -IMIJ I I bull I I 0 I I 15bull 0 bull bull (27)rW-IJIQIYe--1 0 o bull I I l6bull bull bull I bull

(28) ~-IQIB bull bull I 01bull o bull I bull bull middot3 ~~~

(29)~-IQIZ bull 0 bull I bull I bull I bullbull 19

(30) ~~ ~ILIQ~ bull I 0 I bull bull 19IR2A

t-n (31) ~ -IMIN2S I bull 0 bull I Hgt I bull I 16

D (32) ~ IQIY~ 162C2D I bull I bull A

(33)~-IJIQlVIY~ I bull I 01 bullbull I 16

(34) ~_rNQbull I bull 0 bull I f-ltgt bull I bullbull 16IL [54]

~~~JI~~I

Isf Th Th 2nd 3rd

~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ (35)~ IDILIQ2C~

(361 ~-IL bullbull o--e ~~

t37J ~n ~-ILIQIW~

(38) 111~ IQIR~ 2C2D- I bull - I

(39) Qi ~-IMIV2E~

-eshy(40)~

~-2F2G bullbull~+-_--(O bull

(41) ui ~ - 2C2G2H bullbull--I-----(O bull

p-u (42) ~ 2~iH~ -amp

(43)~ -IQIR2L~ lB

44J ~ 2E2M~ (45)~--2D2N~

~1gt-+-o---+---+--+--+-----1 68

t--iI~I--tt-tI H__+-1-t---ll 9

r--laquogt I bull I I bull bull 178

r-o--t- bull I I bull bull III

bull I

t-o I

bull I

bull I

310

bull bullbull7

bullbull 19

f--o

bull bull I

bull I bull 19

bull bull 1912

bull bull bull

bull bull

I II

16

4 Direct the air column upward slightly and intensify the breath using an embouchure that favors the middle register

5 Adjust the aperture mainly for the lower note and direct the air column inward Use only a light tone support

6 The air column is to be directed upward very slightly with the embouchure favoring the upper note

7 Use a wide aperture with substantial breath support and direct the air column upward

8 Also vent approximately one-third of the tone hole 1st key RH

9 Use an aperture more appropriately adapted to the upper notes but direct the air column downward slightly Only a medium amount of breath support is needed

10 Vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH imperceptibly

11 Direct the air column downward and adjust the aperture mainly for the middle range This chord is to be supported robustly

12 Vent about one-fourth of the tone hole 2nd key LH also

IF 2nd RH MUltiple Trill- IX (ring only) DOWN

IG 1st RH Upper sustains lY (ring only) Lower trills DOWN

IH

IJ

lK

lL

1M

IN

IP

lQ

lR

IS

IT

lU

IV

lW

1st RH Upper sustains lZ Lower trills UP

1st RH MUltiple Trill 2A Converging

3rd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP 28

2nd LH Multiple Trill-UP 2C

3rd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2D

EP key Lower sustains Upper trills UP 2E

3rd LH MUltiple Trill-UP 2F

2nd RH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

2G Low C Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWNkey Upper trills DOWN

2H 1st RH Lower sustains2nd RH Upper sustains Upper trills UPLower trills UP 2K 2nd RH Multiple tones susshyLow C Multiple Pitchshy (ring only) tain Middle noteskey Pulsations Middle pulsatetrills UP 2L 3rd RH Upper sustains1st RH MUltiple Pitchshy Lower trills DOWNPulsations Upper

sustains 2M 1st RH Lower sustainsMulshytiple Trills ConshyEP key Lower sustains vergingmiddot

Upper trills DOWN 2N 3rd RH Multiple Trill-DOWN

G key Upper sustain~i Lower trills UP

[55]

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills UP

G key Multiple Trill Converging

1st RH Multiple Trill Converging

3rd RH MUltiple tones sustain middle notes pulsate

1st RH Lower sustains Upper trills DOWN

Thumb key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

Thumb key MUltiple Trill-UP (wide intervals)

2nd RH MUltiple Trill Converging

2nd RH Lower sustains

bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull

bull bull bull

bull bull bull bull bull bull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES

07(

Cont

~

(46) 1 -IL 2P 20 19I I -0- bull bull bull I bull I bull bull

(47)~ IAIL2R 16

~ bull 0 bull bull bull I bull I bullbull (48) ~ __ 252T bull o-o--j bull I bull I I bull 17

~2X(49) IEIO 2U bull I bull I bull 1 bull bull 4

~A bull

(50)~ - -2U2V2W bull I bull I 0 I I I II bull

IE2U(51) It ~ 02X bull bull I bull I I bull bullbull3

(52)~-ICIE2U2Y 0--1 bull I bull I I 15I bull bull ~n

(53) ~ 2C2U 2Z bull 0---1 bull 1 0 I 1 bull III

n (54) ~ly2Z3A383C bull bull I bull 1 bull 1 16

