Acemic skills unitAd Using Sources and Avoiding soUrces and avoiding Plagiarism 3 What is Plagiarism? 3 Examples of plagiarism 4 ... Paraphrasing 15 Useful language skills for paraphrasing 15

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  • AcAdemic skills unit

    STATEMENT ON PRIVACY POLICY

    When dealing with personal or health information about individuals, the University of Melbourne is obliged to comply with the Information Privacy Act 2000 and the Health Records Act 2001.

    For further information refer to: www.unimelb.edu.au/unisec/privacypolicy.htm

    INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

    For further information refer to: www.unimelb.edu.au/Statutes/

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    DISCLAIMER

    The University has used its best endeavours to ensure that material contained in this publication was correct at the time of printing. The University gives no warranty and accepts no responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of information and the University reserves the right to make changes without notice at any time in its absolute discretion.

    Published by Academic Enrichment Services

    Authorised by The Director, Academic Enrichment Services

    Academic Skills Unit

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    Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism

  • 1www.unimelb.edu.au

    contents/Using soUrces and avoiding Plagiarism 3

    What is Plagiarism? 3

    Examplesofplagiarism 4

    Consequencesofplagiarism 6

    acknoWledging soUrces 6

    Whathastobeacknowledged? 6

    Whatdoesnothavetobeacknowledged? 8

    WhatisCommonKnowledge? 8

    referencing styles 9

    Methodsofreferencing 10

    1.In-textreferencingstyles 10

    2.Numberedreferencingstyles 11

    3.Footnotestyles 11

    Whatisasecondarycitation? 11

    Whattodoifmorethanonereferencesupportthesamepoint? 12

    Using soUrces correctly 12

    Directquotations 13

    Usingdirectquotationscorrectly 13

    Paraphrasing 15

    Usefullanguageskillsforparaphrasing 15

    Summarising 17

    integrating qUotations 17

    Integratingshortdirectquotations 17

    Integratinglongerdirectquotations 17

    Integratingindirectquotations 18

    Usingverbstoincorporatequotes 18

  • www.unimelb.edu.au 2

    contents/strategies for avoiding Plagiarism 19

    Strategy1:Understandwhystudentsplagiariseandplanahead 19

    Strategy2:Maintaindetailedrecordsofallthesourcesyouuse 19

    Strategy3:Developanorganisednote-takingsystem 20

    Strategy4:Analyseandevaluatewhatyouread 22

    Usingelectronicsources 22

    Strategy5:Learnhowtousesourcescorrectly&appropriately 22

    Strategy6:Learntherulesofreferencing 23

    freqUently asked qUestions (faqs) 24

    references and resoUrces 27

    Workscited 27

    Resources 27

  • 3www.unimelb.edu.au

    avoiding PlagiarismAkeyaimofuniversityeducationisforstudentstoacquireexpertiseandknowledgeintheirchosenfield.Todothis,studentsareexpectedtoreadresearchliteratureandpresenttheirownideasandtheideasofothersintheirfieldfollowingformalacademicconventions.Inacademicwriting,forexample,studentsareexpectednotonlytopresentoriginalworkandtodemonstratewidereadingbutalsotoappropriatelyreferenceandincorporatetheviewsofexpertsinthefieldofstudyintotheiressays.Inordertodothiscorrectly,youneedtoadheretotheacademicconventionsforreferencingandacknowledgingsources.Bynotfollowingtheseconventions,astudentmaybefoundguiltyofplagiarismorbeingseentoclaimashis/herown,thewords,ideasorresearchofotherpeople.

    Plagiarismisaformofdishonestyandcanhaveseriousconsequencessuchasfailureinasubjectorevenexpulsionfromacourse.Whiletherearecasesofdeliberateplagiarismorcheating,mostcasesofstudentplagiarismaretheresultofignorance,carelessnessoralackofadvancedwritingskills.Thatswherethisbookletcanhelp.Itwillhelpyoutounderstandwhatplagiarismisandtorecogniseexamples.Moreimportantly,thebookletfocusesonstrategiesforavoidingplagiarismandprovidesvaluabletechniquestoensureyouacknowledgesourcesandintegratequotationsappropriatelyinyourwriting.

