ADAPTATION OF THE FIVE NONVERBAL SUBTESTS OF STANFORDBINET INTELLIGENCE SCALE FIFTH EDITION FOR USE IN URBAN BANGLADESH
Dr. Nigar Sultana
Assistant Professor & Chairman, Department of Special Education,
Institute of Education And Research (IER),University of Dhaka.
Dr. Sharmin Huq
Professor, Department Of Special Education,
Institute Of Education And Research (IER), University Of Dhaka.
Mohammad Nasir Uddin Khan,
Senior Research Associate,Research And Evaluation Division,
Following the total raw scores of SB5 testing, scores were divided into two groups and then item difficulty and the discrimination index were calculated within 165 children from the total sample. Besides, the study also sought to perform an age specific (6-16) item analysis from those total students. The adaptation and modification of the items were done based on the difficulty, discriminating index and internal consistency of item. Based on the findings, total 16 from 152 items were modified. While rearranging and modifying, themes were intended to keep unchanged and hence, items were changed with native content/symbol or object, made the item culture friendly, and often retranslated the question for better understanding of the students in Bangladesh.
KEYWORDS: Adaptation, Item analysis, Nonverbal, IQ, Standardization, SB5
The greatest adaptive resource of human being is his intellectual abilities his superior capacity for learning, reasoning and imagining. It is largely by virtue of these resources that he has been able, as a species, to master so many facets of his environment and establish his supremacy over other members of the animal kingdom. Thus, Psychological testing is one of the methods available for evaluating individuals abilities. Basically the function of psychological test is to measure differences in ability between individuals or between the reactions of the same individual on different occasions (Huq, 1992). It is important to detect the strength of ones ability through a test where the first criteria of measuring abilities to analyze the item of the test.
The implications for future intelligence testing and for education are numerous. There is much basis for expecting that various intellectual abilities can be improved in individuals and the procedures needed for doing this should be clear (Guilford, J.P, 1968). Originally, intelligence tests measured verbal and nonverbal functioning and offered an overall estimate of cognitive functioning based primarily on these two constructs (Alfonso, Flanagan & Radwan, 2005). Non-verbal domain measures skills in solving abstract, visually oriented problems, recalling facts and figures, solving quantitative problems shown in picture form, assembling designs and recalling visual sequences. The non-verbal Intelligence Quotient (IQ) measures the ability to reason, solve problems and recall information presented in pictorial and symbolic form (Schreiner & Luis, 2006). It can be used to assess deaf or hard of hearing as well as
individuals with communication disorders, autism, specific learning disabilities, limited English language back ground, traumatic brain injury and other condition, such as aphasia or stroke, that may constrain linguistic ability.
At present parallel to many other developing countries, in Bangladesh there are more than a million primary school-age children with assorted disabilities and disadvantages but without access to basic education. One of the major causes of failure in schools and of low standard of achievement is due to the lack of proper assessment, counseling and guidance offered to students before and during the tenure of their education. The possibilities of education of any individual were limited by his/her attitudes and interests. The use of psychometric tests (Psychometrics is the quantitative and technical aspect of intellectual measurement) in developed countries which facilitate teachers in educational planning by providing approach to determine possible teaching learning strategies, need to be regarded as a major initiative in order to ensure the goals for achieving education for all. In consequence with the viewpoint of Education for All; a global movement led by UNESCO, aiming to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by 2015 (UNESCO, 2010), many significant changes have taken place in the policy and system of education in Bangladesh. At present in Bangladesh, a handful of researchers have taken the front role in developing and standardizing psychometric tests for assessing children's ability.
Consequently, the existing measures of assessment techniques need to be up-to-date and sophisticated. In this context, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Fifth Edition
(2003) by Gale H.Roid, which is widely used worldwide as a measure for detecting any academic problem was translated, adapted and standardized for Bangladesh culture? The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth Edition (SB5) is a contemporary assessment with a rich tradition, which began in 1916 when Lewis Terman completed his American revision of the Binet-Simon Scales (1908).Through various editions in 1937, 1960, and 1986, the Stanford-Binet has become widely known as a standard measure of intellectual abilities. Many of the familiar subtests of previous editions remain in the SB5. Examples include Picture Absurdities, Matrices, Vocabulary, and Memory for Sentences, Quantitative Reasoning, and Verbal Absurdities (shown in figure 1 in methodology section). Stanford-Binet maintained a hybrid structure, combining point-scale and age-scale formats for both verbal and non verbal domain. The SB5 includes many high-end items designed to measure individuals at the highest level of gifted performance. It also corporate improved low-end items to better measure young children, low functioning older children and adults with mental retardation. Toys and manipulations are included in the test kit. The Item Books include colorful artwork to make the materials more children friendly (Roid, 2003).
Item analysis is the first criteria of standardization (a research process of testing a normative group) for any psychological test (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997). Whereas the other three criteria are norm development, reliability and validity respectively. Every widely used psychological assessment instrument is under scrutiny in terms of cultural fairness (Roid, 2003). Item analysis is a process, which examines student responses
to individual test items (questions) in order to assess the quality of those items and of the test as a whole. Item analysis is especially valuable in improving items, which will be used again in later tests, but it can also be used to eliminate ambiguous or misleading items in a single test administration. The study aims to scrutinize the strengths and weaknesses of each non-verbal test item.
On the other hand, a psychometric test would be effectively standardized for using in other language and culture when the items of the test are being well adapted. With this view, standardization and adaptation of psychological tests for cross-cultural assessment is becoming prominent worldwide at an increasing pace. A safe rule of thumb to translate or adapt an item is to ensure whether the proposed target item reflects the spirit of the original item (Allalouf & Chang, 1999; Sireci, 1998 in Matthews, 2003). Moreover, adapting an existing instrument instead of developing a new one has remarkable benefit. By adapting a test, the researcher is able to compare the cross-cultural studies at both the national and international perspective.
The main purpose of the present study was to adapt the five nonverbal subtests of SB5 in Bangla. Whereas, to accomplish this purpose the author stated the following specific objectives.
1. To translate the five nonverbal subtests of SB5 in Bangla.
2. To examine the strengths and weaknesses of each non verbal test item of SB5 (2003) on Bangladesh perspective.
3. To find out internal consistency of five nonverbal test items of SB5.
As the first step for standardization of an intelligence scale, each item of SB5 was analyzed through item analysis. To achieve this approach, 30 students from each age were taken into account from 11 age group (6 to 16 years) totaling of 330 students of whom 165 were male and 165 were female respectively. The participants for the item analysis were taken from Dhaka city only. The students of metropolitan schools were considered for the test administration. Table 1, shows the age and sex wise distribution of students respectively.
Table 1: Distribution of Students by Age and Sex.
INSTRUMENTS USED The Description of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Fifth Edition, 2003 (SB5)
This study used the Stanford Binet Intelligence scale for the adaptation of its five nonverbal subtests through item