(55) ii-lEI bull bull t--o bull I bull I bull bull 15bull (56) 11-amp

~-IH2T3D I f--o bull I bull I bull I 15 D

(57) ~_IHIP I bull bull bull r--o bull I bull I 152T3D I

(58) If --IEIY bull bull f--o I bull I bull bull bullbull3

[56]

( 1~(O~)~ 2Z I I bull I bull I I I bull bull 12I

~Q-6shy(60) ~-IYI2H I I bull bull I 1-0 I bull I bull I bull bull 15 =~

(61) ~--3C3E I I I

(62) t~ -3F I

~ (63)1~

( 3E I I laquogt---ebull (64) d-Qshy-0- ~-2H3G~

(65) ~ - IP3G3H I I I

(66) ~ - IMIP3KI

- bull bull bull bull (67) 0shy

lt1 ~ I P283L3M I I

-(68) ~~4l-~IM2BI Itba 3K bull

(69) = ~--IM3N1

=1l-6shy(70) ~ ~ I] II IP I I bullbullbull bull

(71) ~~ ~--(X3P~ (72) qA gIX2H~

1-0 I bull I bull I bull I 15

I bull I I I I 1 bull bull I II

bull I bull 1 I I I I 1113

f--O I I I I I bull bull 15

I I I I I I bull I I 15

L bull I bull I 0 I bull I 16

1 bull I I 15

bull I bull I o bull I I 16

914

I bull 0-+-----0 bull 1914

1---0 I bull I bull I bull I I 613

1-0 bull 1 bull J bull I ~16

bull bull

13 Approximately one-third of the tone hole 3rd key LH is to be vented

14 Vent also one-fourth of the 2nd key RH~

~ ~o (73)~

E= - 3K3Q3R 1-1--I--~-4a--o---e

(74) ~ ~2G3K3RI bull 0 bull

~ a (75) ~2B2G3Q3R3Sr----t------oshy

(76) t~ ~ 3R3T3U 1-1--l-~-egt----J--1

(77)I~i - -- 2P3 L 1-1--I~~----4 --shy

n __

(78) g _ 1-1-+--+-~----3V ___ ~

t79)ff ~ - I B2Y3V 1-1--I--+--4a-4~bullbull

~-e-(80) ~ 2H 3L __-+ ----ia-+_~ ~ 3W bull 1

(811 _ 2H 2U bullbull~gt---~+-__

(82) 1- ~ - bull --shy2U3Xbullbull~-l---

(83) Qg ~- ILfQ30bullbulll--+--bull--0 bull

j~

qt (84) EQ IR zu ----1

EE 3W3Y bullbull~~~-l---I~----

t9 t85) ~

~~ 3Y3W3Xbullbullf------+--+-~o__1

bull I bull I bullbull 19

~~X--+-I-+--+-+-f----t---il 6

7

~x I I bull I

bull loX I I 13

x I bull I bullbull 14

I--+I---4-X~----+-1-+---+1 4

3L

3M

3N

3P

3Q

3R

35

3T

3U

3Y

D Trill MUltiple Trill-UP key

2nd LH Multiple Trill Converging

Thumb key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

1st RH ~ MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

3rd LH Lower sustains Upper trills UP

D Trill key Upper sustains Lower trills UP

G key Lower sustains Upper trills UP

3rd LH Lower sustains (ring only) Upper trills DOWN

D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills UP

1st LH MUltiple Trill-DOWN

3W D TrillUpper sustains key Lower trills DOWN

3X 1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills UP

3Y 2nd LH Multiple Pitchshy(ring only) Pulsations

2P

2Q

2R

25

2T

2U

2Y

2W

2X

2Y

2Z

3A

3B

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

3K

3rd LH

E~ key

1st RH

2nd RH

MUltiple Trill-DOWN

MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

Lower trills UP Upper and middle

interpose

Multiple notes sustain Middle trills DOWN

Low C Lower sustains key Upper trills DOWN

2nd LH Multiple Trillshy(ring only) DOWN

Low C Multiple Pitch-key

3rd RH (vented)

3rd RH

3rd RH

1st LH

2nd LH (ring only)

2nd LH

3rd LH

Pulsations

Lower sustains Upper and Middle

interpose

Multiple Tones sustain Upper trills DOWN

Multiple PitchshyPulsations

Multiple Trill-UP

Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

Upper sustains Lower tremolo DOWN

Multiple Trill Converging

G key Multiple Trill-UP

2nd RH MUltiple PitchshyPulsations

D TrillHigh C sustains key Middle trill UP

D and D MUltiple Trill-UP Trill keys

D Trill key MUltiple Trill-UP

1st LH Upper sustains Lower trills DOWN

[57J

bull bull bull

7MULTIPHONICS AND SPECIAL SONORITIES Cant

0bullI X I bull 1 2

bull bull I bull X bull 1 19

bull bull bull X bull I 17

bull bull I I bull X 19

bull bull e- r-oX I I bull I 15

bull bull I bull I X 16

bull r--o X I I 15bull bull I bull I bull X 1 15bull ()----j X bullbull middot11015bull o---j X I bull I 11315bull

o-ebull r-o-I I X bull bull 17

0--1 I I X I X I I 16

t-e-D

19S) It II -3P3Qbull I Ibullb6shy

199) 11~

0shy~-2H4E bull egt---l

lIOO)~ IE bull bull bull

1I01l

U-eshy1I02)~

~-~

-eshy

-2C

JO IPJQ4F I

bull bull bull bull bull bull bullbull bull bull bull

1I03)~ -2Y4G bull bull o-----e

UA1I04)fshy

-1L2H30 bull () bull lI05) ~