    1. What is Plagiarism?Thefirststepinavoidingplagiarismisknowingexactlywhatitis.

    PlagiarismisdefinedbytheUniversityofMelbourneastheactofrepresentingasonesownoriginalworkthecreativeworksofanother,withoutappropriateacknowledgmentoftheauthororsource(TheUniversityofMelbourne,2005).Itisimportanttonotethatthisdefinitionextendsbeyondwordsprintedintextandreferstoalltheelementsinsomeoneelsesworkincluding:ideasandarguments;imagessuchasdiagrams,chartsandpictures;compositions;andorganisationalstructures(Carroll,2002).Inshort,plagiarismisaformofintellectualdishonestyortheft.

    Appropriately,thewordplagiarismisderivedfromtheLatinwordsforkidnapper.Whenapersonplagiarises,he/sheiskidnappingorstealingsomeoneelseswordsorideasandpassingthemoffashis/herown.Althoughthedefinitionofplagiarismmayseemsimple,thesubjectcanbequiteconfusingforstudentsasplagiarismcomesinvariousforms.SomeexamplesofplagiarismlistedontheUniversitysAcademic Honesty and Plagiarismwebpageinclude:

    Copying(orallowingtobecopied)text,ideas,concepts,researchresults,statisticaltables,computerprograms,designs,imagesorsounds,oranycombinationofthese

    Paraphrasinganotherpersonsworkwithminorchanges,butkeepingthemeaning,formand/orprogressionofideasoftheoriginal

    Piecingtogethersectionsoftheworkofothersintoanewwhole Submittingpartorallofanassignmenttwiceforseparatesubjectsormarks Presentinganassignmentasindependentworkwhenithasbeenproducedinwhole

    orpartincollusionwithotherpeople,forexampleanotherstudentoratutor(TheUniversityofMelbourne,2005).

  • www.unimelb.edu.au4

    ExamplEs of plagiarismStudents,oftenwithoutrealising,maybeguiltyofplagiarism.Copyinganotherpersonswork,orcolludingwithotherpeopletoproduceanassignmentthatissubmittedasindependentwork,areclearexamplesofintentionalplagiarism.However,mostcasesofstudentplagiarismareunintentional.Someexamplesincludeincorrectorinappropriateuseofsources.

    Inordertoavoidplagiarism,youmustbeabletoacknowledgeandreferencesourceswell.Amajoraimofthisbooklet,furthermore,istohelpyourecognisethedifferencebetweenacceptableandunacceptableuseofsources.

    LookatthepassagefromJanetYongsarticle(sourcetextfortheinformation)andthefiveversionsofwritingthatfollow.Payspecialattentiontothecommentsexplainingwhythefirstfourversionsareunacceptable.

    Comments:Thisversionisaclearexampleofplagiarisedwork.Muchofithasbeencopieddirectlyfromtheoriginalwithoutacknowledgement.

    Comments: Thisisstillplagiarisedwork.Althoughthisversionhasacknowledgedthesourceoftheinformationbyprovidinganin-textreference,thewriterhasnotputquotationmarksaroundthewordscopieddirectlyfromtheoriginaltext(directquotations).

    Version 1:

    Today, the Internethaschanged theappearanceof librariesandhow librariansworkand the library isno longerconfined to thefour walls of a building. Instead, the library has extended intocyberspaceandsomany librariansgo intocyberspace to locateonlineresources.

    Original text:

    The Internethaschanged theappearanceof librariesandhow librariansworktoday.Thelibraryisnolongerconfinedtothefourwallsofabuilding.Ithas,instead,extendedintocyberspace.Manylibrarianshavegoneintocyberspacetolocateonlineresources(p.294).

    Yong, JanetY. 2001 Malay/Indonesian speakers InM.SwanandB.Smith (eds),Learner English: A teachers guide to interference and other problems.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,pp.279-295.

    Version 2:

    Today, the Internethaschanged theappearanceof librariesandhow librariansworkand the library isno longerconfined to thefour walls of a building. Instead, the library has extended intocyberspaceandsomany librariansgo intocyberspace to locateonlineresources(Yong,2001:294).

  • 5www.unimelb.edu.au

    Comments:Thisparagraphalsoconstitutesaplagiarisedpieceofworkasthesentenceshavemerelybeenrearrangedandmostoftheoriginalwordinghasbeencopiedwithoutacknowledgement.Rearrangingisnotparaphrasingparaphrasingrequiresthewritertoreformulatetheideasintheoriginaltextinhis/herownwords.

