Acemic skills unitAd Using Sources and Avoiding soUrces and avoiding Plagiarism 3 What is Plagiarism? 3 Examples of plagiarism 4 ... Paraphrasing 15 Useful language skills for paraphrasing 15

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  • AcAdemic skills unit

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    Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism

  • 1www.unimelb.edu.au

    contents/Using soUrces and avoiding Plagiarism 3

    What is Plagiarism? 3

    Examplesofplagiarism 4

    Consequencesofplagiarism 6

    acknoWledging soUrces 6

    Whathastobeacknowledged? 6

    Whatdoesnothavetobeacknowledged? 8

    WhatisCommonKnowledge? 8

    referencing styles 9

    Methodsofreferencing 10

    1.In-textreferencingstyles 10

    2.Numberedreferencingstyles 11

    3.Footnotestyles 11

    Whatisasecondarycitation? 11

    Whattodoifmorethanonereferencesupportthesamepoint? 12

    Using soUrces correctly 12

    Directquotations 13

    Usingdirectquotationscorrectly 13

    Paraphrasing 15

    Usefullanguageskillsforparaphrasing 15

    Summarising 17

    integrating qUotations 17

    Integratingshortdirectquotations 17

    Integratinglongerdirectquotations 17

    Integratingindirectquotations 18

    Usingverbstoincorporatequotes 18

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    contents/strategies for avoiding Plagiarism 19

    Strategy1:Understandwhystudentsplagiariseandplanahead 19

    Strategy2:Maintaindetailedrecordsofallthesourcesyouuse 19

    Strategy3:Developanorganisednote-takingsystem 20

    Strategy4:Analyseandevaluatewhatyouread 22

    Usingelectronicsources 22

    Strategy5:Learnhowtousesourcescorrectly&appropriately 22

    Strategy6:Learntherulesofreferencing 23

    freqUently asked qUestions (faqs) 24

    references and resoUrces 27

    Workscited 27

    Resources 27

  • 3www.unimelb.edu.au

    avoiding PlagiarismAkeyaimofuniversityeducationisforstudentstoacquireexpertiseandknowledgeintheirchosenfield.Todothis,studentsareexpectedtoreadresearchliteratureandpresenttheirownideasandtheideasofothersintheirfieldfollowingformalacademicconventions.Inacademicwriting,forexample,studentsareexpectednotonlytopresentoriginalworkandtodemonstratewidereadingbutalsotoappropriatelyreferenceandincorporatetheviewsofexpertsinthefieldofstudyintotheiressays.Inordertodothiscorrectly,youneedtoadheretotheacademicconventionsforreferencingandacknowledgingsources.Bynotfollowingtheseconventions,astudentmaybefoundguiltyofplagiarismorbeingseentoclaimashis/herown,thewords,ideasorresearchofotherpeople.

    Plagiarismisaformofdishonestyandcanhaveseriousconsequencessuchasfailureinasubjectorevenexpulsionfromacourse.Whiletherearecasesofdeliberateplagiarismorcheating,mostcasesofstudentplagiarismaretheresultofignorance,carelessnessoralackofadvancedwritingskills.Thatswherethisbookletcanhelp.Itwillhelpyoutounderstandwhatplagiarismisandtorecogniseexamples.Moreimportantly,thebookletfocusesonstrategiesforavoidingplagiarismandprovidesvaluabletechniquestoensureyouacknowledgesourcesandintegratequotationsappropriatelyinyourwriting.

    1. What is Plagiarism?Thefirststepinavoidingplagiarismisknowingexactlywhatitis.

    PlagiarismisdefinedbytheUniversityofMelbourneastheactofrepresentingasonesownoriginalworkthecreativeworksofanother,withoutappropriateacknowledgmentoftheauthororsource(TheUniversityofMelbourne,2005).Itisimportanttonotethatthisdefinitionextendsbeyondwordsprintedintextandreferstoalltheelementsinsomeoneelsesworkincluding:ideasandarguments;imagessuchasdiagrams,chartsandpictures;compositions;andorganisationalstructures(Carroll,2002).Inshort,plagiarismisaformofintellectualdishonestyortheft.

    Appropriately,thewordplagiarismisderivedfromtheLatinwordsforkidnapper.Whenapersonplagiarises,he/sheiskidnappingorstealingsomeoneelseswordsorideasandpassingthemoffashis/herown.Althoughthedefinitionofplagiarismmayseemsimple,thesubjectcanbequiteconfusingforstudentsasplagiarismcomesinvariousforms.SomeexamplesofplagiarismlistedontheUniversitysAcademic Honesty and Plagiarismwebpageinclude:

    Copying(orallowingtobecopied)text,ideas,concepts,researchresults,statisticaltables,computerprograms,designs,imagesorsounds,oranycombinationofthese

    Paraphrasinganotherpersonsworkwithminorchanges,butkeepingthemeaning,formand/orprogressionofideasoftheoriginal

    Piecingtogethersectionsoftheworkofothersintoanewwhole Submittingpartorallofanassignmenttwiceforseparatesubjectsormarks Presentinganassignmentasindependentworkwhenithasbeenproducedinwhole

    orpartincollusionwithotherpeople,forexampleanotherstudentoratutor(TheUniversityofMelbourne,2005).