~ ~-IL2P I bull bull I bull II06I~r~

-2H3H4A~n lion xx

IBJR3H I~ I bull bull bull qn 1I0S)rD

-- IL3K l----+-----o-shyt-e

1I09)r 2U3K3L I I I e-bull

I I x x I I 115

rox X I bull 1913

2

I--cgt bull I bull I bullbullbull78

I I I I 17 I bull 0 I bull I I I II

1-0 I bull bull I 1713

-o bull I bull I bullbull 1712

7 8

f-I bull I I 115

I bull I I bull bull 14 shy

4

4

15 Approach the attack for this chord via the top note but widen the aperture sufficiently to accommodate the placement of the lowest note Direct the air column downward and apply a sUbshystantial amount of breath support

4D I 2nd LH Lower sustains3Z I D Trill I Multiple Trill-DOWN (ring only) IUpper trills DOWN

4A I G~ key I Lower sustain~i

key

4E I D~ Trill I MUltiple Trill-DOWN Uppertrills uuWN key

4F I 3rd RH I Lower sustains46 I D~ Trill I Upper sustains Upper trills DOWNkey Lower trills DOWN

4G I G~ key I Upper sustains4C lIst RH I Multiple Tri1lshy Lower trills DOWN(ring only) DOWN

3PECJAL SONORITIES

(B) The Tonal Characteristics And Dynamic Ranges

of multiphonics are shown here as three predominant effects Each chord-group possesses a built-in quality of tone and the player should permit this to subsist according to the resistance that is evidenced As the control of the embouchure improves those chords capable of sounding with a full dynamic range may alsobe controllable using a lighter tone quality and played at a softer dynamic level For this reason some chords have been listed in more than one category The numbers used toidenshytify the multiphonics in the main chart appear here in the approshypriate categories

(1) Subdued Quality of Tone Reasonably Soft Dynamics

1 15 34 65

2 18 37 73

24 54 6 25 55 80

12 26 56 90

13 27 57 91

14 33 64 92

(2) Some Degree of Resonance (3) Blaring or Strident Tone Medium Dynamic Range Fairly Loud Dynamics

4 27 57 74 2 37 60 89

5 28 58 75 3 39 62 93

7 29 60 5 94

8 31 61 76 9 41 63 95

9 32 62 80 11 42 70 96

10 33 64 83 16 43 71 97

14 34 65 86 17 44 72 98

15 35 66 90 19 45 77 99

18 36 67 91 20 46 78 100

20 37 68 92 21 47 79 101

22 38 69 93 23 48 80 102

23 40 71 97 26 49 81 103

25 41 72 103 27 50 82 104

26 54 73 106 28 51 84 105

30 52 85 107

32 53 87 108

36 59 88 109

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(C) Suppressed Chords

Often the term smorzato has been used to signify the effect of diminishing or extinguishing tones As is described here a controlled suppressing of tones in the chord can occur while the lowest note continues to sustain This can be accomplished withshyout altering the fingering

By releasing the firmness of the embouchure slightly and pershymitting the breath support to diminish the upper partials can be made to disappear When in some cases this does not produce the effect completely then a directional change of the air column must implement this technique Since the modification of the air column can be regulated voluntarily the suppression of the chords can be realized in any desired rhythmic pattern

In a few instancesanother note of the chord can be sustained simultaneously with the fundamental while the higher one is diminshyishing In other chords certain notes can be suppressed intershychangeably These variables have been indicated in the listingbelow As a result of this added peculiarity these other notes too can be sustained either prior to or following the suppression of the chord This effect is related to that described in part(D) of this section

[59]

In this list the fundamental note is illustrated together with the number that applies to its multiphonic The arrows on the altershyations have been omitted Attention is drawn to the fact that as an added advantage these tones for their distinctive timbres may be used also as single-line notes

The following multiphonics are the most responsive and easiest to control for this effect Two-note multiphonics are listed first and are the most facile

Two-note Chords

6 E 27 G 65 C 91 D

12 G 32 G 66 C 92 D

13 - G 33 - G 67 - C 93 - D

14 - G 34 - G 71 - C 97 - EO 15 - G 52 - So 72 - C 102 - G 22 - G 54 - So 73 - C 104 - G 24 - G 58 - S 76 - C 107 - S 25 - G 60 - C 80 - C 108 - S

