Embed Size (px)
Adolescence & Adulthood Chapter 18 – Pages 406 - 431. Emily Nicks. What is Adolescence?. A developmental period Ages 12 to 18 Many changes occur, going from childhood to adult-like: Biological Cognitive Social Personality traits. What is Puberty?. A developmental period Ages 9 to 17 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Adolescence & Adulthood Chapter 18 Pages 406 - 431
Adolescence & Adulthood Chapter 18 Pages 406 - 431Emily Nicks
What is Adolescence? A developmental periodAges 12 to 18 Many changes occur, going from childhood to adult-like: BiologicalCognitiveSocialPersonality traitsWhat is Puberty? A developmental periodAges 9 to 17Individual experiences significant biological changes Development of secondary sexual characteristics Reaching sexual maturity
Females during Puberty Three major biological changes between ages 9 13:Physical Growth growth spurt 9.6 years, 6-12 months before the onset of breast development. Female Sexual Maturity primarily involves the first menstrual period (Menarche). Female Secondary Sexual Characteristics increased secretion of estrogen growth of pubic hair, breasts, and widening of hips. Males during Puberty Three major biological changes between ages 10 and 14: Physical Growth Growth spurts between 13-14 years. Height increase may be dramatic. Male Sexual Maturity primarily involves growth of the testes and penis, and the production of sperm. Male Secondary Sexual Characteristics increased secretion of testosterone growth of pubic/facial hair, muscle development, and deepening of voice.
Females Maturation DifferencesEarlyPsychological problems because they have not yet acquired the personality traits & social skills needed for healthy functioning in their adult bodies. ** Differences decrease and disappear with age.Males Maturation DifferencesEarlyMore confident, relaxed, socially responsible, popular, etc. LateLacking self-confidence and self-esteem, more dependent on parents, and less popular. ** Differences decrease and disappear with age.Sexual Maturity Adolescents often receive conflicting information about engaging in sexual activities media, peers, family, religion
Views adolescent development as a process that occurs simultaneously on many levels and includes hormonal, neural, sexual, cognitive, social, cultural, and personality changes that interact and influence each other
A lot is going on Sexual MaturityAlthough puberty prepares the body for sexual activity the majority of teenagers report not being emotionally, psychologically, or mentally prepared to deal with strong sexual desires and feelings. Cognitive and Emotional Changes Cognitive Development how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his/her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors. Brain Development: Reason and Emotion
New research shows that the teenage brain is still developing, even after puberty. Particularly the parts involved in clear thinking and reasoning. Prefrontal Cortex: Executive FunctionLimbic System: Emotional Behaviors Vulnerability Age 11 Young adulthoodMajor rewiring and reorganization Especially vulnerable to trauma BullyingSexual Abuse Feeling depressedAbusing drugs Alcohol (more damage than to adult brain)Risk-Taking Behavior Undeveloped brain = reasoning to irresponsible decisions
Prefrontal Cortex They do not have the neural bases to analyze risks and make intelligent decisions.
Limbic System Sex hormones cause the limbic system to grow. Increased size account for teenagers irritability and increase in talking aggressively.
Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Reasoning Level 1 Self-InterestPreconventional levelStage 1- Moral decisions are based on fear Stage 2- Moral reasoning is guided most by satisfying ones self-interest Level 2 Social ApprovalConventional LevelStage 3 Moral decisions are guided by conforming to the standards of others we valueStage 4 Moral reasoning is determined most by conforming to laws of society. Level 3 Abstract IdeasPostconventional LevelStage 5 Moral decisions are made after carefully thinking about all the alternatives and striking a balance between human rights and lows of society.
Heinz DilemmaEvaluating Kohlbergs Theory Stages Researchers reviewed 45 Kohlberg-like studies, conducted in 27 culturesAs kohlberg assumed we go through each stage in order; but, not everyone reaches the highest stage.Criticisms of KohlbergStages do not investigate individuals in real life situations: they represent moral development of thinking, not behavior.
Kholbergs theory was developed prior to information we now know about brain development through adolescents: it is the brain which changes, not the morality.
Personal moral issues use emotion and gut feeling, while external ones use only reasoning.
Parenting Through AdolescenceAuthoritarianAuthoritativePermissive
Authoritarian Attempts to shape, control and evaluate attitudes of children, according to an absolute standard of conduct, usually religious or political.
For these parents obedience is a virtue, and use punishment/discipline to keep adolescents in-line with their rules.
Parental rules have a major influence on teenage independence and achievement.
AuthoritativeChildrens activities are usually directed in a rational and thoughtful manner.
Supportive, encouraging, and committed: encourages verbal give-and-take.
Rules and guidelines are discussed with children.
Permissive Less controlling and behave in a non-punishing way.
