A Very Brief History of the English Language. Old English  Middle English  Early Modern  Late Modern Old English  Middle English  Early Modern 

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    23-Dec-2015

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> A Very Brief History of the English Language </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Old English Middle English Early Modern Late Modern Old English Middle English Early Modern Late Modern 450115015001800 450115015001800 Beowulf Canterbury Tales MacbethHeart of Darkness Beowulf Canterbury Tales MacbethHeart of Darkness The English Continuum </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> The Celts 3000 BC Various tribes with common language, religion, and customs Various tribes with common language, religion, and customs Lacked writing system, but found ways to express themselves Lacked writing system, but found ways to express themselves </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 55 B.C. Roman Invasion Influence? Language: Greek and Roman (1 st Latin influence) Religion: Christianity Roman withdrawal in 410 AD left them vulnerable to attack </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> The Germanic Invasion 410-1066 410-1066 Angles (Denmark), Saxons (N. Germany), and Jutes (?) Angles (Denmark), Saxons (N. Germany), and Jutes (?) Centuries of ethnic cleansing/ intermarrying Centuries of ethnic cleansing/ intermarrying Germanic language-Beginning of Old English Germanic language-Beginning of Old English Latin influence (2 nd ): Anglo Saxons convert to Christianity Latin influence (2 nd ): Anglo Saxons convert to Christianity </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Map of Anglo- Saxon England </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> The Norman Invasion 1066 1066 William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy) William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy) Institutes feudalism Institutes feudalism Anglo-Norman (Dialect of Old French) Anglo-Norman (Dialect of Old French) Polite society speaks French for 300 years! Polite society speaks French for 300 years! (3 rd Latin Influence) (3 rd Latin Influence) </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> English as the Native Tongue: 1204 AD: King John loses Normandy to France 1204 AD: King John loses Normandy to France England chief concern for nobility England chief concern for nobility Adopted modified English as native tongue Adopted modified English as native tongue </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> The Black Death 1349-50: One third of population died 1349-50: One third of population died Laboring and Merchant economic and social importance Laboring and Merchant economic and social importance Rise of English! (compared to Anglo- Norman) Rise of English! (compared to Anglo- Norman) </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Middle English Combination of Old English and French Combination of Old English and French Incorporate Middle English into YOUR vocabulary! Anon: right away Anon: right away No force: [I] don't care No force: [I] don't care Gramercy: many thanks Gramercy: many thanks </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> The Statute of Pleading 1362 1362 English language of courts and parliament English language of courts and parliament Nobility = Commoners (linguistically) Nobility = Commoners (linguistically) </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> The Renaissance and Early Modern English 1500-1800 1500-1800 Middle English Modern English: Middle English Modern English: Revival of classical study (4 th Latin influence) Revival of classical study (4 th Latin influence) The Great Vowel Shift (1400) The Great Vowel Shift (1400) crime: criminal please: pleasant grateful: gratitude abound: abundant goose: gosling crime: criminal please: pleasant grateful: gratitude abound: abundant goose: gosling Printing Press (1476 in England) Printing Press (1476 in England) </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Late-Modern English 1800-Present 1800-Present Expanded vocabulary: Expanded vocabulary: Industrial and Scientific Revolution Industrial and Scientific Revolution EX: Oxygen, protein, nuclear, vaccine (Classical) EX: Oxygen, protein, nuclear, vaccine (Classical) British Empire British Empire EX: Shampoo, pajamas, juggernaut (Hindi and other Indian languages) EX: Shampoo, pajamas, juggernaut (Hindi and other Indian languages) Military Influence Military Influence EX: Blockbuster, camouflage, radar, nosedive EX: Blockbuster, camouflage, radar, nosedive Technological Revolution Technological Revolution </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> American English Colonization 1600 Colonization 1600 Pronunciations and usages froze Pronunciations and usages froze EX: Autumn Fall EX: Autumn Fall EX: Rubbish Trash EX: Rubbish Trash Native American influence Native American influence EX: Mississippi, raccoon, barbecue, and tomato Native American EX: Mississippi, raccoon, barbecue, and tomato Native American Spanish Influence Spanish Influence EX: Mustang, canyon, ranch, stampede EX: Mustang, canyon, ranch, stampede </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Old English (c. 1000) : Fder ure u e eart on heofonum si in nama gehalgod tobecume in rice gewure in willa on eoran swa swa on heofonum urne gedghwamlican hlaf syle us to dg and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfa urum gyltendum and ne geld u us on costnunge ac alys us of yfele solice. Middle English (Wyclif, 1384): Oure fadir at art in heuenes halwid be i name; i reume or kyngdom come to be. Be i wille don in here as it is doun in heuene. yeue to us today oure eche dayes bred. And foryeue to us oure dettis at is oure synnys as we foryeuen to oure dettouris at is to men at han synned in us. And lede us not into temptacion but delyuere us from euyl. Early Modern English (King James Version, 1611) : Our father which art in heauen, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth as it is in heauen. Giue us this day our daily bread. And forgiue us our debts as we forgiue our debters. And lead us not into temptation, but deliuer us from euill. Amen. </li> </ul>