26 - G 61 - C 90 - D 109 C

Three and Four-note Chords

36 - Low and middle Gs will sustain as the upper note

2 - E

3 - E is suppressed Alter the 5 - E air columns direction

8 - F (Middle G and possibly 37 - AO middle E can be altershy 38 - AO (The C or G may benated with d) interchanged with the

9 - F sounding of F by altershying the direction of air)10 - F (C can be alternated

with F) 40 - A (C alternates with G) 11 - F 41 - A (F alternates with C) 16 - G 42 - A

17 - G 43 - A

19 - G (E can be alternated 45 - A with F) 46 - A

20 - G 47 - A 21 G

48 - A 23 - G 49 - So (A and B sound simultashy28 Low and middle Gs will neously as the chord is

sustain to~ethet as the suppressed) upper note is suppressed

50 - BO and A sustain as the 29 - G top note is suppressed 30 - G 53 - BO 35 - G 57 - B

[60J

70 - C 87 - D (A can be alternated with E by releasing the breath74 - C pressure interchangeably)

75 - C 88 - D 77 - C 89 - D 78 - C 94 EO (B can be alternated 79 - C with GO) 82 - d 98 - EO

99 - E83 - C (E alternates with C) 100 - F84 - D 105 - A85 - D 106 - B86 - D (f can be alternated with

C~ by changing the direcshytion of the air column)

SPECIAL SONORITIES

(D) Connecting Single Notes to MUltiphonics

The suppressing of chords (part C) indicates that it is posshysible to sustain a single note and connect this to a chordassumshying of course that the fingering being used initially is that of the multiphonic A flexibility in this procedure results from the fact that either the lowest or highest note in each multiphonic can be sustained when going into or coming out of the chord This occurs without any perceptible interruption of the sound oraltershyation of the fingering However it will be found that some chords do not lend themselves to a controllable responsiveness when they are approached via the highest note This can only be determined by trial and error

The middle note in many of the three-note chords can also be sustained The chords listed below have been selected as thosehavshying this characteristic and a few added effects have been noted with several others The letter after each number applies to the middle note of the multiphonic In the case of four-note chords then the note from the middle octave which may lend the easiest response is listed As mentioned previously it is automatically assumed that the lowest and highest notes from each chord can be isolated and sustained without difficulty

In some instances a radical change in the direction of the air column and a simultaneous release of the breath pressure may be necessary to effect the linking of tones to chords portions of which are then to be suppressed Only by experimenting with the process of isolating the tones can the player acquire a famshyiliarization with the physical sensation involved This will dicshytate any modifying of the air columns direction and maneuvershying of the embouchure

The two-note chords are quite simple to execute in this proshyduction and either note can be sustained with ease

Page 8: A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the Flute

8va----- 1-+--+--middotmiddot--+- f-----+-+-IXl(---+I-+---+-H 15

7 When playing If this fingering produces a lower level of pitch and an altered tone quality as well

8 To facilitate the execution of rapid passages the ED key may remain open

9 This alternate fingering will aid the adjustment of the intonation for a PP Avoid the use of an excessive volshyume of air as the note responds with ease

10 This lowers the pitch level for alf bull

11 When using a flute with a iow C foot joint the little fingerRH is raised

12 This fingering affords a slightly lower level of pitch See item 11

13 This fingering demands added breath support but the resulting pitch level is lower Use this Blso on a flute with a low C foot joint

14 This fingering produces a lower level of pitch but the note lacks an immediate response However this may vary on different flutes

15 These fingerings are applicable when using a low C or low B foot joint

16 When possible vent the tone hole of the 3rd key LH slightly This may improve the response of the note