Accepting attitude toward childs impulses, desires and actions.
Usually they consult about policy decisions, make few demands and tend to use reason rather than power.
Outcomes of Parenting Authoritarian Tend to experience harsh punishments.Boys often develop hostile tendencies. Girls tend to be dependent and submissive.
Authoritative Experience expressiveness and independence, but their parents tend to be demanding. Children are usually:CompetentAchievement-oriented Friendly Co-operative
Outcomes of Parenting Permissive Lead to children being less socially assertive and less achievement-oriented.
What are the benefits and drawbacks of each style?
Beyond Adolescence20s executive abilities are sharp (brains prefrontal cortex is more fully developed).Cognitive/Executive abilities remain sharp through the 30s. 40s, 50s, 60s gradual decline in some cognitive abilities (particularly memory).There is a slowing in: processing speed, perceptual speed, and reaction time. Beyond AdolescenceDifferences20s50s +MemoryExcel at storing and recalling vast amounts of details. Not good at making sense of it all. Excel at making sense of information.Cannot remember the details. BrainDecreasing memory skills are normal part of aging. Result of a normal loss of brain cells in the prefrontal cortex. Memory EnhancingTo combat age-related memory difficulties, researchers recommend keeping active physically and mentally.
Personality & Social Development How a person develops:a sense of self or self-identityrelationships with othersthe skills useful in social interactions
Personal identity or self-identity:How we describe ourselves and includes our values, goals, traits, perceptions, interests, and motivations. Development of Self-EsteemSelf-esteem how much we like ourselves and how much we value our self-worth, importance, attractiveness, and social competence.
High Self-Esteem (develop and maintain)60%
Low Self-Esteem (develop and maintain)15%
Reversal (reverse level) 25%Development and Importance of Self-EsteemDevelopment => many factors
In girls, it is highly dependent on body image, and perception of parental support.
In boys, it is highly dependent on looking cool in public (not allowing stress or anxiety to make them look bad). Development and Importance of Self-EsteemSelf-esteem has been linked to positive and negative outcomes.
Lets take a look at how self-esteem and personal identity develop through Eriksons psychosocial stages. Adulthood: Eriksons Psychosocial StagesStage 5 Identity vs. Role ConfusionAges 12-20 years Potential Conflict Leaving behind carefree, irresponsible, impulsive childhoodEntering purposeful, planned, and responsible adulthood. If they can make this change-over = confident sense of identity. If they are unsuccessful = experience role confusion (low-self esteem, unstable, socially withdrawn). Adulthood: Eriksons Psychosocial StagesStage 6 Intimacy vs. Isolation Ages 20 40 yearsPotential ConflictTime for finding/developing loving/meaningful relationships.Without intimacy it can leave someone feeling isolation => relationships will be impersonal. Adulthood: Eriksons Psychosocial StagesStage 7 Generativity vs. Stagnation Ages 40-65 yearsPotential ConflictA time for helping younger generation with developing worthwhile lives (children, friends/relatives kids, , mentoring at work, etc.). A lack of involvement with younger generations can lead to a feeling of stagnation. Adulthood: Eriksons Psychosocial StagesStage 8 Integrity vs. Despair Ages 65 and olderPotential ConflictA time for reflecting/reviewing how we met our challenges, and lived our lives. Positive: Can look back and feel content. Feeling of satisfaction/integrity. Negative: Can look back and see a series of crisis, problems, and bad experiences regret/despair.
Personality ChangeHow much do our personalities change, and how much do they stay the same?
Some studies found: End of Adolescence to middle adulthood there are less dramatic changes in personality traits.
Possessing certain personality traits in early adulthood is the foundation for developing related traits later on.
Adults appear to pass through psychosocial stages and face conflicts in personality development similar to those proposed by Erikson.
Love and RelationshipsPassionate Love continuously thinking about the loved one and is accompanied by warm sexual feelings and powerful emotional reactions.
Companionate love having trusting and tender feelings for someone whose life is closely bound up with ones own.
Triangular Theory of Love 3 components:1. Passion feeling physically aroused and attracted to someone. 2. Intimacy feeling close and connected to someone; develops through sharing and communicating.3. Commitment making a pledge to nourish the feelings of love and to actively maintain the relationship.
Is there love at first sight? Overwhelmed by passion without any intimacy or commitment.
Sternberg calls this infatuated love destined to fade away. Why do some people get married so quickly? Sternberg calls this Hollywood Love.
Combination of passion and commitment but without any intimacy. If intimacy does not develop, the relationship is likely to fail.
Can there be love without sex? Sternberg calls this companiate love.
Combination of intimacy and commitment without any sexual passion. Why doesnt romantic love last? Combination of intimacy and passion, usually doesnt last because there is no commitment.