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    ExamplEs of plagiarismStudents,oftenwithoutrealising,maybeguiltyofplagiarism.Copyinganotherpersonswork,orcolludingwithotherpeopletoproduceanassignmentthatissubmittedasindependentwork,areclearexamplesofintentionalplagiarism.However,mostcasesofstudentplagiarismareunintentional.Someexamplesincludeincorrectorinappropriateuseofsources.

    Inordertoavoidplagiarism,youmustbeabletoacknowledgeandreferencesourceswell.Amajoraimofthisbooklet,furthermore,istohelpyourecognisethedifferencebetweenacceptableandunacceptableuseofsources.

    LookatthepassagefromJanetYongsarticle(sourcetextfortheinformation)andthefiveversionsofwritingthatfollow.Payspecialattentiontothecommentsexplainingwhythefirstfourversionsareunacceptable.

    Comments:Thisversionisaclearexampleofplagiarisedwork.Muchofithasbeencopieddirectlyfromtheoriginalwithoutacknowledgement.

    Comments: Thisisstillplagiarisedwork.Althoughthisversionhasacknowledgedthesourceoftheinformationbyprovidinganin-textreference,thewriterhasnotputquotationmarksaroundthewordscopieddirectlyfromtheoriginaltext(directquotations).

    Version 1:

    Today, the Internethaschanged theappearanceof librariesandhow librariansworkand the library isno longerconfined to thefour walls of a building. Instead, the library has extended intocyberspaceandsomany librariansgo intocyberspace to locateonlineresources.

    Original text:

    The Internethaschanged theappearanceof librariesandhow librariansworktoday.Thelibraryisnolongerconfinedtothefourwallsofabuilding.Ithas,instead,extendedintocyberspace.Manylibrarianshavegoneintocyberspacetolocateonlineresources(p.294).

    Yong, JanetY. 2001 Malay/Indonesian speakers InM.SwanandB.Smith (eds),Learner English: A teachers guide to interference and other problems.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,pp.279-295.

    Version 2:

    Today, the Internethaschanged theappearanceof librariesandhow librariansworkand the library isno longerconfined to thefour walls of a building. Instead, the library has extended intocyberspaceandsomany librariansgo intocyberspace to locateonlineresources(Yong,2001:294).

  • 5www.unimelb.edu.au

    Comments:Thisparagraphalsoconstitutesaplagiarisedpieceofworkasthesentenceshavemerelybeenrearrangedandmostoftheoriginalwordinghasbeencopiedwithoutacknowledgement.Rearrangingisnotparaphrasingparaphrasingrequiresthewritertoreformulatetheideasintheoriginaltextinhis/herownwords.

    Comments:Inthisversion,thewritershowsanunderstandingofthetopicandhasparaphrasedeffectivelybyusingtheinformation(ratherthanthewords)oftheoriginaltexttocreateamoreoriginalpieceofwork.However,thewriterhasfailedtoacknowledgetheoriginalsourceofinformationandthereforehasplagiarised.

    Comments:Thiswriterusestheoriginaltextappropriately.Theparagraphshowsthewritersunderstandingofthetopicandletsthereaderknowthattheinformationhasbeenobtainedfromanothersource.

    Version 3:

    Thelibraryisnolongerconfinedtothefourwallsofabuilding.Ithas,instead,extendedintocyberspaceandmanylibrarianshavegoneintocyberspacetolocateonlineresources.TheInternethasthuschangedtheappearanceoflibrariesandhowlibrariansworktoday(Yong,2001:294).

    Version 4:

    RecentdevelopmentsinInternettechnologieshavebroughtabouta major transformation of libraries and the way that librariansconduct their work. Extending beyond the physical space ofthe library itself, many resources are now found online and arethereforeeasilyaccessedbylibraryusersandlibrariansalike.

    Version 5:

    RecentdevelopmentsinInternettechnologieshavebroughtabouta major transformation of libraries and the way that librariansconduct their work. Extending beyond the physical space ofthe library itself, many resources are now found online and aretherefore easily accessed by library users and librarians alike(Yong,2001:294).

  • www.unimelb.edu.au6

    ConsEquEnCEs of plagiarismPlagiarismcanhaveveryseriousconsequencesforyouinyourfuturestudies.Iffoundguiltyofplagiarism,youmaybe

    requiredtocompleteadditionalassessmentinthesubject givenamarkofzeroforthepieceofassessment givenafailgradeforthesubject referredtoacommitteeinvestigatingunderStatute13.1forAcademicMisconduct

    whichmayresultinterminationofenrolmentandexpulsionfromtheUniversity.Inotherwords,inserious