17 This fingering as well as 16 will respond on flutes having a low C or B foot joint

A SECURE PLAYING POSITION

The basic elements involving position and balance in holding the flute properly are of ultimate importanceat all levels of performance Much has been written onthis subject by many prominent flutists Therefore only the salient features relevant to fingerings are repeated now

1 Develop a secure hand position with the arms remaining free from tension to form an equalshyization of balance for the flute

2 Avoid any cramping of the musculature in hands wrists and arms which could bring about stiffshyactioned fingers

3 Encourage the use of a light action with the finshygers remainlng on the keys at all times Added inflections or accentuations in the music are the only occasions for which the fingers may be raised slightly higher on the keys

4 Permit the keys to lower and raise with all of the sensitivity possible The keys must be lifted not the fingers

5 Maintain a naturally arched position of the fingers This signifies the existence of freedom from any tension A flexibility and maneuverability of the fingers should be the result

Security in a playing position when achieved will bring controllabilitYand a solid technique with dexterity This must be available at any tempo

[9J

INTRODUCTION

An advanced flutist has reached that performance level because of the extreme sensitivity with which all facets of flute technique have been applied Certainly one of the most important of these instrumental techniques has to be the disciplined approach to the use of proper finshygerings It is assumed that this is a major concern of the professional performer but it should be equally so of each developing flutist

Too often due to negligence undesirable fingerings become firmly implanted in the playing habits of the young performers Correcting these faults in the early stages of their careers can result in a functional use of fingershyings as the flutists progress into the higher levels of proficiency This can be evidenced in their execution of extremely technical passages as well as the production of exotic tonal effects

Learning to use the appropriate fingerings for various situations ought to be considered a vi tal segment of basic musicianship since the application of the correct or corshyrective fingerings parallels the importance of other flute techniques This concept should become a part of each flutists daily routine and hopefully will guide the playshyer in the aspiration of becoming a sensitive musician

This compilation is presented as a methodology for finshygerings by offering a wide range of selected fingerings for the flutist and directing their use in diverse techshyniques It is hoped that this reference guide will encourshyage an exploitation of the flutes potentialities which should be the ultimate goal of every ambitious student of the flute

James J Pellerite Professor of Flute Indiana University

HOW TO READ THE CHARTS

These fing~rings apply to the Boehm system flute with the closed G~ key In many instances a low B foot joint is necessary although a low C will be acceptable for many of these fingerings Auxiliary keys that are someshytimes found on specially made flutes have not been conshysidered However the French model flute will be essenshytial for those charts in which the fingerings call for venting the various tone holes

A number appearing next to the illustration for each fingering will refer to the text material The correshysponding number is followed by a brief statement which relates to the fingerings purposefulness

The fingerings have been illustrated using the symbol ( ) and will indicate only that the keys are depressed For this reason it is not necessary to give considerashytion to whether or not a key remains open

The other familiar symbol (0) will apply exclusiveshyly to the use of the French model flute and be used solely to signify that a key is to be vented in its enshytirety

bull The key is depressed

C) The tone hole is vented accordingly

0 Vent the tone hole in its entirety

