Academic English: Avoiding Plagiarism Paraphrasing

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<ul><li><p>Academic English: Avoiding PlagiarismParaphrasing</p></li><li><p>Group DiscussionWhat is plagiarism?Come up with a definition.</p></li><li><p>Plagiarism can involve two things:</p><p>(1) Claiming somebodys idea as your own.(2) Claiming somebodys words as your own.</p></li><li><p>In academic circles, plagiarism is a serious offense that can ruin your career.</p><p>It is important for graduate students to understand the seriousness of the offense.</p></li><li><p>It is especially tempting for graduates students writing in a foreign language to use language from native speakers.</p></li><li><p>How to Avoid Plagiarism(1) Dont claim other peoples ideas as your own. This involves (a) writing in-text citations when you are using other peoples research and (b) creating a reference list at the end of your written work. </p></li><li><p>(2) Dont use other peoples words without direct quotations and citations.</p><p>If you dont want to use quotations then you must paraphrase the original text in your own words (and include a citation).</p><p>It is not acceptable to use large amounts of texts written by others as your own.</p></li><li><p>ParaphrasingSince an over abundance of quotations looks bad in academic writing, paraphrasing is an essential skill for academic writers. </p></li><li><p>What is paraphrasing?Paraphrasing is changing vocabulary and sentence structure so that the wording is original to you (though the idea is still somebody elses and must be cited).</p></li><li><p>Vocabulary: SynonymsPerhaps, the easiest way to begin paraphrasing is to find synonyms for key words. </p><p>Smoking is forbidden in the building.Smoking is prohibited on the premises.</p></li><li><p>Vocabulary: Synonyms</p></li><li><p>Vocabulary: AntonymsAntonyms can also be used when the structure is changed from an affirmative sentence to a negative sentence.</p><p>Smoking is prohibited in the building.Smoking is not allowed in the building.</p></li><li><p>Vocabulary: Word FormYou can also change the form of important keyword from say a noun to a verb or adjective.</p><p>Chronic health problems have been linked to industrialization.Chronic health problems have been linked to the rise of industry.</p></li><li><p>Sentence Structure: Affirmative/NegativeAs already mentioned above negative sentences can be made affirmative or vice versa. Note some vocabulary shift is usually required to do this. </p><p>Few learners willingly participate.Most learners do not willingly participate. </p></li><li><p>Sentence Structure: Active/Passive VoiceAnother good structural change is changing active to passive voice or vice versa.</p><p>Researchers have found compelling evidence that smoking causes cancer.Compelling evidence that smoking causes cancer has been found. </p></li><li><p>Sentence Structure: Gerund/Infinitive StructuresAnother good structural change is changing active to passive voice or vice versa.</p><p>Speaking with married women is taboo in some cultures.Its taboo to speak with married women in some cultures.</p></li><li><p>Sentence Structure: Other StructuresThe possibilities are endless for changing structure. Modals for example can often be rewritten.</p><p>He may have committed a fraud.It is possible that he committed a fraud.</p></li><li><p>Paraphrasing Longer WorksWhen paraphrasing longer works (as in doing summaries) you should also consider changing the sentence order when possible. </p></li><li><p>Over grazing on the steppe lands of Asia has resulted in a loss of ground cover. This in turn has left soil exposed to the wind resulting in a yellow dust that blows across China, Korea, and Japan. </p><p>The yellow dust that afflicts some East Asian countries occurs as a result of soil being exposed to winds. This is due to overgrazing on the Asian steppe which erodes the ground cover.</p></li><li><p>Lets try some examples in class.</p></li></ul>