    Comments:Inthisversion,thewritershowsanunderstandingofthetopicandhasparaphrasedeffectivelybyusingtheinformation(ratherthanthewords)oftheoriginaltexttocreateamoreoriginalpieceofwork.However,thewriterhasfailedtoacknowledgetheoriginalsourceofinformationandthereforehasplagiarised.

    Comments:Thiswriterusestheoriginaltextappropriately.Theparagraphshowsthewritersunderstandingofthetopicandletsthereaderknowthattheinformationhasbeenobtainedfromanothersource.

    Version 3:

    Thelibraryisnolongerconfinedtothefourwallsofabuilding.Ithas,instead,extendedintocyberspaceandmanylibrarianshavegoneintocyberspacetolocateonlineresources.TheInternethasthuschangedtheappearanceoflibrariesandhowlibrariansworktoday(Yong,2001:294).

    Version 4:

    RecentdevelopmentsinInternettechnologieshavebroughtabouta major transformation of libraries and the way that librariansconduct their work. Extending beyond the physical space ofthe library itself, many resources are now found online and arethereforeeasilyaccessedbylibraryusersandlibrariansalike.

    Version 5:

    RecentdevelopmentsinInternettechnologieshavebroughtabouta major transformation of libraries and the way that librariansconduct their work. Extending beyond the physical space ofthe library itself, many resources are now found online and aretherefore easily accessed by library users and librarians alike(Yong,2001:294).

  • www.unimelb.edu.au6

    ConsEquEnCEs of plagiarismPlagiarismcanhaveveryseriousconsequencesforyouinyourfuturestudies.Iffoundguiltyofplagiarism,youmaybe

    requiredtocompleteadditionalassessmentinthesubject givenamarkofzeroforthepieceofassessment givenafailgradeforthesubject referredtoacommitteeinvestigatingunderStatute13.1forAcademicMisconduct

    whichmayresultinterminationofenrolmentandexpulsionfromtheUniversity.Inotherwords,inseriouscasesyoumayevenbeaskedtoleavetheuniversity!

    FormoreinformationontheUniversityspolicyonplagiarismandthepossiblepenaltiesseehttp://academichonesty.unimelb.edu.au/policy.html

    2. acknoWledging soUrcesToavoidplagiarism,youmustgivecreditwheneveryouuseanotherpersonswork.Thismeansthatwheneveryouuseinformationobtainedfromanothersourceincludingideas,examples,theoriesoropinions,youmustgiveafullreferencetothatsource.

    What has to bE aCknoWlEdgEd?

    direct quotations

    Adirectquotationmeansusinganotherpersonsexactwords.Whenyouusedirectquotations,itisimportanttomakecleartothereaderthatyouhavetakensomeoneelsesexactwords.Acknowledgingthesourcewithareferencealoneisnotsufficient;youmustalsoplacethewordsinquotationmarks(forshorterquotes)orindentparagraphs(forlongerquotes).

    Forexample:

    According to Kramsch (1998: 10) foreign language teachers should objectivize the learners native discourse patterns.Crozet & Liddicoat (1997: 18) argue:

    The aim of language teaching is not to assimilate the learner into the native speaker community but rather to encourage them to adopt a position in which they are comfortable in dealing with native speakers and are able to achieve personal and communicative goals.

    Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional. Ignorance or carelessness is no excuse.

  • 7www.unimelb.edu.au

    Paraphrases of another persons words or ideas

    Aparaphraseisanindirectquotationandmeansrewritingsomeoneelsesideasinyourownwords.Plagiarismoftenresultsfromstudentsmisunderstandingthattheyonlyhavetoacknowledgesomeoneelsesworkwhencopyingorquotingwordsdirectlyfromatext.Thisisincorrect.Whenyouparaphrase,youmustcitethesourceoftheideas(seeexamplesinprevioussection).