Apply the French model flute+ X Use the D or D Trill key

PI Pianissimo

If Fortissimo

R H Right Hand

L H Left Hand

[5J

2(a) HARMONICS

The production of overtones is a basic technique with which all flutists must become familiar Not only does -it represent the foundation for proper tone production but also it offers additional opportunities to simplify many complex technical passhysages which occur in the 3rd octave of the flute The fingering combinations for such phrases become moderately easy by using the fingerings for the fundamental notes to produce the harmonshyics Created by overblowing the fundamentals these are generally indicated as follows

0 g0 a 0 12

0 8 0 amp

To produce D3 (2nd overtone) use the fin~ering for fundamental Gl for E3 AI for F3 B l etc

To overblow the fundamental tone an intense air column must be applied This can be formed by diminishing the size of the aperture and increasing the breath pressure(subsequently the air speed) The air column needs to be directed more horishyzontally across the embouchure plate as one progresses into the higher harmonics Treating the fundamental tones in this manner will produce the following overtones in succession

[see Overtone Series chart (first measure)]

(a) 1st overtone - octave (b) 2nd - 12th (octave and a fifth) (c) 3rd - 15th (double octave) (d) 4th 17th (two octaves and a third) (e) 5th 19th (two octaves and a fifth)(0 6th 21st (two octaves and a seventh)

Frequently students find it difficult to reach the full gamshyut of overtones that are shown here This stems from the fact that sometimes they lack proper control of the embouchure and the air column However should this not be the case then the source of the problem may be the existing properties of the headshyjoint It is an accepted fact that no two headjoints ever will respond alike(even made by the same manufacturer) This varishyance means that one flute may possess either more or less resistshyance in its bloWing characteristics It is this added resistance that often may deter the production of the extremely high harshymonics However further development of the embouchure is asshysured as the production of these overtones is attempted and pracshyticed The resultant physical capability enables the flutist to create a greater number of overtones for each fundamental With this facility extremely technical passages in the upper ocshytaves are simplified by the use of left-hand-fingerings eg low G and A overblown can produce the overtone which would afford easier performance in a rapid passage of the 3rd octave

[10]

Due to the acoustical construction of the flute these harshymonics in the 3rd octave possess a rather veiled character of tone quality and a somewhat lower level of intonation than that produced when the regular fingerings are used The presence of the lower fundamental note causes this phenomenon since the reshyquired vent hole which is normally open in the regular fingershying is closed For example the regular fingering for D2 i properly vented by raising the 1st key LH ~he ton~ qoa11ty is muffled and its pitch level lowered when th1s key 1S closed In fact so many students accidentally produce this tone quality by using the incorrect fingerings and are not aware of the resultshying faulty tone structure One must discriminate and exercise discretion as to the use of these nshort cut fingerings Often the tonal beauty of a melodic passage is impaired by the obtuse sound of harmonics Their use in performance should be limitshyed to the most difficult passages in orchestral or band litershyature and even then only in rapidly moving phrases where it will ~ot be detected that harmonic assist has been applied

On the other hand there may be a desire for moments of tonal coloring in isolated cases Thus using the tone quality of some of these notes the harmonics become a purposeful and effecshytive display They can be used advantageously so long as the notes are played with conviction and will sou~dcorrect In actushyality many compositions now call for ~he add1t10nal tonal shadshyings that are possible when the harmon1cs are properly managed

The low register fingerings presented in thechart on Basic Fingerings are applied to the fundamental notes 1n the Overtone Series chart As the flutist progresses and studies the charts for trills tremolos etc he will discover that the application of the harmonic series will appear inexhaustible

Overtone Series 0)

Q it0Q ao ~ ~ e ~ ~ A

Q

- L g

2~ (0) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

~~ ltIi D ~

A ~ ~ ~

0 ~ IA 11amp I ~ IT 21 ~I

0 0 i~ lI- j- (2)

0 ltIi b b Q ~ ~ A shy1J ~ -amp - -- ~ = r ~ oa t ~ t 9 k

(2)1bullbull 1 v bullbull I

(3) (5)(6)(4)

Q

bull amp ~ ~Q Q

e- a Q ~

~ 6shy

~ ~Q ~v if Rk iv P V t v ~ I (2)

QQ ~ 6shy0 ~ ~

~o Q ~ -amp e

8 8 bull V R V 0 9J lit lit a 0~ ~

Note The following alterations may be applied when practicing from this chart These will assist in performing the upper harmonics with greater ease and their physical placement in the ocshytave would be identified more readily Followshying a degree of proficiency in the execution of the harmonic series these intervals should be practiced legato[slurred]

1 Vent the 2nd key RH 2 Use the Gn ~ey 3 Close the EP key 4 Use the low B key if available 5 Close the C key 6 Close the Cn key

2(b) FRENCH MODEL FLUTE Also referred to as the open tone hole model this flute is

identified by its perforations in the centers of the five keys that are activated by the fingers The relevancy of the French model flute is noteworthy Its prominence in the flutists career has been brought about by a variety of technical applications through which its advantages seem compounded

A substantial number of fingerings specifically for this instrushyment can be learned from these charts that follow The special finshygerings are for purposes of varying the pitch dynamics or tone quality or any of these in combination They also will effect a more realistic pitch relationship in the intervals for trills or tremolos according to the instructions as may be directed by the numbered comments There are some fingerings that are traditionally for the closed hole flute For these the use of the French model possibly could be supplemental to improve upon some of the original fingerings

The technique of venting the various tone holes is one that ought to be introduced to the lesser experienced flutist as soon as practicable The astute professional always has recognized the value of this application To develop the technique of sliding over the tone holes one must emphasize a subtle movement of the fingers with utmost sensitivity and vent cautiously for absolute control Almost immediately this reveals the ease with which it is possible to exeshycute a glissando of the scale bull

or a slide[portamento] to or from various notes

The left hand fingers should glide away from the flute in an outshyward motion while the right hand fingers move in the opposite direcshytion and towards the key mechanism This seems to be the most adaptshyable approach to venting However since each individuals hand position is subject to a mUltiformity due to basic differences in musculature other methods may be devised and considered equally successful The expertise of an artist teacher will be vital in considering each situation that is problematical To vent the hole by a fraction the finger is to be moved in a calculative fashion The pitch is raised according to the amount of the hole exposed The opposite is true when the desired pitch level is to be lowered By depressing the key ring by its edge it is possible to vent the enshytire tone hole The numbered comments accompanying each chart will suggest the appropriate venting combinations for each fingering