    Anothercommonmistakemadebystudentsispartialparaphrasingthatis,changingonlysomeofthewordsfromtheoriginal.Toparaphrasecorrectly,youmustchangeandrewritetheoriginallanguagecompletely,includingtheoriginalsentencestructure.Ifyouretainevenshortphrasesordistinctivewordsfromtheoriginaltextwithoutenclosingthesewordsinquotationmarks,itisplagiarism.

    acceptable paraphrasing

    accurately relays the information in the original source using your own words acknowledges the source of information is incorporated into your discussion to add to or support your own ideas and

    argument.

    summaries of another persons ideas

    Asummaryisalsoanindirectquotation,butismuchshorterthantheoriginaltextasitonlyincludesthemainpointsoftheoriginalauthorsideasorargument.Toavoidplagiarism,youmustcitethesourcewheneveryousummariseanotherpersonswork.

    tables, figures, graphs, diagrams or images obtained from any source

    Whenyouuseinformationfromanysource,includinginformationcontainedintables,graphs,figuresordiagrams,youmustacknowledgetheoriginalsource.Thisisalsothecaseforimagesthatyouobtain.

    information obtained from lectures and personal communication

    Ifyouwanttouseinformationoranideathatyouhaveobtainedfromaverbaldiscussionwithsomeoneorfromyourlectures,youhavetoacknowledgethesourceoftheinformationinyourwork.Justbecausetheotherpersonsworkhasnotbeenpublishedinprintform,itdoesnotmeanthattheideasdonotbelongtothatperson.Ifyouuseanotherpersonsideaswithoutacknowledgement,thenyouareplagiarising.

    To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use other peoples work including their ideas, arguments,

    theories and opinions.

  • www.unimelb.edu.au8

    What doEs not havE to bE aCknoWlEdgEd?1. Yourownideas,arguments,theories,images,diagrams,graphsorresultsfrom

    research2. Commonknowledgeunlessitisadirectquotefromaspecificsource3. Factsavailablefromvariousgeneralreferencebookssuchastextbooks,dictionaries

    orencyclopaedias.Statisticstakenfromthesesourcesshouldstillbecited,asthiswillincreasethecredibilityofyourinformation.

    What is Common knoWlEdgE?Sometimesyoudonotneedtoacknowledgethesourceofyourinformation.Forexample,whenatopicispartofwhatweassumetobegeneralorcommonknowledge,orinformationthatisinthepublicdomain,youusuallydonothavetoprovideareference.Forexample,statementssuchasBob Hawke was Prime Minister of Australia from 1983 to 1991 or World War I began in 1914 and ended in 1918aregenerallyknowninformationsoyoudonotneedtoprovideareferenceeventhoughyoumaynothaveknownthesefactsbeforeyoustartedyourresearch.However,ifyouusetheexactwordsofthereferencesource,youmustplacethewordsinquotationmarksandacknowledgethesource.

    Ifyouarenotsurewhetheraparticularpointisconsideredtobecommonknowledgeinyourfield,consultvariousgeneralreferencebooks.Ifyoufindthefactinmorethanonegeneralreferencebook,youcanconsideritcommonknowledge.

    Notethatcommonknowledgeislimitedtofactsanddoesnotincludeopinionsorargumentsthatyoucoulddisagreewithorargueagainst(Carroll,2002:53).

    Forexample,comparethefollowingtwostatements:

    J.S. Bach was a famous composer during the Baroque period. J.S. Bach was the greatest composer of the Baroque period (Sterling, 1977).

    Thefirstsentenceisafactthatiscommonlyknownbymanypeople.Thesecondsentenceisanopinion,whichpeoplecandisagreewithandthereforeneedstobereferenced.

    Lookattwomoreexamples:

    Comments:Inthisexample,areferenceisnotneededbecausethedetailsthataregivenaregeneralratherthanspecific,andtheyaredetailsthataregenerallyknownthatis,commonknowledge.

    Example 1:

    Personalsafetyisofgreatconcerntopoliticalleadersintodaysworld.ThehistoryofpresidentialassassinationsintheWesternworldbeganwiththemurderofAbrahamLincolnandcontinuedwhenPresidentJohnF.KennedywasshotinDallasin1963.Later,whenanattemptwasmadeonPresidentRonaldReagans life,a largesecuritypresenceimmediatelybundledhimintoawaitingcarandspedoff,awayfromthedanger.

  • 9www.unimelb.edu.au

    Comments:Inthisexample,anumberofexactdatesaregivenaswellasdetailsofthepeopleinvolved(sentences2,4).Byprovidingreferenceinformationthereaderknow...

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