The acoustical principle applied to the vented fingerings is based upon the production of the harmonic series The overtones (see Overtone Series chart) can be altered conveniently by ventshying the fingerings for their fundamental tones This produces an array of pitches in a composite of overtones and results in total flexibility for the ensuing techniques that are to be applied By gliding these pitches the notes are altered to possess a wider range of intonation as well as a broad spectrum of tone content This development takes place as the fingerings alter the tubeshylengthsCdistance air column travels] for tone production These are either extended or contracted depending upon the location of the key being activated and the amount that its tone hole is to be vented Also with these fingerings the resistance factor of the instrument sometimes is transformed from its traditional response to an entirely different sensation in the production of certain notes Examples of this condition will be discovered when reading from the charts on tremolos altered notes quarter-tones etc

These modifications as provided by the use of the French model flute are beneficial in all facets of musical performance not only in contemporary music but in the standard repertoire as well

[llJ

bull bull

I TRILLS ltHalf Step and Whole Step)

bull bull bull I

I bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull I bullbull I

I bull I bull I bull I bulltr I I

bull I bull I tr bull II 0 I I 1(+)

tr I bull I bull I bullbull I I I

tr I I Ibull I bull I bull I

bull I bull I bulltr bull II I

tr tr I bull I bull I bull bull I I I

I I Ibull bull bull I bull I bulltr I bull I

bull bull bull I I bulltr I bull I I bull I I I 2

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

bull bull bull I

~-~ _ a--f----=-________

~_~----J

~-~ _ trtr ---------bull-bull- I bull I I

tr tr bull I bull bull bull bull bullbull-+--+--+-+-+-1-iIJ-+I-+---t1

bull bull I ~r I - I 4

~ tr j~ - bullbull--+-1---eillE-la--j---j I bull I bull

bulltr I bull I I bull bull I bull

bulltr I I I

(+) Applicable to the French model flute

I bull I

tr I bull I bull

bull f---1f--l--+-+-+--af-+-+--l1 5

f--tt-+-+-+------r---ilbull-t-+--ll 6

bullbull-+-1--t---t--+--+-f-+--t---11 6

tr Ibull I bull I

bull I

1--+---+---1a--t ---1bull--+---+---I1 7 (+)

~~r--+---+--+---+----II tr bull I~ bullbullgt---~+--+-------o---J bull bull bullbull I 7 (+)

XtrI I I 181bull

Xtr II bull I 1---4~XE--tr--l--+-----tIt-+-+---l1 9

1---4a-l--l--4llXctr-+I_-+-+--11 9bull

I bull I bull I bullbull~--I bull bull bull tr

trFR=--() bullbullbull 1--iIIbull --+-__t---tIIt-+--+---+---I1 10

EUI= 1-1-+---~a-bull-+ bull bull ~r I I

TRILLS [Half-step and Whole-step]

1 This is possible only with the use of the French model flute Depress the 3rd key-ring RH by hooking the thumbnail underneath and behind the key trilling the tone hole Adequate time is necessary for the preparation of this unshynatural hand position

2 When possible begin the trill by using regular F fingering (3rd RH) to establish the proper level of intonation

3 This may be used for added facility when the trill is followed by the note E However the F~ is slightly flat in pitch

4 This fingering produces a flat BP(A) It is acceptable in a If and its use may facilitate technical passages

5 Appropriately used for a PP this fingering produces a higher level of pitch for C2 and C3 bull

6 Use this fingering for a ff since a lower pitch level for C2and C will result3 7 The intonation for C(DP) is lowered by venting approximately

one-half of tbe tone hole of the 3rd key LH

8 When possible begin the trill by using the regular D fingering to establish the proper pitch level for the interval

9 This lowers the C for a near correct interval

10 When possible lower the 1st key L4H~ slightly until the intoshynation and tone quality for D and Di(EP) is improved

x- Use Trill Key [l3]

bull bull bull bull bull

bull bull

bull bull

3 TRILLSltHalf Step and Whole Step) CONT

bull bull bull bull bull bull

I trbull middot1 bull bull I

I middot1 tr

Ibull bullbull I 110

~--bull bull bullbull

bull bull bull bull I Jr

J ~r I Jr I

Ibullbull III I 1112

M---1 bull bull bull bull I Jr l I 1

~--e-j bull bull bull ~ 2

~-- I bull bull bull I Jr I I I bullbull I I I

~--_I bull bull bull tr ~

~-- bull bull bull ~

~-- tr

bull bull bull bull ~

~--e-j tr

bull bull bull bull [14J

bull bull Jr I~-

~ I bull bull tr bullbull tr tr

~_ bull bull bull bull tr tr

I Jr bullbull bull I

I Jr l-i~_ bull ~r I Ibull bull I

bull bull bulltr I II

~-- bull bulltr H

~-- bull

tr I~_ I bull